Understand how the Literacy Progression works

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Grammar description

This sub-element describes how a student becomes increasingly proficient at creating written texts with higher levels of grammatical accuracy. Students display an increasing ability to compose coherent and cohesive texts across all areas of the curriculum for a wide range of purposes, making sophisticated choices at the level of the whole text, the sentence and the word group level.

Not all students will use handwriting to create texts; some will express themselves using augmentative and alternative communication strategies. This may include digital technologies, braille, real objects, photographs and pictographs.

Each sub-element level has been identified by upper-case initials and in some cases lower-case letters of the sub-element name followed by ascending numbers. The abbreviation for this sub-element is GrA. The listing of indicators within each level is non-hierarchical. Subheadings have been included to group related indicators. Where appropriate, examples have been provided in brackets following an indicator.

GrA1

Group and word level

  • represents people, animals, places and things using words or phrases such as nouns or basic noun groups as labels (my house)

Grammatical accuracy

  • uses frequently encountered expressions (my dog, my house)

GrA2

Group and word level

  • uses regular plural nouns correctly (dog, dogs)
  • represents processes using a small range of verbs (relating verbs – is, are; action verbs – ran)
  • writes common prepositional phrases to indicate time and place (in the morning, to the shops)

Grammatical accuracy

  • writes sentence fragments (me and my dog)

 

GrA3

Whole text level

  • sequences sentences to reflect a logical flow of ideas
  • uses common cohesive devices such as simple pronoun reference when the referent is close to the pronoun (I have a bird. It can talk.)
  • uses basic text connectives repetitively (and, then)

Sentence level

  • writes coherent simple sentences to express an idea or event

Group and word level

  • uses pronouns to represent participants (she, we, them)
  • uses a small range of adjectives to build description in basic noun groups (the little dog)
  • uses common and proper nouns
  • uses single verbs or simple verb groups (they are playing)
  • uses predominantly simple present, continuous and past tense to represent processes
    (I play, I am playing, I played)

Grammatical accuracy

  • uses articles a, an and the with varying accuracy (a dog, a apple)
  • writes comprehensible sentences that contain some misuse of prepositions (mine is different than/then yours), pronouns (me and him went swimming) and adverbs (we walked quick)

GrA4

Whole text level

  • uses time connectives to sequence ideas and events (first, then, next, after)
  • groups related ideas into paragraphs

Sentence level

  • writes simple sentences correctly
  • writes compound sentences to make connections between ideas using coordinating conjunctions (and, but, so)

Group and word level

  • uses simple adverbials to give details such as time, place and manner (in the afternoon, nearby, quickly)
  • uses simple present, past and future tenses accurately to represent processes
  • uses adjectives in noun groups to build more accurate descriptions of participants (the spotted dog)

Grammatical accuracy

  • writes comprehensible sentences that may contain inaccuracies such as misuse of prepositions (they should of waited, mine is different than/then yours) and past tense irregular verbs (he goed to the shop)

GrA5

Whole text level

  • uses cohesive devices (word groups – repetition, synonyms and antonyms; signposting devices – headings and subheadings; text connectives – however, on the other hand, therefore)
  • uses well-structured paragraphs with topic sentences

Sentence level

  • writes simple and compound sentences correctly
  • writes complex sentences using conjunctions (when, because)

Group and word level

  • uses a wide range of verbs and verb groups (uses thinking, feeling and perceiving verbs to represent inner processes; uses saying verbs to represent interaction)
  • employs a range of tenses to represent processes
  • uses adjectives in noun groups to include details of participants (‘that crazy, little cattle dog’)
  • uses articles accurately (a, an, the)
  • uses adverbials to present more surrounding details for time, place, manner and reason

Grammatical accuracy

  • writes generally accurate simple, compound and complex sentences with few run-on sentences and dangling clauses (Because he was afraid.)

 

GrA6

Whole text level

  • uses cohesive devices to alert the reader about how the text is unfolding (foreshadowing the key points at the beginning, reinforcing the key points with topic sentences, and linking back to key points in the conclusion)

Sentence level

  • selects simple, compound and complex sentences to express and connect ideas, occasionally manipulating the structure for emphasis, clarity or effect
  • uses subordinating conjunctions ('even though' in 'Even though a storm was predicted, the search and rescue mission still went ahead).

Group and word level

  • uses an extended range of verbs and verb groups for a particular effect (characterisation - howls, was trembling; and expressing causality – results in)
  • adjusts tense in a text if required (uses simple present tense to represent ‘timeless’ happenings (bears hibernate in winter) and uses continuous present tense when referring to an ongoing event (bears are becoming extinct))
  • creates elaborated noun groups to build richer description by extending the noun group (that crazy, little cattle dog with the crooked tail that ran away last week)
  • uses adverbials to represent a greater range of circumstances (time – subsequently; place – in their environment; manner – excitedly; reason – due to several factors)

Grammatical accuracy

  • makes few grammatical errors, such as inappropriate tense selections or lack of agreement between subject and verb

GrA7

Whole text level

  • uses a wide range of cohesive devices such as text connectives that link sentences and paragraphs, and patterns of meaning (part–whole, class–subclass, compare–contrast, cause and effect)

Sentence level

  • crafts both compact and lengthy sentences with challenging structures, such as embedded/relative clauses, non-finite clauses, interrupting clauses, nominalisations, passive voice
  • makes more sophisticated connections between ideas by creating complex sentences expressing relationships of cause, reason, concession

Group and word level

  • presents elaborated verb groups that capture nuances and complex expressions of time and probability (he was thought to have been arriving late; the errors could be attributed to faulty equipment)
  • selects from succinct noun groups through to highly elaborated noun groups for effect, clarity or complexity of description
  • uses nominalisations to create concise noun groups
  • intentionally uses a wide array of adverbials to represent a greater variety of circumstances (with whom? to what extent? how much? in what role? by what means? in what manner? compared to what?)

Grammatical accuracy

  • writes well-structured sentences, rarely making grammatical errors