By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Spanish for classroom interactions, to carry out transactions and to exchange views and experiences with peers and others in a range of contexts. They use rehearsed and spontaneous language to give and follow instructions and engage in discussions, such as expressing or rejecting points of view (for example, ¿Estás de acuerdo?, verdadero/falso, ¿qué te parece?, ¿cuándo?, ¿cómo?, ¿por qué?). They apply appropriate pronunciation and rhythm in spoken Spanish to a range of sentence types (for example, ¿Nos vamos?, ¡Nos vamos!, Pasó por aquí/Paso por aquí), and use interrogative and imperative moods (for example, ¿Has comido? ¡Abre la puerta!). They locate, summarise and analyse information and ideas on topics of interest from a range of texts, and communicate information, different perspectives and their own opinions such as a mí me parece…, using different modes of presentation. They describe their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions (for example, en mi opinión, personalmente yo prefiero, estoy de acuerdo), stating preferences (for example, después de pensarlo, yo…, prefiero más bien...es buena/mala idea), and comparing ways in which people, places and experiences are represented (for example, mejor que… peor que….más... menos). They draw on past experiences or future possibilities to create imaginative texts using regular (for example, caminar, beber, vivir) and irregular verbs (for example, estar, tener, ir) in a range of tenses including present (vivo), present perfect (he vivido), preterite (viví), imperfect (vivía) and future (viviré). They use descriptive vocabulary, such as numbers, adjectives (for example, generoso, simpático, listo, amistoso, azul, rosa, café) and adverbs (for example, generalmente, raramente, nunca), to extend and elaborate their texts. They use cohesive devices such as y, o, porque, cuando, por eso, pero, puesto que, debido a, y, pues, para and prepositions such as antes del atardecer, dentro de la casa in own language production to create cohesion. Students translate texts on familiar topics and produce texts in Spanish and English, comparing their different versions and considering possible explanations for variations. When participating in intercultural experiences they identify similarities and differences in language use and cultural expression. They identify significant people, places, events and influences in their lives and explain why these are important to their own sense of identity.
Students know that in Spanish there are words that are spelled and pronounced the same but that have different meanings, such as pila (pile or battery), and that a word often takes on a different meaning when an accent is added, for example, papá (‘father’) and papa (‘potato’), and the definite article el and pronoun él (‘he’ or ‘him’). They use metalanguage to explain features of language, texts and grammar and to identify how text structures and language features vary between different types of texts. Students explain how elements of communication such as gestures, facial expressions or the use of silence vary according to context, situation and relationships. They identify how Spanish both influences and is influenced by other languages and is spoken in a variety of forms in communities around the world. They explain why meanings and reactions vary according to the cultural assumptions that people bring to intercultural experiences and interactions.