Glossary (Version 8.4)

Malicious software designed to interfere with the regular operation of a computer system. Often used to gain access to other people’s computers or to gather sensitive information, it is usually hidden in other software to avoid user detection. Examples can include viruses, Trojan horses, key loggers and spyware. Anti-malware software is often relied on to help users detect and remove malware from their computers.

A spinning top traditionally made from beeswax and a stick. It is spun by rubbing the stick between two palms or by using the thumbs and middle finger to twist it.

In Design and Technologies, an environment coordinated by humans, for example, a farm, forest, marine park, waterway, wetland and storage facility.

Making many standardised products very quickly, using assembly line techniques. Components or partially completed products are sent to workers, who each work on an individual step, rather than one worker working on a whole product from start to finish. Mass produced products are manufactured to attain a standardised and consistent quality.

A substance from which a thing is or can be made. Natural (e.g. animals, food, fibre, timber, mineral) and fabricated (e.g. metal alloys, plastics, textiles, composites) materials. Materials are used to create products or environments and their structure can be manipulated by applying knowledge of their origins, structure, characteristics, properties and uses.

A technologies context in Design and Technologies focuses on a broad range of traditional, contemporary and emerging materials and specialist areas that typically involve extensive use and deep knowledge of specific technologies.

How easily meat is cut or chewed. Meat tenderness is influenced by age of the animal, breed, level of activity, fat content and cooking method.

Methods of ploughing that provide minimum disruption to the soil, thus allowing soil to maintain its natural structure. Minimum-tillagecropping requires the use of specially designed machinery and control of weeds by the use of herbicides.

A representation that describes, simplifies, clarifies or provides an explanation of the workings, structure or relationships within an object, system or idea.

This can be either a physical model, such as in a scalemodel of a car or house, to show the form of a final production design, and is made with tools, jigs and fixtures; or virtual, such as a simulator program that demonstrates the capabilities of a vending machine through interaction with a computer user.

The use of digital technologies to present combinations of text, graphics, video, animation and/or sound in an integrated way. Where there is facility for a user to interact with multimedia, the term ‘interactive multimedia’ may be used. Examples include interactive games, media-rich websites, electronic books (ebooks) and animated short films.