Glossary (Version 8.4)

A process of gathering information from primary sources and secondary sources as part of the geographical inquiry process. Geographical inquirymethodologies involve skills needed to formulate questions, and initiating, planning and implementing an inquiry relevant to a geographical issue, process or phenomenon.

Physical and human forces that work in combination to form and transform the world, for example, erosion, hydrological (water) cycle, migration or urbanisation. Geographical processes can operate within and between places.

Why a question is worth investigating.

Relating to a form, shape, structure or surface of the earth or its topography.

A hazard originating from the lithosphere, including volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami and mass movement (landslides or avalanches).

An area defined by a distinctive set of landforms produced by a distinctive set of geomorphic processes, for example, a riverine, arid or coastal landscape.

A person who understands their rights and responsibilities at a global level; that is, one’s identity transcends geography or political borders, and rights and responsibilities are derived from being human. However, these rights and responsibilities do not have legal authority or sanctions that those conferred by a nation have.

Tangible items that satisfy needs and wants, and that can be seen and touched.

A representative of a monarch at the federal level in Australia. The Governor-General exercises most of the monarch’s powers in relation to Australia at the federal level, while state governors exercise those powers with respect to the Australian states. Other powers are conferred upon the Governor-General by the Constitution and statutes. In exercising his or her powers, the Governor-General is bound by convention to act on an advice of his or her responsible ministers, except in relation to matters such as appointment and dismissal of a Prime Minister.

In geography, water available for plant growth as soil moisture. Almost all of the world’s natural vegetation, and most of its agriculture, depend on soil moisture.