Geography

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Rationale

In a world of increasing global integration and international mobility, it is critical to the wellbeing and sustainability of the environment and society that young Australians develop a holistic understanding of the world.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Geography aims to ensure that students develop:

a sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and environments throughout the world
a deep geographical knowledge of their own locality, Australia, the Asia region and the world

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Structure

The Australian Curriculum: Geography is organised in two related strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills.
Geographical knowledge and understanding strand
Geographical knowledge refers to the facts, generalisations, principles, theories and models developed in Geography.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Geography are available as PDF documents. 
Geography: Sequence of content 7-10
Geography: Sequence of achievement 7-10  

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Glossary

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Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

There are two units of study in the Year 8 curriculum for Geography: ‘Landforms and landscapes’ and ‘Changing nations’.

‘Landforms and landscapes’ focuses on investigating geomorphology through a study of landscapes and their landforms. This unit examines the processes that shape individual landforms, the values and meanings placed on landforms and landscapes by diverse cultures, hazards associated with landscapes, and management of landscapes. ‘Landforms and landscapes’ develops students’ understanding of the concept of environment and enables them to explore the significance of landscapes to people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. These distinctive aspects of landforms and landscapes are investigated using studies drawn from Australia and throughout the world.

‘Changing nations’ investigates the changing human geography of countries, as revealed by shifts in population distribution. The spatial distribution of population is a sensitive indicator of economic and social change, and has significant environmental, economic and social effects, both negative and positive. The unit explores the process of urbanisation and draws on a study of a country of the Asia region to show how urbanisation changes the economies and societies of low- and middle-income countries. It investigates the reasons for the high level of urban concentration in Australia, one of the distinctive features of Australia’s human geography, and compares Australia with the United States of America. The redistribution of population resulting from internal migration is examined through case studies of Australia and China, and is contrasted with the way international migration reinforces urban concentration in Australia. The unit then examines issues related to the management and future of Australia’s urban areas.

The content of this year level is organised into two strands: geographical knowledge and understanding, and geographical inquiry and skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated manner, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.

Key inquiry questions

A framework for developing students’ geographical knowledge, understanding and skills is provided through the inclusion of inquiry questions and specific inquiry skills, including the use and interpretation of maps, photographs and other representations of geographical data.

The key inquiry questions for Year 8 are:

  • How do environmental and human processes affect the characteristics of places and environments?
  • How do the interconnections between places, people and environments affect the lives of people?
  • What are the consequences of changes to places and environments and how can these changes be managed?

Year 8 Content Descriptions

Unit 1: Landforms and landscapes

Different types of landscapes and their distinctive landform features (ACHGK048 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • identifying different types of landscapes (for example, coastal, riverine, arid, mountain and karst) and describing examples from around the world, including Antarctica
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying some iconic landscapes in Australia and the world, and describing what makes them iconic
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • describing some of the different types of landforms within a landscape
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • exploring the names, meanings and significance of landform features from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander perspective
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Spiritual, aesthetic and cultural value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples (ACHGK049 - Scootle )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
  • Develop respect for cultural diversity

Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • discussing the representation of landscapes in literature, song/music, film and art
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Self-management
    • Express emotions appropriately

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

  • analysing the role of geomorphic landforms and landscapes in tourism (for example, the Grand Canyon in the USA or Uluru in Australia)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • exploring the multilayered meanings (material, cultural and spiritual wellbeing) associated with landscapes and landforms by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating Aboriginal Dreaming stories and Legends of the Torres Strait concerning the formation, meaning and interconnection of landforms
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

  • discussing the significance of landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Geomorphic processes that produce landforms, including a case study of at least one landform (ACHGK050 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • describing the influence of folding, faulting or volcanism on a chosen landform
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • researching the effects of rock type, weathering, erosion by water and wind, and transportation and deposition on the chosen landform
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Human causes and effects of landscape degradation (ACHGK051 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • analysing the effects of erosion and sedimentation produced by human activities, including farming and recreation, on landscape quality
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • examining the effects of mining and quarrying, and urban development, on landscape quality
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • describing the effects of river regulation including dams, locks, channel straightening and drains, on riverine and wetland landscape quality
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

