Glossary (Version 8.4)

A principle or practice of referring measures proposed or passed by a legislative body to a vote of an electorate for approval or rejection. In Australia, a referendum is a vote of the Australian electors on a proposed change to the Constitution by the Commonwealth Parliament that must be approved by a majority of the aggregate of all voters from each state and territory, and also by a majority of voters in a majority (four) of the six states.

An area in which various parts have something in common, which distinguishes them from neighbouring regions. Regions can be divisions of a nation, for example, the Wheatbelt of Western Australia; or larger than a nation, for example, South-East Asia or a climatic zone. The latter are called ‘world regions’ in the Australian Curriculum.

A location relative to other places, for example, a distance to a town from other towns. Relative location has a stronger influence on human characteristics of places than absolute location, as demonstrated by advantages of closeness to suppliers, finance, information and markets for businesses, and to education and employment opportunities for individuals. Also see absolute location.

An organised system of human values, which recognises spiritual or transcendent dimensions in life.

Distant, far away, for example, a place distant from major population and economic centres.

Resources that are or can be renewed within a relatively short time, for example, water through a hydrological (water) cycle; and plants, animals and marine life through reproduction. However, overuse of a renewable resource can lead to its disappearance, as with an over-exploitation of a fishery or an over-extraction of groundwater. Also see environmental resources.

In geography, demonstrating geographical information in a visual form, for example, a graph, map, image, field sketch or a multilayered map.

A system of government in which electors choose representatives to a parliament to make laws on their behalf.

The assigning of limited resources to produce goods and services to meet society’s needs and unlimited wants.

A means to produce goods and services that satisfy needs and wants. The four economic resources (factors of production) are land, labour, capital and enterprise. Production usually requires a combination of resources.

Entitlements and obligations that are associated with living in Australia. Rights and responsibilities are a cornerstone of modern democracies. While all people in Australia enjoy certain rights (for example, freedom of speech), there are also responsibilities (for example, paying taxes, jury service). Citizens also have the right to vote and the responsibility of voting at elections.

A requirement to behave in a particular way; a set of explicit or understood regulations or principles governing conduct or procedure within a particular area of activity, for example, school rules, rules of cricket. Rules are usually developed and set by people who have the power and authority to create and enforce them.

A legal principle that decisions by government are made according to established principles and that all citizens are subject to the law and equal before the law. Embedded within the rule oflaw is the idea that people accept and follow, but also change as needed, laws as agreed by a political process and upheld by independent courts.