Glossary (Version 8.4)

Location measured by the coordinates of latitude and longitude. Also see relative location.

The minimum number of votes required, which is more than half of all votes, that is, 50 per cent plus one, to make a democratic decision by a group.

Involvement and informed participation in the civic and political activities of society at local, state, national, regional and global levels. It contrasts with ‘passive citizenship’ where citizens participate only minimally to meet their basic individual responsibilities including voting and paying taxes.

A part of a dating system, an abbreviation of ‘anno Domini’, meaning ‘in the year of our Lord’; the years after the birth of Christ.

A photograph taken from the air, which can be oblique (taken at an angle) or vertical (taken from straight above the ground); the former being easier for young students to interpret.

As defined in the Australian Curriculum: History, the ancient period covers history from the development of early human communities (from 60 000 BCE) to the end of late antiquity (around 650 CE).

A national remembrance in Australia for the troops that fought at Gallipoli in Turkey (April–December 1915) during World War I, and for Australians who have fought in subsequent conflicts. The acronym ANZAC refers to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).

Something made or shaped by humans for their use, such as a stone tool, a metal sword, a letter, a plastic toy, usually of historical interest.

As defined in the Australian Curriculum: History, Asia refers to the territorial area that extends from the western border of Pakistan, to the northern border of Mongolia, the eastern border of Japan, and to the southern border of Indonesia.

People’s emotional feelings about and identification with places, which can contribute to their personal wellbeing and sense of identity.

A system of government grounded in liberal democratic values and a belief in civic engagement. It includes a written constitution, a well-established representative parliamentary process based on the Westminster system, and a constitutional monarch.

The national government of the Commonwealth of Australia, which is also known as the federal government or the Commonwealth Government. It was established by the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act at the time of Federation.