Decodable texts are texts that can be read using decoding skills a student has acquired. Decodable text is usually associated with beginning readers.

A process of working out a meaning of words in a text. In decoding, readers draw on contextual, vocabulary, grammatical and phonic knowledge. Readers who decode effectively combine these forms of knowledge fluently and automatically, and self-correct using meaning to recognise when they make an error.

A way that particular elements are selected and used in a process of text construction for particular purposes. These elements might be linguistic (words), visual (images), audio (sounds), gestural (body language), spatial (arrangement on the page, screen or 3D), and multimodal (a combination of more than one).

A form of a language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation particular to a region or social group.

An audio, visual or multimodal text produced through digital or electronic technology, which may be interactive and include animations and/or hyperlinks. Examples of digital texts include DVDs, websites, e-literature.

Two letters that represent a single sound:

  • vowel digraphs have two vowels (for example, ‘oo’, ‘ea’)
  • consonant digraphs have two consonants (for example, ‘sh’, ‘th’)
  • vowel/consonant digraphs have one vowel and one consonant (for example, ‘er’, ‘ow’).