- pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation and pitch for emphasis
- phonemes and morphemes.
Non-verbal language features:
- using culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours.
- using punctuation as required
- spelling subject-specific vocabulary correctly
- using subject-specific abbreviations, signs and symbols
- understanding common logographic signs
- distinguishing and using print, cursive and diverse fonts.
- gradually increasing a word bank of vocabulary in SAE, for example subject-specific vocabulary
- understanding and using metalanguage correctly
- using discourse markers, for example, for showing cause and effect
- understanding and using collocations, idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms
- using synonyms and antonyms as required
- using lexical chains to achieve cohesion
- choosing vocabulary appropriate to purpose and audience
- using descriptive, rhetorical and persuasive language
- understanding and using formulaic and fixed expressions and collocations
- understanding proverbs
- understanding word order within clauses and sentences.
- clause and sentence structure
- questioning (including rhetorical questioning)
- types of verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, articles, prepositions and affixes
- verb structures and tenses
- voice (active, passive)
- clause type (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative)
- additive, comparative, temporal and consequential conjunctions
- use of correct noun-verb agreement
- negative questioning
- direct and indirect speech
- use of reference items to achieve cohesion.
- listening for specific content
- understanding and using words appropriate to the different semantic fields of SAE
- identifying shifts in meaning according to syntax
- identifying inferred meanings in texts
- identifying ambiguous or inappropriate communication
- using appraisal to express engagement, attitude and gradation
- distinguishing between fact and opinion
- understanding the SAE classification systems used in academic environments.
- questioning for clarification as needed
- negotiating meaning
- understanding how language is used to persuade
- experimenting with the register of texts (tone, language, audience)
- initiating, sustaining and ending conversations in casual and formal contexts
- identifying the organisation of thoughts and ideas within SAE texts (rhetorical patterns).
- identifying register variations between familiar, semi-formal and some formal contexts
- recognising some common cultural references
- recognising some irony and how humour is created
- using culturally accepted politeness conventions in listening, speaking and written protocols
- recognising cultural variations in acceptance of novice and expert knowledge
- understanding cultural differences in eye contact and personal space
- identifying cultural variations in symbolism, classification and gender behaviours.