English as an Additional Language or Dialect


English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) focuses on language learning and the explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of Standard Australian English (SAE).


Structure of English as an Additional Language or Dialect

Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features.



Teachers will use an array of material in class. Texts include literary texts, fiction and non-fiction, media texts, everyday texts, and workplace texts, from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language drawn from a range of contexts.


Language table

The key language skills described below provide a focus for language instruction in any unit at students’ point of need and should be taught in context and if relevant. Students should be given the opportunity to develop and demonstrate these skills in a variety of contexts.


Representation of General capabilities

General capabilities covered in EAL/D include: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.


Achievement standards


Unit 2

Unit 2 Description

Unit 2 focuses on analysing and evaluating perspectives and attitudes presented in texts and creating extended texts for a range of contexts. SAE language skills for effective communication in an expanding range of contexts are consolidated. The use of cohesive text structures and language features is developed. The unit focuses on developing planning and editing skills to create extended oral, written and multimodal texts. Attitudes, values and culturally based assumptions within texts are identified, analysed and compared. Strategies for collecting, analysing, organising and presenting ideas and information are refined.

Unit 2 Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

  • use communication skills to analyse and compare attitudes and values in texts
  • demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension of information, ideas and language used in texts
  • understand personal, social and cultural attitudes and perspectives in a range of texts from different contexts
  • plan, create and refine oral, written and multimodal texts appropriate to context, purposes and audiences.

Unit 2 Content Descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:

initiating, sustaining and concluding interactions in a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts (ACEEA028)

using intelligible pronunciation, stress, rhythm and intonation at word, phrase and sentence level (ACEEA029)

understanding and using non-verbal cues in a range of formal and informal contexts (ACEEA030)

understanding common cultural references, conceptual metaphors and connotations (ACEEA031)

experimenting with register and tone to create rapport (ACEEA032)

organising and presenting spoken information appropriate to audience and purpose (ACEEA033)

listening, reading and viewing for specific purposes and content. (ACEEA034)

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

describing and classifying the form, medium and subject matter of texts (ACEEA035)

describing and explaining characters, settings, plots and sub-plots, themes and narrative point(s) of view in literary texts (ACEEA036)

explaining ideas, issues and arguments presented in non-fiction texts (ACEEA037)

interpreting cultural references and implied meanings in texts (ACEEA038)

locating, selecting and evaluating information sources and synthesising information from these sources (ACEEA039)

using a range of reference texts (including bilingual dictionaries) to assist interpretation and explanation of ideas. (ACEEA040)

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

describing how the selection of text structures and language features can influence an audience (ACEEA041)

explaining overt and implicit assumptions made in texts, for example, as seen in editorial opinions and stereotypes in advertising (ACEEA042)

explaining the effects of shifts in register, style and tone (ACEEA043)

analysing how point of view shapes audience response (ACEEA044)

analysing connections between texts (ACEEA045)

explaining the visual features of texts and interpreting graphic representations of data (ACEEA046)

using language to express judgement of an object, a process, or a performance (ACEEA047)

using metalanguage to express personal and critical responses to texts. (ACEEA048)

Create a range of texts:

using different types of texts to present ideas and opinions for different purposes and audiences in a range of digital, multimodal and print-based technologies (ACEEA049)

using subject-specific vocabulary, nominalisation, and nouns and verbs used to create modality, collocations, idioms and figurative language (ACEEA050)

using a range of cohesive and structural devices (ACEEA051)

using persuasive, descriptive and emotive language as appropriate (ACEEA052)

using experimentation with different registers and tones (ACEEA053)

using research skills and strategies, for example, notes, summaries and graphic organisers to collect, collate and evaluate information, appropriate paraphrasing, quotation, in-text citation and end-of-text referencing (ACEEA054)

using strategies for planning, rehearsing, editing and refining, including monitoring and correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation, and the use of dictionaries. (ACEEA055)