Glossary

A system for storing, managing, analysing and portraying spatial data. It has been described as a combination of database management, cartography and statistical analysis.

Advantages people and businesses gain from clustering together, for example, greater access to information, greater variety of goods and services, better transport and communication services, and more varied employment opportunities. These advantages help to explain continuing growth of cities.

A process of gathering information from primary sources and secondary sources as part of the geographical inquiry process. Geographical inquiry methodologies involve skills needed to formulate questions and initiating, planning and implementing an inquiry relevant to a geographical issue, process or phenomenon.

Physical and human forces that work in combination to form and transform the world, for example, erosion, hydrological (water) cycle, migration or urbanisation. Geographical processes can operate within and between places.

Why a question is worth investigating.

Relating to a form, shape, structure or surface of the earth or its topography.

A hazard originating from the lithosphere, including volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami and mass movement (landslide or avalanche).

An area defined by a distinctive set of landforms produced by a distinctive set of geomorphic processes, for example, a riverine, arid or coastal landscape.

Water available for plant growth as soil moisture. Almost all of the world’s natural vegetation, and most of its agriculture, depends on soil moisture.