Ancient History

Rationale/Aims

The Ancient History curriculum enables students to study life in early civilisations based on the analysis and interpretation of physical and written remains. The ancient period, as defined in this curriculum, extends from the development of early human communities to the end of late antiquity AD 650, with a particular focus on the ancient societies of Europe, the Near East and Asia.

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Structure of Ancient History

In Ancient History, students study the key institutions, structures and features of ancient societies and develop a broader and deeper comprehension of the origins, impact and legacy of ideas, beliefs and values of the ancient world.

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Links to Foundation to Year 10

The Ancient History curriculum continues to develop student learning in history through the same strands used in the Foundation to Year 10 history curriculum, although the historical knowledge and understanding strand includes a wider range of concepts and contexts for historical study.

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Representation of General capabilities

The seven general capabilities of Literacy, Numeracy, Information and Communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding, and Intercultural understanding are identified where they offer opportunities to add depth and richness to student learning.

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Representation of Cross-curriculum priorities

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures is addressed in this subject through the investigation of sites of significance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and the preservation and conservation of those sites.

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Achievement standards

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Unit 4: Reconstructing the Ancient World

Unit 4: Reconstructing the Ancient World Description

This unit involves an investigation of a significant historical period through an analysis of relevant archaeological and written sources. Students will examine how these sources have been used to construct an understanding of the relevant social, political, religious and economic institutions and practices, and key events and individuals of the historical period.

This unit allows for greater study of historiography and the challenges associated with the interpretation and evaluation of the evidence. Students will analyse the reliability and usefulness of a wide range of sources and the contribution of new research and scholarship to the reconstruction of the historical period. The unit enables students to develop their understanding of changing interpretations over time and appreciate the contestable nature of history and the value of the ancient past.

The key conceptual understandings of this unit include: usefulness and reliability of sources, perspectives, interpretations, contestability, reconstruction and conservation.


Unit 4: Reconstructing the Ancient World Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

  • understand the nature, purpose and significance of the sources and the extent to which they contribute to an understanding of the key features and developments of the historical period
  • understand issues relevant to the interpretation of sources and the reconstruction of the historical period, including the fragmentary nature of the evidence, reliability, excavation, and conservation
  • apply key concepts as part of a historical inquiry, including evidence, significance, perspectives, interpretations and contestability
  • use historical skills to investigate the historical period, and evaluate the usefulness and reliability of the sources, evaluate interpretations, and communicate historical arguments.

Unit 4: Reconstructing the Ancient World Content Descriptions

Historical Skills

All the following skills will be studied during this unit.

Chronology, terms and concepts

Identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, change and continuity over time  (ACHAH254)

Use historical terms and concepts in appropriate contexts to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding (ACHAH255)

Historical questions and research

Formulate, test and modify propositions to investigate historical issues (ACHAH256)

Frame questions to guide inquiry and develop a coherent research plan for inquiry (ACHAH257)

Identify, locate and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources (ACHAH258)

Identify and practise ethical scholarship when conducting research  (ACHAH259)

Analysis and use of sources

Identify the origin, purpose and context of historical sources  (ACHAH260)

Analyse, interpret and synthesise evidence from different types of sources to develop and sustain a historical argument  (ACHAH261)

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness and contestability of sources to develop informed judgements that support a historical argument (ACHAH262)

Perspectives and interpretations

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past (ACHAH263)

Critically evaluate different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are shaped by the historian’s perspective (ACHAH264)

Evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions (ACHAH265)

Explanation and communication

Develop texts that integrate appropriate evidence from a range of sources to explain the past and to support and refute arguments (ACHAH266)

Communicate historical understanding by selecting and using text forms appropriate to the purpose and audience (ACHAH267)

Apply appropriate referencing techniques accurately and consistently (ACHAH268)

Historical knowledge and understanding

Students will study at least ONE of the following periods:

  1. Thebes – East and West, 18th Dynasty Egypt
  2. New Kingdom imperialism, diplomacy and governance, 18 – 20th Dynasty Egypt
  3. The Athenian Agora and Acropolis, 514 – 399 BC
  4. Athens, Sparta and the Peloponnesian War, 435 – 404 BC
  5. The Julio-Claudians and ‘Imperial’ Rome, AD 14 – 68
  6. Pompeii and Herculaneum, 80 BC – AD 79

Students study at least ONE of the following, which is to be taught with the requisite historical skills described at the start of this unit:

Thebes – East and West, 18th Dynasty Egypt

Students study Thebes – east and west in the period of the 18th dynasty, with particular reference to the remains at these sites, and other relevant sources.

