English as an Additional Language or Dialect


English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) focuses on language learning and the explicit teaching of the structure, linguistic features and sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of Standard Australian English (SAE).


Structure of English as an Additional Language or Dialect

Unit 1 focuses on investigating how language and culture are interrelated and expressed in a range of contexts. A variety of oral, written and multimodal texts are used to develop understanding of text structures and language features.



Teachers will use an array of material in class. Texts include literary texts, fiction and non-fiction, media texts, everyday texts, and workplace texts, from increasingly complex and unfamiliar settings, ranging from the everyday language of personal experience to more abstract, specialised and technical language drawn from a range of contexts.


Language table

The key language skills described below provide a focus for language instruction in any unit at students’ point of need and should be taught in context and if relevant. Students should be given the opportunity to develop and demonstrate these skills in a variety of contexts.


Representation of General capabilities

General capabilities covered in EAL/D include: Literacy, Numeracy, Information and communication technology (ICT) capability, Critical and creative thinking, Personal and social capability, Ethical understanding and Intercultural understanding.


Achievement standards


Bridging Unit 2

Bridging Unit 2 Description

Bridging Unit 2 is aimed at students in the late Emerging phase of the EAL/D Foundation to Year 10 learning progression. It focuses on consolidating communication skills in a range of contexts across the language modes of SAE. Through explicit teaching, the unit focuses on the consolidation of everyday vocabulary and the creation of connected oral, written and multimodal texts. Age-appropriate texts are used as a guide to respond to or reproduce simple texts in informal and rehearsed formal contexts. This unit will enable students to develop strategies for collecting, organising and presenting ideas and information.

Bridging Unit 2 Learning Outcomes

By the end of this unit, students:

  • present rehearsed texts on familiar topics with some reliance on visual aids, modelled texts and/or teacher support
  • comprehend literal information in a range of short, familiar texts
  • respond to familiar texts and begin to support ideas by identifying some common language features
  • create short, simply structured oral, written and multimodal texts with growing accuracy.

Bridging Unit 2 Content Descriptions

Communication skills and strategies including:

communicating ideas orally, digitally and in writing; rewording for understanding and asking for clarification or repetition; using home language or dialect (ACEEA126)

independently approximating the pronunciation, intonation and stress of words and phrases (ACEEA127)

collaborating to produce short texts that present facts, a point of view or opinion (ACEEA128)

using rules of politeness in SAE for everyday situations, for example, through acknowledging the speaker when being spoken to, interacting with a range of participants, entering and exiting conversations, making email contact or using protocols in social situations such as visiting or dining. (ACEEA129)

Comprehension skills and strategies including:

interpreting non-verbal cues and intonation to guess the meaning in unfamiliar situations (ACEEA130)

identifying and describing characters, settings and events presented in stories (ACEEA131)

using simple graphic organisers (ACEEA132)

identifying essential information from a range of familiar texts (ACEEA133)

retelling and responding to familiar texts (ACEEA134)

using known vocabulary and familiar text structures to find information (ACEEA135)

using modelled research skills and strategies to find information. (ACEEA136)

Language and text analysis skills and strategies including:

identifying the way information in texts has been ordered and structured (ACEEA137)

identifying and explaining text structures and language features used in literary texts (ACEEA138)

explaining the purposes of common text types (ACEEA139)

understanding and explaining how information may be included in or excluded from texts to achieve a purpose (ACEEA140)

identifying the persuasive nature of simple text types (ACEEA141)

understanding how there can be nuances in familiar, commonly used words. (ACEEA142)

Create a range of texts:

using simple written and oral text forms, punctuation and grammatical structures including graphic representations of information (ACEEA143)

using descriptions of people, places and events (ACEEA144)

using a growing range of technologies and mediums (ACEEA145)

using simple comparative language, and reference items such as referential and demonstrative pronouns (ACEEA146)

using modal adjectives and adverbs, for example, always, never, sometimes, often (ACEEA147)

using familiar vocabulary including countable and uncountable nouns (ACEEA148)

using growing accuracy with spelling (ACEEA149)

using a growing range of conjunctions (ACEEA150)

using simple strategies for planning and editing. (ACEEA151)