  • investigating the effects of the built elements of environments (for example, urban development, marinas and sea walls) on coastal landscape quality
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • investigating the ways introduced plants or animals or activities such as mining affect landscape quality and examining the effects on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
Ways of protecting significant landscapes (ACHGK052 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • identifying different views about the value of particular environments (for example, recreational, psychological, aesthetic and spiritual), and about the nature and extent of their protection, and discussing how this links to ideas about environmental sustainability
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Express emotions appropriately

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating a significant landscape that is threatened by human activities and developing a proposal for the future of the landscape that takes account of the views of the diverse groups, including traditional owners, with an interest in its use or protection
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • identifying the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledge to the use and management of landforms and landscapes
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Contribute to civil society

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • investigating the negative and positive impacts of bushfires on Australian landscapes and ways of responding to the risk and events of bushfires
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

Causes, impacts and responses to a geomorphological hazard (ACHGK053 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • investigating the natural causes and spatial distribution of a geomorphological hazard (for example, volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, landslide, avalanche)
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • discussing the extent to which human alteration of environments has contributed to the occurrence of the geomorphological hazard
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Express emotions appropriately

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • describing how the effects caused by geomorphological hazards are influenced by social, cultural and economic factors (for example, where people choose to live, poverty, and lack of infrastructure and resources to prepare and respond)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • researching how the application of principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness minimises the harmful effects of geomorphological hazards or bushfires
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

Unit 2: Changing nations

Causes and consequences of urbanisation, drawing on a study from Indonesia, or another country of the Asia region (ACHGK054 - Scootle )
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • discussing urbanisation as a shift in where, how and why people live where they do
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Express emotions appropriately

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • exploring the connections between urbanisation and economic and social opportunities
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • examining how urbanisation can positively or negatively affect environmental quality (for example, carbon emissions and water consumption)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Differences in urban concentration and urban settlement patterns between Australia and the United States of America, and their causes and consequences (ACHGK055 - Scootle )
Intercultural Understanding

Recognising culture and developing respect
  • Investigate culture and cultural identity
  • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Interacting and empathising with others
  • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • researching the causes of urban concentration in Australia and the United States of America (for example, the history of European settlement, migration, the export orientation of the economy, the centralisation of state governments, environmental constraints and the shape of transportation networks)
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating the relationship between population density and proximity to urban centres
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

Reasons for, and effects of, internal migration in both Australia and China (ACHGK056 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • identifying and explaining the main types, patterns and trends of internal migration in Australia (for example, employment, lifestyle and retirement migration)
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • examining the effects of resource development on employment growth in both the resource regions and the cities, and on internal migration in Australia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • investigating the effects of the ‘fly-in fly-out’ phenomenon on resource-development places
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • explaining that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ population mobility reflects attachment to a number of places through family, Country/Place, dispossession, relocation and employment
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • identifying and explaining the patterns of temporary and permanent internal migration in China and the effects on the places of origin and destination
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining the role of labour migration in the urban development of China (for example, the growth of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring the issues relating to China’s ‘floating population’
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • examining the environmental problems of China’s megacities (for example, air pollution in Beijing)
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Reasons for, and effects of, international migration in Australia (ACHGK058 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying and explaining the main types and patterns of international migration (for example, permanent migration, temporary labour migration, student migration, forced migration (including refugees) and family reunion)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • investigating where and why international migrants settle in Australia and how this may reinforce urban concentration
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • exploring the changing cultural diversity of the Australian population
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

Management and planning of Australia’s urban future (ACHGK059 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • examining the forecasts for the size of Australia’s major cities and regional urban centres, and discussing the implications for their environmental sustainability and liveability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Express emotions appropriately

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • investigating ways of managing the projected growth of Australia’s cities and regional urban centres
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • exploring the arguments for and against a more balanced distribution of the urban population
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • generating ideas on how to decentralise Australia's urban population using Canberra as an example
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Observing, questioning and planning

Develop geographically significant questions and plan an inquiry using appropriate geographical methodologies and concepts (ACHGS055 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • developing questions on an area of focus in the geographical knowledge and understanding strand (for example, about types of landforms or reasons for urban settlements)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • developing questions about the significance of a spatial distribution (for example, the positive and negative effects of the spatial concentration of population in Australia)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • planning an investigation of the processes responsible for the geographical phenomenon being studied, at a range of scales (for example, the causes and consequences of urbanisation)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • using a range of methods including digital technologies to plan and conduct an information search about reasons for and effects of internal migration in Australia
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

Evaluate sources for their reliability and usefulness and select, collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from appropriate primary and secondary sources (ACHGS056 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Recognise ethical concepts
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