The geographic and historical context

The location, main features and layout of Thebes, including its origins, the significance of the Nile, and the division between the East and West Bank (ACHAH269)

The nature and extent of the Egyptian ‘empire’ in Nubia and Syria-Palestine in the period (ACHAH270)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The discoveries and influence of early adventurers and explorers, including Napoleon and his expedition, and Belzoni’s removal of artefacts (ACHAH271)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example temples, statues, tombs, reliefs, papyri, inscriptions and ostraka (ACHAH272)

The nature of the Theban excavations and the use of scientific methods, and the contributions of significant archaeologists and institutions, for example Flinders Petrie, the French-Egyptian Centre for the Study of the Temples of Karnak, the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Polish Mission of Deir el-Bahri, and the German Archaeological Institute (ACHAH273)

The effectiveness of the protection and conservation of the Theban sites, for example the contribution of the Epigraphic Survey of the Oriental Institute of Chicago (East Bank), the Theban Mapping Project (West Bank), and the Macquarie Theban Tombs Project (ACHAH274)

The historical period

The development of the East Bank of Thebes, including the temples of Karnak and Luxor, shrines, statues, stelae, papyri, inscriptions, paintings and other artefacts (ACHAH275)

The political and religious significance and purpose of the temples and palaces, including the state cult of Amun and the ideology of kingship (ACHAH276)

The development of the West Bank: the Valleys of the Kings and Queens, tombs of the nobles, tomb paintings and reliefs, mortuary temples and the palace of Malkata  (ACHAH277)

The nature and significance of afterlife beliefs and practices of royalty and non-royalty (ACHAH278)

The importance of the pharaonic building program at Thebes in the economic life of New Kingdom Egypt (ACHAH279)

The significance of the evidence at the Theban sites for Egyptian imperialism, including booty and tribute from military campaigns and the presence and role of foreigners within Egyptian society  (ACHAH280)

The significant cultural beliefs and practices of Egyptian society as revealed through Theban sources  (ACHAH281)

The evidence provided by human remains and other sources about royal lineage and the health of New Kingdom Egyptians in this period (ACHAH282)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

The usefulness and reliability of the portrayal of the pharoah and royal family in reliefs and inscriptions (ACHAH283)

Difficulties of interpretation of evidence owing to additions and re-use by successive 18th dynasty pharaohs, including damage to or removal of reliefs and inscriptions caused by environmental factors or human agency (ACHAH284)

The significance of writing and literature as sources of evidence for the period (ACHAH285)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

Research and recording work, including the Epigraphic Survey of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, the Theban Mapping Project, the further excavations of KV5 (Kent Weeks), and the discovery of KV63 (Otto Schaden) (ACHAH286)

The contribution of Italian fresco conservateurs to the conservation and restoration of the Theban tomb paintings, for example those in the tomb of Queen Nefertari  (ACHAH287)

The contribution of new scientific methodologies, including DNA analysis, radio-carbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence, proton magnetometer, and x-rays (ACHAH288)

The contribution of scholars and contemporary Egyptian and international historians, for example Champollion’s decipherment of hieroglyphs, and the work of Lepsius, Thomas Young, Gardiner, Cerny and Wilkinson (ACHAH289)

New Kingdom imperialism, diplomacy and governance, 18 - 20th Dynasty Egypt

Students study Egyptian imperialism, diplomacy and governance in the 18th – 20th dynasty period, with particular reference to diplomatic correspondence, legal documents and other relevant sources.

