Immediatecauses of environmental change are biophysical processes such as vegetation clearance, cropping and urban development, while underlying causes are influences such as population growth, government policies, market demand, economic growth, technology, values and attitudes. These causes can be combined in a human–environment system.

Movement of people from living in one defined area to living in another within a country, for example, movement from cities to non-metropolitan coastal locations, or between states and territories.

Transfer of water from one river basin to another, for example, the transfer of water from the Snowy River to the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers in the Snowy Mountains Scheme.

A map of a geographical variable showing its spatial distribution by lines joining places with the same value, for example, a rainfall map.