Glossary

A biological or chemical hazard that has the potential to impact adversely on the wellbeing of people or the environment more generally. Ecological hazards include biological and chemical agents. Biological factors can lead to infectious diseases. While many of these diseases have proven difficult to eradicate, enough is known about them to use interventions that drastically reduce their incidence. Chemical hazards can cause immediate, dangerous health effects and can also contribute to chronic, or long-term, problems. In contrast to infectious diseases, our understanding of the consequences of chemical exposure for people’s health, especially very low-level exposures typically found in the environment, remains incomplete.

An outcome of the reduction or elimination of the barriers to the flow of goods, services and factors of production between nations. The stated aims of economic integration are to reduce costs incurred by consumers and producers, and to increase trade between countries.

Significant and enduring changes to the nature and structure of an economy.

Empathy is an understanding of the past from the point of view of a particular individual or group, including an appreciation of the circumstances they faced, and the motivations, values and attitudes behind their actions.

An enterprise is an activity that produces goods and/or services. Enterprises are run for the benefit of an individual or a group of individuals. They can range in scale from a transnational corporation to home-based economic activities.

The term ‘environment’, where unqualified, means the living and non-living elements of the earth’s surface and atmosphere. It includes human changes to the earth’s surface, for example, croplands, planted forests, buildings and roads.

Provide a detailed examination and substantiated judgement concerning the merit, significance or value of something.

In mathematics: calculate the value of a function at a particular value of its independent variables.

In History, evidence is the information obtained from sources that is useful for a particular inquiry (for example the relative size of historical figures in an ancient painting may provide clues for an inquiry into the social structure of the society). Evidence can be used to help construct a historical narrative, to support a hypothesis or to prove or disprove a conclusion.

Provide additional information that demonstrates understanding of reasoning and/or application.