The geographic and historical context

The key features of civil administration and the nature of governance in New Kingdom Egypt (ACHAH290)

The nature and extent of the Egyptian ‘empire’ in Nubia and Syria-Palestine in the period, including Egyptian foreign policy at the start of the Amarna Period (warfare and diplomacy) (ACHAH291)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example temples, statues, tombs, reliefs, official correspondence and inscriptions (ACHAH292)

The incomplete and fragmentary nature of the evidence for the period, including the Amarna Letters (ACHAH293)

The difficulties in the dating and interpretation of the Amarna letters, including the identity of the writers and their possible motivations, the identification of the cities that they ruled, and the location of cities which are unknown or disputed (ACHAH294)

The evidence for the obliteration of Akhenaten’s reign from the historical records by later pharaohs (ACHAH295)

The historical period

The evidence provided by the Amarna Letters and other sources for Amenhotep III’s foreign policy, including relations with vassals and other kingdoms; the role of diplomacy, including royal correspondence; and diplomatic marriage as an instrument of Egyptian foreign policy (ACHAH296)

The evidence for the relationship between Akhenaten and his vassals in Syria- Palestine, for example Ribadda (Byblos), Abdi-Asirta and Aziru (Amurru) as well as royal correspondence with the Mitannian and Hittite rulers (ACHAH297)

The nature of governance in post Amarna Egypt as indicated by Tutankhamun’s Restoration Stele and the Decrees of Horemheb (ACHAH298)

The evidence for post Amarna foreign policy provided by Egyptian and other sources, including correspondence between Queen Ankhesenamun and the Hittite King, Suppiluliumas I, the Peace treaty between Hattusilis III and Ramesses II (Hittite and Egyptian versions) and correspondence between the Hittite and Egyptian queens (ACHAH299)

The warrior pharaoh image and foreign policies of Seti I and Ramesses II, and Merenptah and Ramesses III, including warfare and diplomacy (ACHAH300)

The nature of governance, dynastic change and economic decline in the later New Kingdom, including the workers strike at Deir el-Medina, the Harem Conspiracy (Ramesses III), tomb robberies and the Report of Wenamun (ACHAH301)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

The usefulness and reliability of the Amarna Letters as evidence for the nature and extent of the Egyptian ‘empire’, and the foreign policies of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten; issues of context, perspective, purpose, gaps in the evidence (ACHAH302)

The fragmentary nature of the workers’ documents found at the site of their village, Deir el-Medina (ACHAH303)

The usefulness of papyri and other Ramesside evidence for example ostraca and other evidencefrom Deir el-Medina (ACHAH304)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

Changing interpretations of the diplomatic letters, legal and other documents and what they reveal about imperialism, diplomacy and governance in this period, for example the interpretations of historians (Gardiner, Aldred and Redford) (ACHAH305)

The evidence from the discovery of KV5 for the role of the royal family and governance in this period (ACHAH306)

Interpretations about the reasons for the decline of the New Kingdom, including corruption, dynastic problems and the invasion of the Sea Peoples (ACHAH307)

The Athenian Agora and Acropolis, 514 – 399 BC

Students study the Agora and the Acropolis in the period of the 514-399 BC, with particular reference to the remains at these sites, and other relevant sources

The geographic and historical context

The location, main features and layout of the city Athens, including the Agora, Acropolis and the topography of Attica (ACHAH308)

An overview of the history of the Agora (since the 6th century BC) and the Acropolis (since Neolithic times) (ACHAH309)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The key excavations that have taken place at these sites,the changing methods used and the arguments for and against carrying out further excavation at these sites (ACHAH310)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example temples, theatres, sculpture, reliefs, the kleroterion, inscriptions, and the writings of Herodotus, Euripides, Sophocles, Aristophanes, and Xenophon (ACHAH311)

The difficulties in conserving the Agora and Acropolis, including previous damage from conflicts, vegetation, tourism, acid rain, water damage and the economic cost of restoration, including Greek and international efforts (ACHAH312)

Ethical issues, including the Parthenon Sculptures controversy and the arguments for and against their return; debates about the extent of reconstruction, for example the work on the Stoa of Attalos, and the restoration work on the Acropolis; and access to antiquities (ACHAH313)

