To process words, symbols or actions to derive and/or construct meaning. Reading includes interpreting, critically analysing and reflecting upon the meaning of a wide range of written and visual, print and non-print texts.

A word, a phrase or a full sentence or a poetical line repeated to emphasise its significance. Repetition is a rhetorical device.

The way English print travels from left to right and then returns to the left of a page for the next and each subsequent line.

Use of language that is intended to have an effect on an audience such as evoking an emotion or persuading an audience (for example, metaphors, repetition, rhetorical questions).

A question that is asked to provoke thought rather than require an answer.

Separate phonemes in a syllable can normally be broken into two parts. The rime is a vowel and any subsequent consonants (for example, in the word ‘cat’ the rime is /at/). Word families can be constructed using common rimes such as /at/ in ‘cat’, ‘pat’.