Geography

Rationale/Aims

The study of Geography draws on students’ curiosity about the diversity of the world’s places and their peoples, cultures and environments. It enables students to appreciate the complexity of our world and the diversity of its environments, economies and cultures.

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Structure of Geography

In Senior Secondary Geography, students develop their understanding about themes of immediate relevance to them and which have scope for application at a variety of scales, from the local to the global.

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Links to Foundation to Year 10

The senior secondary Geography curriculum builds on the knowledge, conceptual understandings and inquiry skills developed in the Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum: Geography.

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Representation of General capabilities

The general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that, together with the Geography curriculum content and the cross-curriculum priorities, will help students to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century.

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Representation of Cross-curriculum priorities

While the significance of the cross-curriculum priorities for Geography varies, there are opportunities for teachers to select contexts that incorporate the key concepts from each priority.

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Achievement standards

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Unit 4: Global transformations

Unit 4: Global transformations Description

This unit focuses on the process of international integration (globalisation) as a conceptual ‘lens’ through which to investigate issues in human geography. In doing so, it integrates the sub disciplines of economic and cultural geography, and political geography. Economic geography involves study of the changing location, distribution and spatial organisation of economic activities across the world, while cultural geography focuses on the patterns and interactions of human culture, both material and non-material. Both sub disciplines make an important contribution to our understanding of the human organisation of space. Political geography examines the spatial consequences of power at all scales from the personal to global.

The topic provides students with an understanding of the economic and cultural transformations taking place in the world today, the spatial outcomes of these processes, and their political and social consequences. It will better enable them to make sense of the dynamic world in which they will live and work. It will also allow them to be active participants in the public discourses and debate related to such matters.

The unit is based on the reality that we live in an increasingly interconnected world. This is a world in which advances in transport and telecommunications technologies have not only transformed global patterns of production and consumption but also facilitated the diffusion of ideas and cultures. Of particular interest is the ways in which people adapt and respond to these changes.

Students have the opportunity to explore the ideas developed in the unit through an investigation of the changes taking place in the spatial distribution of the production and consumption of a selected commodity, good or service or the study of an example of cultural diffusion, adoption and adaptation. They also investigate the ways people either embrace, adapt to, or resist the forces of international integration.

This unit includes an overview of international integration (globalisation) and a choice of depth studies: one focusing on economic integration, and one focusing on international cultural integration.

While the scale of study in this unit begins with the global, locally based examples can be used to enhance students’ conceptual understanding. The scale of study for the selected depth study, unless specified, can range from local to global, as appropriate.

In undertaking these studies, students develop an understanding about using and applying geographical inquiry, tools such as spatial technologies, and skills to investigate the transformations taking place throughout the world.


Unit 4: Global transformations Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students will:

  • understand the nature and causes of international integration and its spatial, economic, political and social consequences
  • understand the ways people adapt to and resist the forces of international integration
  • understand and apply key geographical concepts – including place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale and change – as part of a geographical inquiry
  • think geographically, based on an understanding of the complexities of an increasingly interdependent world
  • apply geographical inquiry and a range of skills, including spatial technologies and fieldwork, to investigate the complexity of the integrated world
  • evaluate alternative futures drawing on an understanding of an integrated global society.

Unit 4: Global transformations Content Descriptions

Geographical Inquiry and Skills

Observing, questioning and planning

formulates geographical inquiry questions (ACHGE088)

plans a geographical inquiry with clearly defined aims and appropriate methodology (ACHGE089)

Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing

collects geographical information incorporating ethical protocols from a range of primary and secondary sources (ACHGE090)

records observations in a range of graphic representations using spatial technologies and information and communication technologies (ACHGE091)

evaluates the reliability, validity and usefulness of geographical sources and information (ACHGE092)

Interpreting, analysing and concluding

analyses geographical information and data from a range of primary and secondary sources and a variety of perspectives to draw reasoned conclusions and make generalisations (ACHGE093)

identifies and analyses trends and patterns, infers relationships, and makes predictions and inferences (ACHGE094)

Communicating

communicates geographical information, ideas, issues and arguments using appropriate written and/or oral, cartographic and graphic forms (ACHGE095)

uses geographical language in appropriate contexts to demonstrate geographical knowledge and understanding (ACHGE096)

Reflecting and responding

applies generalisations to evaluate alternative responses to geographical issues at a variety of scales (ACHGE097)

proposes individual and collective action, taking into account environmental, social and economic factors; and predicts the outcomes of the proposed action (ACHGE098)

Geographical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview of international integration

The process of international integration, especially as it relates to the transformations taking place in the spatial distribution of production and consumption of commodities and services, and the diffusion and adaptation of ideas, meanings and values that continuously transform and renew cultures. (ACHGE099)

Advances in transport and telecommunications technologies as a facilitator of international integration including their role in the expansion of world trade, the emergence of global financial markets and the dissemination of ideas and culture through corporate, retail outlets, and the hubs of international literature, music, film and media. (ACHGE100)

The economic and cultural importance of world cities in the integrated global economy and their emergence as centres of cultural innovation, transmission and integration of new ideas about the plurality of life throughout the world. (ACHGE101)

The re-emergence of China and India as global economic powers and the relative economic decline but sustained cultural influence of the United States of America and Europe. (ACHGE102)

Students complete ONE of the depth studies which is to be taught with the requisite geographical inquiry and skills described as part of this unit:

A. International economic integration

A depth study, using fieldwork and/or secondary sources, to investigate the changing spatial distribution of production and consumption (and, where appropriate, re-use) of a selected commodity, good or service.

Students should make reference to ONE of the following:

  • a mineral ore or fossil-based energy resource
  • a food or fibre-based commodity
  • a complex manufactured commodity
  • a commodity typical of the ‘weightless’ or service-based economy.

For the selected commodity, good or service, investigate:

the changes occurring in the spatial distribution of its production and consumption, and the geographical factors responsible for these changes (ACHGE103)

the role played by technological advances in transport and/or telecommunications in facilitating these changes (ACHGE104)

the role played by the reduction or elimination of the barriers to its movement between countries (ACHGE105)

the role played by enterprises in the internationalisation of its production and consumption (ACHGE106)

implications of these changes for people, places and the biophysical environment at a variety of scales including the local (ACHGE107)

likely future changes in the nature and spatial distribution of its production and consumption (ACHGE108)

the ways people and places embrace, adapt to, or resist the forces of international economic integration (ACHGE109)

the spatial, economic, social and geopolitical consequences of these responses. (ACHGE110)

B. International cultural integration

A depth study, using fieldwork and/or secondary sources, to investigate an example of cultural diffusion, adoption and adaptation, and its consequences for the cultural geography of places.

Reference should be made to ONE element of culture such as fashion, a sport or leisure activity, music, religion, language, architecture, or political ideas.

For the selected element of culture investigate the following as applicable:

the process of diffusion and its spatial outcomes (ACHGE111)

the role played by technological advances in transport and/or telecommunications in its diffusion (ACHGE112)

the role played by transnational institutions and/or corporations in its dispersion (ACHGE113)

the role played by media and emerging technologies in its generation and dispersion (ACHGE114)

implications of these changes for peoples and places at a range of scales including the local (ACHGE115)

likely future changes in its nature and spatial distribution (ACHGE116)

the ways people embrace, adapt to, or resist international cultural integration (ACHGE117)

the spatial, economic, social and geopolitical consequences of these responses. (ACHGE118)