The historical period

An overview of significant events in the early history of Athens in this period, including the assassination of Hipparchus in the Agora in 514 BC and the Spartan siege of the Acropolis (508 – 507 BC)  (ACHAH314)

The role of the Agora and the Acropolis in Athenian political life: the workings of Athenian democracy, including the rights and obligations of Athenian citizens, what Athenians thought about their democracy, the citizen assembly, the jury system and law courts; Pericles’ building program (ACHAH315)

The importance of the Agora in Athenian economic life (ACHAH316)

The Athenian class system, including relations between different groups in Athenian society (knights, women, slaves and relations between, men and women, young and old, wealthy and poor) (ACHAH317)

The development of religious and cultural life of Athens, for example the Parthenon and theatre of Dionysus (ACHAH318)

The significance of key events in the period, including the Persian sack of Athens (480 – 479 BC) and the plague at Athens during the Peloponnesian War (431 – 404 BC) (ACHAH319)

The aims and influence of Socrates, the trial and his death in 399 BC and what it reveals about the Athenian political scene at the time (ACHAH320)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

The incomplete nature of the evidence, for example the practice of Athenian democracy (ACHAH321)

The contribution of sculpture, pottery, inscriptions and other literary sources to an understanding of life in Athens, for example Aristophanes’ plays The Wasps, The Frogs and The Acharnians (ACHAH322)

Difficulties of interpretation of evidence as a result of damage to, or removal of, artefacts (ACHAH323)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

The contribution of the American School in Athens to the study of the Agora and of the Greeks and international archaeologists to the excavation and study of the Acropolis (ACHAH324)

Interpretations of the identifications (for example of the Stoa Poikile in the Agora), uses and dating of buildings over time (ACHAH325)

The interpretations and meaning of sculpted friezes and scenes on black and red figured pottery (ACHAH326)

The interpretations of the trial and death of Socrates (ACHAH327)

Athens, Sparta and the Peloponnesian War 435 – 404 BC

Students study the Peloponnesian War in the period 435 – 404 BC, with particular reference to Thucydides’ The Peloponnesian War, Books I-VII, and other relevant sources.

The geographic and historical context

The location and topography of Laconia (Sparta) and Attica (Athens) (ACHAH328)

An overview of the origins and characteristics of the city-states of Athens and Sparta and their alliances (ACHAH329)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example the writings of Thucydides, The Old Oligarch, Xenophon, Athenian tribute lists, inscriptions, Aristophanes’ plays, Plutarch’s Lives, the remains of fortifications and graves  (ACHAH330)

The nature of Thucydides’ text and techniques, including his research methods, his use of speeches, and the extent to which he can be regarded as a ‘scientific historian’  (ACHAH331)

Issues arising from Thucydides’ editing and possible revisions of Book II and V, and the incomplete nature of the work (ACHAH332)

The historical period

The causes of the Peloponnesian War, including the Megarian decree, the Potidean revolt and Thucydides’ theory of aitiai and prophasis (ACHAH333)

The significance of the Archidamian War, including key events for example the Plague, the Mytilenean revolt, Pylos and Sphacteria, Amphipolis; and key individuals for example Pericles, Cleon and Nicias (ACHAH334)

The effectiveness of the Peace of Nicias, including the terms, shifting alliances and key individuals for example Nicias, Alcibiades and Hyberbolus (ACHAH335)

The significance of the Sicilian Expedition as a turning point in the war, including key events for example the Mutilation of the Hermae, battles between the Athenians and the Syracusans; and key individuals for example Nicias, Alcibiades and Gylippus (ACHAH336)

The failure of the Oligarchic Coup, including the role of the Samian fleet and of individuals for example Alcibiades, Pisander, Thrasybulus, Theramenes and Tissaphernes (ACHAH337)

The difficulties of the Decelean/Ionian War for Athens, including the occupation of Decelea, the revolt of Ionian allies, alliances between Sparta and Persia, and key individuals for example Alcibiades, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus  (ACHAH338)

