English as an Additional Language or Dialect (Version 8.4)


English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) focuses on language learning and the explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of Standard Australian English (SAE).


Structure of English as an Additional Language or Dialect

Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features.



Teachers will use an array of material in class. Texts include literary texts, fiction and non-fiction, media texts, everyday texts, and workplace texts, from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language drawn from a range of contexts.


Language table

The key language skills described below provide a focus for language instruction in any unit at students’ point of need and should be taught in context and if relevant. Students should be given the opportunity to develop and demonstrate these skills in a variety of contexts.


Representation of General capabilities

General capabilities covered in EAL/D include: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.


Achievement standards


Unit 3

Unit 3 Description

Unit 3 focuses on analysing how language choices are used to achieve different purposes and effects in a range of contexts. SAE language skills are developed so that they can be used to describe, inform, express a point of view and persuade for different purposes and audiences. The ways in which language choices shape meaning and influence audiences are explored through the study and creation of a range of oral, written and multimodal texts. The representation of ideas, attitudes and values and how these vary across cultures and within different contexts, particularly the Australian context, is analysed and evaluated. Effective and independent research skills are consolidated throughout the unit.

Unit 3 Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

  • use communication skills to evaluate how texts present ideas and opinions
  • understand the relationships between information, ideas, language and values in texts
  • investigate and compare personal, social and cultural attitudes and perspectives in a range of texts from different contexts
  • plan, create and refine extended oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate to different contexts, purposes and audiences.

Unit 3 Content Descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:

participating in a range of oral interactions such as rehearsed and impromptu classroom dialogues (for example, debates, discussions, role plays) (ACEEA056)

using pausing, stress, rhythm, pitch and intonation to emphasise meaning (ACEEA057)

using non-verbal cues to create rapport in a range of situations (ACEEA058)

using cultural references, idioms and colloquialisms (ACEEA059)

selecting and sustaining register and tone to suit different purposes, contexts and audiences. (ACEEA060)

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

comparing and contrasting texts from different cultures and times, and discussing their purposes and effects (ACEEA061)

distinguishing between and evaluating facts and opinions presented in texts (ACEEA062)

examining how narrative point(s) of view are used to convey ideas, attitudes and values in literary texts and how arguments are presented in non-fiction texts (ACEEA063)

explaining cultural beliefs and assumptions reflected in texts (ACEEA064)

framing research questions to direct inquiry and synthesising information from multiple sources, including literary and non-literary texts (ACEEA065)

reflecting on and analysing how language choices have influenced audience response. (ACEEA066)

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

analysing how texts are influenced by other texts and contexts (ACEEA067)

evaluating the effect of persuasive techniques, for example, rhetorical devices (ACEEA068)

explaining the effects of literary and humorous techniques; for example, figurative language, rhythm and rhyme, and dramatic irony (ACEEA069)

analysing the relationships between words, images and compositional aspects of texts that have visual elements (ACEEA070)

evaluating the validity and relevance of evidence and assumptions in texts (ACEEA071)

analysing how language forms and conventions used in different modes and mediums influence audiences (ACEEA072)

using language to express a personal evaluation of an object, a process or a performance (ACEEA073)

using metalanguage to review and evaluate texts. (ACEEA074)

Create a range of texts:

using a range of genres and digital, multimodal and print-based technologies (ACEEA075)

using language that influences the audience or that privileges certain ideas or perspectives over others (ACEEA076)

using different sentence structures and forms suited to purpose, audience and subject (ACEEA077)

using modality (including modality in a hypothetical past), nominalised language and discourse markers (ACEEA078)

using sources such as reference texts, graphs, data and environmental texts to present a sustained and logical argument, and using appropriate paraphrasing, quotation, in-text citation and end-of-text referencing (ACEEA079)

using strategies for assessing the relevance, reliability and validity of sources (ACEEA080)

using strategies for planning, synthesising, rehearsing, editing and refining, including monitoring and correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation, and the use of dictionaries and thesauruses. (ACEEA081)