  • gathering relevant data from a range of primary sources (for example, from observation and annotated field sketches, surveys and interviews, or photographs) about the ways to protect significant landscapes
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • collecting geographical information from secondary sources (for example, topographic maps, thematic maps, compound column graphs and population pyramids, reports, census data, digital images and the media)
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

  • conducting ethical research methods, including the use of protocols for consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reflect on ethical action

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Represent data in a range of appropriate forms, for example, climate graphs, compound column graphs, population pyramids, tables, field sketches and annotated diagrams, with and without the use of digital and spatial technologies (ACHGS057 - Scootle )
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Investigating with ICT
  • Select and evaluate data and information
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Numeracy

Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
  • Estimate and calculate

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

  • constructing tables and graphs of demographic or economic data for Australia or China
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Investigate culture and cultural identity
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • creating annotated diagrams to show a landscape and its landforms
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

Represent spatial distribution of different types of geographical phenomena by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using spatial technologies as appropriate (ACHGS058 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Investigating with ICT
  • Select and evaluate data and information
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • developing a statistical map to show demographic or economic data for Australia or China, or show the cultural and demographic diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples using mapping software
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts
    • Reflect on processes

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • creating a map showing geomorphological features by using data from Geoscience Australia, or demographic statistics from census data, using a spatial technologies application
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Estimate and calculate

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

  • using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to make a map of the features of a landform
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

  • creating a map showing geomorphological features, incorporating traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander names for these where known
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

Interpret geographical data and other information using qualitative and quantitative methods, and digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to identify and propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns and trends, and infer relationships (ACHGS059 - Scootle )
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Investigating with ICT
  • Select and evaluate data and information
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts
  • Reflect on processes

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

  • analysing spatial distributions to infer relationships and suggest possible causes and effects
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • using digital mapping tools to map the cultural and demographic diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts
    • Reflect on processes

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Develop respect for cultural diversity

  • interpreting topographic maps and digital terrain models, cross-sections or block diagrams to investigate landforms and their features
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • analysing trends in internal migration in Australia and China
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts
    • Reflect on processes

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Apply geographical concepts to draw conclusions based on the analysis of data and information collected (ACHGS060 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • reviewing the results of an analysis to propose and defend answers to an inquiry question, emphasising at least one of the geographical concepts of place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale or change
    • Sustainability
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)
    • Reflect on processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

Communicating

Present findings, arguments and ideas in a range of communication forms selected to suit a particular audience and purpose; using geographical terminology and digital technologies as appropriate (ACHGS061 - Scootle )
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Express opinion and point of view

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Consider alternatives

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

  • presenting a report, supported by spatial technologies, to communicate a reasoned argument (for example, to advocate for actions to ensure that landscapes and seascapes can be managed sustainably for use by future generations)
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

Reflecting and responding

Reflect on their learning to propose individual and collective action in response to a contemporary geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations, and predict the expected outcomes of their proposal (ACHGS062 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Personal and Social Capability

Self-awareness
  • Develop reflective practice
  • Understand themselves as learners

Self-management
  • Become confident, resilient and adaptable
  • Develop self-discipline and set goals

Social awareness
  • Appreciate diverse perspectives

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Consider points of view

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
  • Apply logic and reasoning

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Organise and process information
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Express opinion and point of view

  • reflecting on the inquiry process and suggesting questions that would be suitable for further investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Pose questions

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • reflecting on personal values and attitudes and how these influence responses to an issue (for example, the protection of landscapes)
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-awareness
    • Develop reflective practice

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view
    • Examine values

  • proposing actions to respond to geographical issues related to environmental and economic sustainability (for example, urbanisation)
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society


Year 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students explain geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and explain how places are perceived and valued differently. They explain interconnections within environments and between people and places and explain how they change places and environments. They compare alternative strategies to a geographical challenge, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students identify geographically significant questions from observations to frame an inquiry. They evaluate a range of primary and secondary sources to locate useful and reliable information and data. They select, record and represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of appropriate digital and non-digital forms, including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse geographical maps, data and other information to propose explanations for spatial distributions, patterns, trends and relationships, and draw reasoned conclusions. Students present findings, arguments and ideas using relevant geographical terminology and digital technologies in a range of appropriate communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social factors, and predict the outcomes of their proposal.


Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios