RationaleIn a world of increasing global integration and international mobility, it is critical to the wellbeing and sustainability of the environment and society that young Australians develop a holistic understanding of the world.
AimsThe Australian Curriculum: Geography aims to ensure that students develop:
a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and environments throughout the world
a deep geographical knowledge of their own locality, Australia, the Asia region and the world
StructureThe Australian Curriculum: Geography is organised in two related strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills.
Geographical knowledge and understanding strand
Geographical knowledge refers to the facts, generalisations, principles, theories and models developed in Geography.
PDF documentsResources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Geography are available as PDF documents.
Geography: Sequence of content 7-10
Geography: Sequence of achievement 7-10
Year 10 Level Description
There are two units of study in the Year 10 curriculum for Geography: ‘Environmental change and management’ and ‘Geographies of human wellbeing’.
‘Environmental change and management’ focuses on investigating environmental geography through an in-depth study of a specific environment. The unit begins with an overview of the environmental functions that support all life, the major challenges to their sustainability, and the environmental world views – including those of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples – that influence how people perceive and respond to these challenges. Students investigate a specific type of environment and environmental change in Australia and one other country. They apply human–environment systems thinking to understand the causes and consequences of the change and geographical concepts and methods to evaluate and select strategies to manage the change.
‘Geographies of human wellbeing’ focuses on investigating global, national and local differences in human wellbeing between places. This unit examines the different concepts and measures of human wellbeing, and the causes of global differences in these measures between countries. Students explore spatial differences in wellbeing within and between countries, and evaluate the differences from a variety of perspectives. They explore programs designed to reduce the gap between differences in wellbeing. These distinctive aspects of human wellbeing are investigated using studies drawn from Australia, India and across the world as appropriate.
The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.
Key inquiry questions
A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.
The key inquiry questions for Year 10 are:
- How can the spatial variation between places and changes in environments be explained?
- What management options exist for sustaining human and natural systems into the future?
- How do world views influence decisions on how to manage environmental and social change?
Year 10 Content Descriptions
Unit 1: Environmental change and management
Select ONE of the following types of environment as the context for study: land (e.g. forests, deserts, grasslands, farmland), inland water, coast, marine or urban. A comparative study of examples selected from Australia and at least one other country should be included.
Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing
Observing, questioning and planning
Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing
Interpreting, analysing and concluding
Reflecting and responding
Year 10 Achievement Standards
By the end of Year 10, students explain how interactions between geographical processes at different scales change the characteristics of places. Students identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections between people, places and environments and explain changes that result from these interconnections and their consequences. They predict changes in the characteristics of places and environments over time, across space and at different scales and explain the predicted consequences of change. They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge using environmental, economic, political and social criteria and draw a reasoned conclusion.
Students use initial research to develop and modify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They critically evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to select and collect relevant, reliable and unbiased geographical information and data. Students record and represent multi-variable data in of the most appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including a range of graphs and maps that use suitable scales and comply with cartographic conventions. They use a range of methods and digital technologies to interpret and analyse maps, data and other information to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for significant patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies across time and space and at different scales, and predict outcomes. They analyse and synthesise data and other information to draw reasoned conclusions, taking into account alternative perspectives. Students present findings, arguments and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations and digital technologies in a range of selected and appropriate communication forms. They evaluate their findings and propose action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic, political and social considerations. They explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal.