A conditional decision statement used to control the flow of a program (see branching). The structure of an IF statement evaluates an expression (for example, hour < 12) and performs a specified code block only if the condition is true. An example in Python would look like the following:

if hour < 12:

print(“Good morning!”)

Here, the program would only print the words 'Good morning!' if the hour of the day is less than 12.

A combination of digital hardware and software components (digital systems), data, processes and people that interact to create, control and communicate information.

Something put into a system to activate or modify a process, for example, people, raw materials, power, energy, data. Also see engineering principles and systems.

A legal concept that refers to creations of a mind for which exclusive rights are recognised. Common types of intellectual property include copyright, trademarks, patents, designs and plant breeder’s rights.

A prefix indicating a strategy to limit searches to the title field of a web page. It indicates that a word or phrase is included in the title.

A prefix indicating a strategy to limit searches to particular words in a URL.

Different ways of applying supplementary water to crops, for example, spray, flood and drip irrigation.

A repetition of a process or set of instructions in computer programming where each repeated cycle builds on a previous (see repeatstatement). Typically this uses a FOR loop command with a counter such as the example below to add the numbers from 1 to 9.

for number = 1 to 9

sum = sum + number