The contribution of the sources to an understanding of the motivation of key individuals for example Pericles, Cleon, Brasidas, Nicias and Alcibiades (ACHAH339)

The significance of the sources for understanding the nature of Athenian democracy and Athenian imperialism; the nature of Athens’ relations with her allies, and attitudes towards the Athenian Empire (ACHAH340)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

Thucydides’ background/exile and how it influenced his writing of The Peloponnesian War, and the influence of the tragic tradition on his writing (ACHAH341)

Thucydides’ motivations for writing The Peloponnesian War, including his revision of the contemporary view that Pericles was responsible for the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, as well as the reasons for Athens’ failures (ACHAH342)

Thucydides’ views about the Athenian Empire and radical democracy, including his views on demagogues and demos; the evidence of his bias towards or against key individuals for example Pericles, Cleon, Nicias and Alcibiades (ACHAH343)

The nature and contribution of other sources, to an understanding of Thucydides’ work and the Peloponnesian War (ACHAH344)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

Changing interpretations over time of key events in The Peloponnesian War, for example Cornford’s and de Ste. Croix’s consideration of economic factors as a cause of the Peloponnesian War  (ACHAH345)

Revised dating of decrees (for example Coinage and Thoudippus), and the implications for interpreting Thucydides’ work  (ACHAH346)

Different interpretations of the methods and motives of Thucydides, for example Kagan’s interpretation of Thucydides’ work as the first revisionist history (ACHAH347)

The Julio-Claudians and ‘Imperial’ Rome, AD 14 – 68

Students study Imperial Rome under the Julio-Claudians in the period AD 14 − 68, with particular reference to Tacitus’ The Annals, Books I-XVI, and other relevant sources.

The geographic and historical context

The location of Rome and the main features and layout of the city in the Julio-Claudian period (ACHAH348)

An overview of the nature of Roman governance and imperial administration at the start of the period, including the Princeps, the Senate, the Assembly, the imperial family, the praetorian guard, and provincial governors  (ACHAH349)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The extent of archaeological excavation in Rome and the difficulties in uncovering new evidence (ACHAH350)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example statues, coinage, buildings and the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio (ACHAH351)

The key ancient writers of the period and the difficulties posed by their perspective and selection of evidence  (ACHAH352)

The historical period

The reign of Tiberius and the role of key events, including the mutiny of the legions in Germany, internal conspiracies, the issue of succession, and the role of key individuals, for example Tiberius, Germanicus, Sejanus and Agrippina the Elder (ACHAH353)

The significance of the reign of Caligula, including the circumstances of his accession, the nature of his reign, and his assassination  (ACHAH354)

The reign of Claudius, including the role of the Praetorian Guard in his accession, the expansion of the Empire to Britain, his key reforms and the role of influential individuals, including Agrippina the Younger, Silanus and Messalina (ACHAH355)

The reign of Nero and the role of key events, including Rome’s relationship with Parthia, the Great Fire, the Pisonian Conspiracy, the rebellion of Vindex and Galba, Nero’s Golden House, and the role of influential individuals, for example Agrippina the Younger and Seneca (ACHAH356)

The significance of key events of the reign of Tiberius, including campaigns and the expansion of the Roman Empire (ACHAH357)

The role and motivations of key individuals in the period, for example Tiberius, Sejanius, Agrippina the Elder, Caligula, Claudius and Nero (ACHAH358)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

The personal background and life of Tacitus, including the Roman Empire under the Flavian Dynasty (Domitian’s ‘reign of terror’, the reign of Trajan, and the role of the Praetorian Guard); and its influence on his writing of The Annals (ACHAH359)

The nature and purpose of Tacitus’ writing of The Annals, including his use of contemporary sources (the minutes of the Senate, decrees, speeches of Tiberius) and the limitations of Tacitus’ work related to the missing and incomplete nature of Books V, XI and XVI  (ACHAH360)

The reliability of Tacitus’ The Annals and other sources for an understanding of the nature of Roman politics, the balance of power between Emperor and Senate, the motivations of individuals, and the importance of the military, and the corruption of governing classes (ACHAH361)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

Historians’ changing interpretations of The Annals I-XVI and key events from the reign of the Julio-Claudians, and the methods and motives of ancient writers of the period  (ACHAH362)

Interpretations of the role and influence of women and imperial freedmen in the Julio-Claudian period (ACHAH363)

Historian’s changing interpretations over time of Nero (ACHAH364)

Pompeii and Herculaneum, 80 BC – AD 79

Students study Pompeii and Herculaneum in the period, 80 BC – AD 79, with particular reference to the remains at these sites, and other relevant sources.

