### Rationale

Mathematics is the study of order, relation and pattern. From its origins in counting and measuring it has evolved in highly sophisticated and elegant ways to become the language now used to describe many aspects of the world in the twenty-first century.### Links to Foundation to Year 10

The General Mathematics subject provides students with a breadth of mathematical and statistical experience that encompasses and builds on all three strands of the F-10 curriculum.### Representation of General capabilities

The seven general capabilities of Literacy, Numeracy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding, and Intercultural understanding are identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning.### Structure of General Mathematics

General Mathematics is organised into four units. The topics in each unit broaden students’ mathematical experience and provide different scenarios for incorporating mathematical arguments and problem solving. The units provide a blending of algebraic, geometric and statistical thinking.### Glossary

### Achievement standards

## Unit 2

### Unit 2 Description

This unit has three topics: ‘Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’, ‘Linear equations and their graphs’; and ‘Applications of trigonometry’.

‘ Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process’ develops students’ ability to organise and summarise univariate data in the context of conducting a statistical investigation.

‘Linear equations and their graphs’ uses linear equations and straight-line graphs, as well as linear-piecewise and step graphs, to model and analyse practical situations.

‘Applications of trigonometry’ extends students’ knowledge of trigonometry to solve practical problems involving non-right-angled triangles in both two and three dimensions, including problems involving the use of angles of elevation and depression and bearings in navigation.

Classroom access to the technology necessary to support the graphical, computational and statistical aspects of this unit is assumed.

### Unit 2 Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

- understand the concepts and techniques in univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process, linear equations and their graphs, and applications of trigonometry
- apply reasoning skills and solve practical problems in univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process, linear equations and their graphs, and the applications of trigonometry
- implement the statistical investigation process in contexts requiring the analysis of univariate data
- communicate their arguments and strategies, when solving mathematical and statistical problems, using appropriate mathematical or statistical language
- interpret mathematical and statistical information, and ascertain the reasonableness of their solutions to problems and their answers to statistical questions
- choose and use technology appropriately and efficiently.

### Unit 2 Content Descriptions

#### Topic 1: Univariate data analysis and the statistical investigation process

#### The statistical investigation process:

review the statistical investigation process; for example, identifying a problem and posing a statistical question, collecting or obtaining data, analysing the data, interpreting and communicating the results. (ACMGM026)

#### Making sense of data relating to a single statistical variable:

classify a categorical variable as ordinal, such as income level (high, medium, low), or nominal, such as place of birth (Australia, overseas), and use tables and bar charts to organise and display the data (ACMGM027)

classify a numerical variable as discrete, such as the number of rooms in a house, or continuous, such as the temperature in degrees Celsius (ACMGM028)

with the aid of an appropriate graphical display (chosen from dot plot, stem plot, bar chart or histogram), describe the distribution of a numerical dataset in terms of modality (uni or multimodal), shape (symmetric versus positively or negatively skewed), location and spread and outliers, and interpret this information in the context of the data (ACMGM029)

determine the mean and standard deviation of a dataset and use these statistics as measures of location and spread of a data distribution, being aware of their limitations. (ACMGM030)

#### Comparing data for a numerical variable across two or more groups:

construct and use parallel box plots (including the use of the ‘Q1 – 1.5 x IQR’ and ‘Q3 + 1.5 x IQR’ criteria for identifying possible outliers) to compare groups in terms of location (median), spread (IQR and range) and outliers and to interpret and communicate the differences observed in the context of the data (ACMGM031)

compare groups on a single numerical variable using medians, means, IQRs, ranges or standard deviations, as appropriate; interpret the differences observed in the context of the data; and report the findings in a systematic and concise manner (ACMGM032)

implement the statistical investigation process to answer questions that involve comparing the data for a numerical variable across two or more groups; for example, are Year 11 students the fittest in the school? (ACMGM033)

#### Topic 2: Applications of trigonometry

#### Applications of trigonometry:

review the use of the trigonometric ratios to find the length of an unknown side or the size of an unknown angle in a right-angled triangle (ACMGM034)

determine the area of a triangle given two sides and an included angle by using the rule \(Area=\frac12ab\sin C\), or given three sides by using Heron’s rule, and solve related practical problems (ACMGM035)

solve problems involving non-right-angled triangles using the sine rule (ambiguous case excluded) and the cosine rule (ACMGM036)

solve practical problems involving the trigonometry of right-angled and non-right-angled triangles, including problems involving angles of elevation and depression and the use of bearings in navigation. (ACMGM037)

#### Topic 3: Linear equations and their graphs

#### Straight-line graphs and their applications:

construct straight-line graphs both with and without the aid of technology (ACMGM040)

determine the slope and intercepts of a straight-line graph from both its equation and its plot (ACMGM041)

interpret, in context, the slope and intercept of a straight-line graph used to model and analyse a practical situation (ACMGM042)

construct and analyse a straight-line graph to model a given linear relationship; for example, modelling the cost of filling a fuel tank of a car against the number of litres of petrol required. (ACMGM043)

#### Simultaneous linear equations and their applications:

solve a pair of simultaneous linear equations, using technology when appropriate (ACMGM044)

solve practical problems that involve finding the point of intersection of two straight-line graphs; for example, determining the break-even point where cost and revenue are represented by linear equations. (ACMGM045)

#### Piece-wise linear graphs and step graphs:

sketch piece-wise linear graphs and step graphs, using technology when appropriate (ACMGM046)

interpret piece-wise linear and step graphs used to model practical situations; for example, the tax paid as income increases, the change in the level of water in a tank over time when water is drawn off at different intervals and for different periods of time, the charging scheme for sending parcels of different weights through the post. (ACMGM047)