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In a world of increasing global integration and international mobility, it is critical to the wellbeing and sustainability of the environment and society that young Australians develop a holistic understanding of the world.



The Australian Curriculum: Geography aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and environments throughout the world
a deep geographical knowledge of their own locality, Australia, the Asia region and the world



The Australian Curriculum: Geography is organised in two related strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills.
Geographical knowledge and understanding strand
Geographical knowledge refers to the facts, generalisations, principles, theories and models developed in Geography.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Geography are available as PDF documents. 
Geography: Sequence of content 7-10
Geography: Sequence of achievement 7-10  




Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 9 curriculum for Geography: ‘Biomes and food security’ and ‘Geographies of interconnections’.

‘Biomes and food security’ focuses on investigating the role of the biotic environment and its role in food and fibre production. This unit examines the biomes of the world, their alteration and significance as a source of food and fibre, and the environmental challenges of and constraints on expanding food production in the future. These distinctive aspects of biomes, food production and food security are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

‘Geographies of interconnections’ focuses on investigating how people, through their choices and actions, are connected to places throughout the world in a wide variety of ways, and how these connections help to make and change places and their environments. This unit examines the interconnections between people and places through the products people buy and the effects of their production on the places that make them. Students examine the ways that transport and information and communication technologies have made it possible for an increasing range of services to be provided internationally, and for people in isolated rural areas to connect to information, services and people in other places. These distinctive aspects of interconnection are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and across the world.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 9 are:

  • What are the causes and consequences of change in places and environments and how can this change be managed?
  • What are the future implications of changes to places and environments?
  • Why are interconnections and interdependencies important for the future of places and environments?

Year 9 Content Descriptions

Unit 1: Biomes and food security

Distribution and characteristics of biomes as regions with distinctive climates, soils, vegetation and productivity (ACHGK060 - Scootle )
  • identifying and describing the major aquatic and terrestrial biomes of Australia and the world, and their spatial distribution
  • examining the influence of climate on biomass production (as measured by net primary productivity) in different biomes
Human alteration of biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres, and the use of systems thinking to analyse the environmental effects of these alterations (ACHGK061 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • identifying the biomes in Australia and overseas that produce some of the foods and plant material people consume
  • investigating ways that the production of food and fibre has altered some biomes (for example, through vegetation clearance, introduction of exotic species, drainage, terracing and irrigation)
    • Sustainability
  • identifying the differences between natural and agricultural ecosystems in flows of nutrients and water, and in biodiversity
    • Sustainability
Environmental, economic and technological factors that influence crop yields in Australia and across the world (ACHGK062 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • describing how environmental factors (for example, climate, soil, landform and water), can support higher crop yields and investigating the environmental constraints on agricultural production in Australia (for example, soil moisture, water resources and soils)
  • investigating how high crop yields (for example, from wheat, rice and maize) around the world are related to factors such as irrigation, accessibility, labour supply, landforms and agricultural technologies (for example, high-yielding varieties)
  • evaluating the ways that agricultural innovations have changed some of the environmental limitations on and impacts of food production in Australia
Challenges to food production, including land and water degradation, shortage of fresh water, competing land uses, and climate change, for Australia and other areas of the world (ACHGK063 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • exploring environmental challenges to food production from land degradation (soil erosion, salinity, desertification), industrial pollution, water scarcity and climate change
    • Sustainability
  • identifying the impacts on food production from competing land uses (for example, sacred sites, urban and industrial uses, mining, production of food crops for biofuels, production of food crops for livestock, and recreation (such as golf courses))
  • evaluating whether some ways of increasing food production could threaten sustainability
    • Sustainability
  • investigating the impacts of alterations of biomes on the productivity and availability of staple resources for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (for example, murnong or yam daisy in Victoria)
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
The capacity of the world’s environments to sustainably feed the projected future global population (ACHGK064 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • examining the effects of anticipated future population growth on global food production and security, and its implications for agriculture and agricultural innovation
    • Sustainability
  • researching the potential of agricultural production in northern Australia
  • identifying how poverty, food wastage, government policies or trade barriers could affect future food security
    • Sustainability
  • applying understanding of the functioning of natural and agricultural ecosystems to investigate ways of making Australian agriculture more sustainable
    • Sustainability