The geographic and historical context

The location of Pompeii and Herculaneum in Campania, the volcanic plateau, its strategic location between north and south, and its proximity to the sea  (ACHAH365)

An overview of the history of Pompeii and Herculaneum since the 8th century BC up to the eruption of AD 79, including the establishment of Pompeii as a Roman colony in AD 80, earthquake activity, and the various stages of the eruption of Mt Vesuvius (ACHAH366)

The nature and range of sources for the period and identification of key issues related to the investigation of the sources (for example authentication, excavation, reconstruction and/or conservation)

The nature and effects of the volcanic activity and eruption of AD 79 on the evidence that has survived from Pompeii and Herculaneum (ACHAH367)

The key archaeological and written sources for the period, for example public and private buildings, mosaics, statues, villas, baths, shops, tombs, human and animal remains, official inscriptions and the writings of Pliny, Seneca and Martial (ACHAH368)

The major archaeological excavations that took place at each site during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, with a particular focus on the purposes of the archaeological excavations (for example treasure hunting and scientific investigation) and the methods of archaeologists (for example Weber, Fiorelli, Mau, Spinazzola, Maiuri and Guzzo) (ACHAH369)

The difficulties involved in the protection and management of Pompeii and Herculaneum, including exposure to the elements, impact of tourism, the arguments for and against carrying out further excavation at these sites, and the concern about the scientific study of human remains and display of body casts (ACHAH370)

The historical period

The plans, streets and roads of Pompeii and Herculaneum and what they reveal about town planning (ACHAH371)

The circumstances of the eruption of AD 79, including Pliny’s account of the eruption of Mt Vesuvius (ACHAH372)

The nature and development of political life in Pompeii and Herculaneum, including the significance of fora, temples, basilicas, theatres and graffiti as sources of evidence (ACHAH373)

The important features of the economy, including commerce, industries and occupations (ACHAH374)

The position and role of different groups in society, including the position and role of men, women, freedmen and slaves (ACHAH375)

The evidence at Pompeii and Herculaneum for religious beliefs and practices, for example wall paintings, mosaics, statues and inscriptions  (ACHAH376)

The key features of everyday life, for example leisure activities, food and dining, water supply, sanitation and health (ACHAH377)

The influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures on life in Pompeii and Herculaneum (ACHAH378)

How human and animal remains have contributed to a better understanding of the people who lived in these cities (ACHAH379)

The limitations, reliability and evaluation of the sources

The state of preservation of the papyrus scrolls from the Villa of the Papyri (ACHAH380)

Difficulties of interpretation of evidence as a result of damage to or removal of frescos and artefacts (ACHAH381)

How ancient writers and writing (for example Seneca, Strabo, Martial, and Pliny), inscriptions and graffiti contribute to our understanding of life in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum (ACHAH382)

Changing interpretations of the sources over time to an understanding of the period, including new discoveries, research and technologies

Changing interpretations of the uses of public and private spaces, and the meaning of frescoes (ACHAH383)

The importance of the work of Australians at the sites (for example Lazer, Mackenzie-Clark, Allison, Ellis, Jean-Paul Descoeudres and Frank Sear) in better understanding life in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum (ACHAH384)

The role of new technologies in the study of the sites, including computers, spectral and digital imaging, and laser scanning (ACHAH385)

The significance of ONE of the following: the Herculaneum Conservation Project, the Philodemus Project, the Anglo-American Project in Pompeii (Bradford University), in providing evidence about how people in Pompeii and Herculaneum lived (ACHAH386)