The electronic (e) selling of a product or service online or through other electronic means, with an online mechanism for payment. Examples include online shopping sites and travel websites where hotel accommodation and airline tickets can be purchased.

A set of practices that do not reduce economic opportunities of future economies, while recognising the finite nature of resources, and use resources optimally over a longer term without resulting in economic loss.

An online or software-based month-by-month guide of suitable crops to plant, as well as typical garden maintenance tasks, which need to be performed. An electronic planting calendar may take a form of a database or simple table of information.

A process in cryptography of encoding (converting) data, using mathematical formulas, into a form that only an intended recipient can decode, often including a personal digital signature (see digitally signed data). For example, when connecting to an online banking or shopping website, typically on login a secure communication is set up based on encryption provided at the website, and this will be represented by a https://URL and a lock symbol on the user’s internet browser.

Energy efficiency is the use of less energy to provide the same service. Examples of energy-efficient cooking include microwave cooking; using energy-efficient cookware such as copper-bottom pans and woks; matching pan size to the cooking element; reducing cooking time by defrosting frozen food first; using a single hotplate with a saucepan and stacked steamer.

A practical application of scientific and mathematical understanding and principles as a part of the process of developing and maintaining solutions for an identified need or opportunity.

A technologies context in Design and Technologies focused on how forces and energy can be used to create light, sound, heat, movement, control or support in systems. It involves manipulating and arranging systems and their components, often using modelling or simulation, so they work together (or interact) to meet required needs and functions or purposes. Systems have inputs, processes and outputs. For example, a torch as shown below. Scientific laws or theories can often be used to work out the necessary inputs, processes or outputs to support the development or operation of a system. These are known as engineering principles. An example of an engineering principle is Ohm’s Law (a statement about the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in an electrical circuit).

inputs, processes and outputs of a torch, which is a simple system

A project or activity that may be challenging, requires effort and initiative and may have risks.

Showing initiative and willingness to take action and commitment to follow through on initiatives.

One of the outputs of technologies processes and/or a place or space in which technologies processes operate. An environment may be natural, managed, constructed or digital.

Practices that have minimal impact on ecosystem's health, allow renewal of natural systems and value environmental qualities that support life.

Items needed for carrying out specific jobs, activities, functions or processes. For example, a bench hook is used to hold a piece of wood when making a straight cut across it; a tailor’s chalk is used to make marks on fabric to show details of the location and type of construction; a soldering iron is used to solder components to a printed circuit board; scales are used to accurately weigh ingredients for a cake or feed for domestic animals.

Understanding of the activity of humans within systems or in an environment to maximise the wellbeing of humans and their productive use of those systems or environments. In Digital Technologies,ergonomics is concerned with physical, mental and emotional impacts on users of the technologies. For example, it is understood that many people may get sore eyes if they look at screens for too long, and that if computer keyboard users do not sit up straight with arms at right angles to the body, they may get repetitive strain injury in their forearms.

Measuring performance against established criteria. Estimating nature, quality, ability, extent or significance to make a judgement determining a value. Also see critiquing.

An ‘exclusive or’ (XOR) is a logical operator that is TRUE if both inputs to it are different, in the same way that AND is a logical operator that is TRUE only if both of the inputs are TRUE. For example, ‘person is male’ XOR ‘person has blonde hair’ results in all females with blonde hair and males without blonde hair. (Using AND here would result in only including males with blonde hair.)

the Venn diagram represents the XOR operator

A drawing or photograph of an object with individual parts shown separately but arranged to show the relationship and position of the parts for assembly. For example, instructions that come with furniture sold in a flat pack that has parts and fittings, or a diagram of parts of a bicycle, to be assembled in a particular way and/or order by a purchaser.

exploded view of a chair