Unit 2: Geographies of interconnections

The perceptions people have of place, and how these influence their connections to different places (ACHGK065 - Scootle )
  • comparing students' perceptions and use of places and spaces in their local area, particularly at different times of day, between males and females, different age groups, people with and without disability, and people from diverse cultures including Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, and reflecting on the differences
  • investigating how people in places in other countries perceive, use and are connected to their place and space
The way transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (ACHGK066 - Scootle )
  • describing the differences in people's access to the internet between and within countries and exploring how information and communication technologies are being used to connect people to information, services and people in other places (for example, in rural areas across Australia and the world, including selected countries of the Asia region)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining how information and communication technologies have made it possible for places (for example, in India and the Philippines) to provide a range of global business services
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring how transport and information networks operate to connect people to services, including how supply-chain logistics influence these connections
The ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (ACHGK067 - Scootle )
  • investigating how and why places are interconnected regionally, nationally and globally through trade in goods and services
  • investigating some of the products and/or services that businesses in their town, city or rural region sell to other places
  • examining tourism, students and retirees as sources of income for some places
The effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (ACHGK068 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • exploring the environmental impacts of the consumer product on the places that produce the raw materials, make the product, and receive the wastes at the end of its life
    • Sustainability
  • identifying the effects of international trade in consumer products on Australian places
  • evaluating the effects of international demand for food products on biodiversity throughout the world, in the places of their production
    • Sustainability
The effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (ACHGK069 - Scootle )
  • investigating the global growth of tourism and its likely effects on the future of places
  • discussing the effects of people's cultural and leisure choices on towns and cities (for example, predicting how changing choices may affect these and other places in the future)

Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry that identifies and applies appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS063 - Scootle )
  • developing questions of geographical significance about an area of focus in the geographical knowledge and understanding strand (for example, questions about the importance of food security or types of interconnections)
  • planning an investigation of the processes responsible for the geographical phenomenon being studied, at a range of scales (for example, the connections between people and places)
  • using a range of methods including digital technologies to plan and conduct an information search about human alteration to biomes in Australia and another country

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Evaluate sources for their reliability, bias and usefulness and select, collect, record and organise relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from a range of appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS064 - Scootle )
  • gathering relevant data from a range of primary sources (for example, from observation and annotated field sketches, conducting surveys and interviews and experiments, or taking photographs) about challenges to food production or the effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places
  • collecting geographical information from secondary sources (for example, topographic maps, thematic maps, choropleth maps, weather maps, climate graphs, compound column graphs and population pyramids, scatter plots, tables, satellite images and aerial photographs, reports, census data and the media)
  • collecting quantitative and qualitative data using ethical research methods, including the use of protocols for consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate forms, for example scatter plots, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS065 - Scootle )
  • creating a diagram to illustrate the flows of nutrients and energy within a biome, and the alterations to these flows produced by agriculture
  • developing a table to show the types of challenges to food production in Australia compared to other areas of the world, or the ways that places and people are interconnected through trade
Represent spatial distribution of geographical phenomena by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS066 - Scootle )
  • creating a map to show the relationship between biomes and world food production, using a spatial technologies application

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret and analyse multi-variable data and other geographical information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to make generalisations and inferences, propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies, and predict outcomes (ACHGS067 - Scootle )
  • constructing a graph to show the relationship between growth in world population and world food production
  • comparing maps showing transport networks with survey responses on personal mobility
  • analysing maps of world internet traffic and proposing explanations about the pattern and distribution of connections
Apply geographical concepts to synthesise information from various sources and draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information, taking into account alternative points of view (ACHGS068 - Scootle )
  • testing conclusions by considering alternative points of view about an area of inquiry and providing a response using as organisers at least two of the concepts of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change
    • Sustainability
Identify how geographical information systems (GIS) might be used to analyse geographical data and make predictions (ACHGS069 - Scootle )
  • identifying the relevant layers of a geographical information system and using them to investigate how they can portray and analyse demographic, economic and environmental data


Present findings, arguments and explanations in a range of appropriate communication forms, selected for their effectiveness and to suit audience and purpose; using relevant geographical terminology, and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS070 - Scootle )
  • presenting an oral response, supported by visual aids including maps, to communicate a reasoned argument about a contemporary geographical issue, and responding to questions

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on and evaluate findings of an inquiry to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic, political and social considerations; and explain the predicted outcomes and consequences of their proposal (ACHGS071 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • explaining how the application of geographical concepts and methods has contributed to deep understanding of the causes of and solutions to issues related to biomes, food production and security, interconnections or spatial change
    • Sustainability
  • examining the environmental, economic and social factors that need to be considered in an investigation of a contemporary geographical issue such as ways of increasing Australian or global food production or the effects of information and communications technologies on the location of manufacturing or services and debating alternative responses that consider environmental, economic and social factors
    • Sustainability

Year 9 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 9, students explain how geographical processes change the characteristics of places. They analyse interconnections between people, places and environments and explain how these interconnections influence people, and change places and environments. They predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future. Students analyse alternative strategies to a geographical challenge using environmental, social and economic criteria.

Students use initial research to identify geographically significant questions to frame an inquiry. They evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to select and collect relevant and reliable geographical information and data. They record and represent multi-variable data in a range of appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including a range of maps that comply with cartographic conventions. They use a range of methods and digital technologies to interpret and analyse maps, data and other information to propose explanations for patterns, trends, relationships and anomalies across time and space, and to predict outcomes. Students synthesise data and information to draw reasoned conclusions. They present findings, arguments and explanations using relevant geographical terminology and digital representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. Students propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and predict the outcomes and consequences of their proposal.

Year 9 Work Sample Portfolios