English as an Additional Language or Dialect


English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) focuses on language learning and the explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of Standard Australian English (SAE).


Structure of English as an Additional Language or Dialect

Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features.



Teachers will use an array of material in class. Texts include literary texts, fiction and non-fiction, media texts, everyday texts, and workplace texts, from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language drawn from a range of contexts.


Language table

The key language skills described below provide a focus for language instruction in any unit at students’ point of need and should be taught in context and if relevant. Students should be given the opportunity to develop and demonstrate these skills in a variety of contexts.


Representation of General capabilities

General capabilities covered in EAL/D include: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.


Achievement standards


Unit 4

Unit 4 Description

Unit 4 focuses on analysing, evaluating and using language to represent and respond to issues, ideas and attitudes in a range of contexts. By extending and consolidating language and communication skills, critical use of SAE for a range of contexts, purposes and audiences is developed. Independent and collaborative investigation and analysis are used to explore how language and texts achieve specific purposes and effects. Extended oral, written and multimodal texts and presentations are created, adapted and refined for a variety of contexts, purposes and audiences. Effective research strategies and referencing protocols are used to present ideas, information, conclusions, arguments and recommendations.

Unit 4 Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

  • respond to issues and ideas using sustained, persuasive and effective communication
  • investigate the relationships between information, ideas, language and values in a range of texts
  • examine personal, social and cultural attitudes and perspectives in a range of texts drawn from different contexts
  • plan, create and refine extended oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate to a range of contexts, purposes and audiences.

Unit 4 Content Descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:

participating in and managing collaborative discussions and presentations in a range of contexts, for example debates and seminars (ACEEA082)

using pausing, stress, rhythm, pitch and intonation for particular effects (ACEEA083)

using a range of non-verbal cues to complement and enhance meaning (ACEEA084)

using devices such as understatement, exaggeration and stereotyping (ACEEA085)

modulating register and tone to achieve specific purposes and effects. (ACEEA086)

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

comparing and contrasting texts in different forms and mediums, their purposes and effects, and the values, attitudes and biases reflected in these texts (ACEEA087)

analysing connotations and figurative language, for example, metaphors, imagery and personification (ACEEA088)

evaluating how rhetorical devices are designed to influence and persuade (ACEEA089)

evaluating how audience response to ideas and issues is manipulated (ACEEA090)

integrating ideas and information from a range of literary and reference texts using direct and indirect quotation (ACEEA091)

reflecting on and evaluating personal interpretations and those of others. (ACEEA092)

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

analysing and explaining how changes in context create changes in meaning (ACEEA093)

analysing how audiences are positioned in texts and how texts present different perspectives on personal, social and historical issues (ACEEA094)

analysing how culturally based representations of concepts such as knowledge or authority are conveyed (ACEEA095)

evaluating the manipulation of text structures and language features for different purposes (ACEEA096)

analysing and using elements of appraisal in texts to convey attitudes and opinions and evaluate the effectiveness of texts. (ACEEA097)

Create a range of texts:

using a range of types of texts and digital, multimodal and print-based technologies (ACEEA098)

using language appropriate to the context, including imaginative, persuasive and rhetorical forms and features (ACEEA099)

using stylistic and grammatical choices for effect, including complex lexical elements, modality in the past conditional and subject-specific language forms and features (ACEEA100)

using culturally specific phrases, idioms, collocations and references (ACEEA101)

using a range of research sources and methods, for example, interviews, surveys or questionnaires (ACEEA102)

using accurate attribution of knowledge and appropriate referencing (ACEEA103)

using strategies for planning, rehearsing, editing and refining, including monitoring and correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation, and the use of dictionaries and thesauruses. (ACEEA104)