Understand how the Literacy Progression works

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Creating texts description

The Creating texts sub-element describes how students become increasingly proficient at creating texts for an increasing range of purposes.  Students’ writing moves from representing basic concepts and simple ideas to conveying abstract concepts and complex ideas, in line with the demands of the learning areas.

At the early levels, students experiment with the use of letters and words to convey meaning. The focus moves to control of the basic conventions of writing, as students begin to explore the features of texts for a limited range of purposes. At the higher levels, writing becomes a key tool for learning and develops for a broader range of purposes in the context of the different Australian Curriculum learning areas.

The structure of the Creating texts sub-element changes at level CrT8. From that level, indicators are grouped into three broad text purposes (informative, persuasive and imaginative) to show how language changes for these different purposes. This aligns with the Australian Curriculum: English, which identifies the same three broad purposes for writing. Informative texts include explanations, information reports, procedures and investigation reports. Persuasive texts include responses, arguments and discussions. Imaginative texts use literary language to entertain and to teach and affirm cultural values. An effective writer makes language choices appropriate to the purpose of writing. Throughout the progression, students will create hybrid texts by combining features from across the three broad purposes. Students’ texts may include components of print, image, sound, animations and symbolic representations.

The sub-elements (Spelling, Punctuation, Grammar and Handwriting and keyboarding) provide detail to support teachers to focus on specific aspects of writing.

Not all students will use handwriting to create texts; some will express themselves using augmentative and alternative communication strategies. This may include real objects, photographs, pictographs, braille and digital technologies.

The framework used for the Creating texts sub-element was informed by the Writing to Learn Progressions developed by Dr Peter Knapp for his forthcoming book for UNSW Press – Genre and Grammar: Assessing Student Writing.

Each sub-element level has been identified by upper-case initials and in some cases lower-case letters of the sub-element name followed by ascending numbers. The abbreviation for this sub-element is CrT. The listing of indicators within each level is non-hierarchical. Subheadings have been included to group related indicators. Where appropriate, examples have been provided in brackets following an indicator.

CrT1

Crafting ideas

  • conveys messages through actions or talk (see Speaking)
  • shares information in different ways (uses illustrations, icons and images; innovates on familiar texts through play)
  • observes others writing with interest and attention (asks what the writing is for and what it says) (see Speaking)

Text forms and features

  • intentionally creates letter-like shapes or strings, experimenting with forms and shapes (horizontal and vertical lines, and/or circular shapes)
  • draws pictures and shapes

CrT2

Crafting ideas

  • articulates or draws ideas for writing (see Speaking)
  • uses speech to dictate a written text
  • differentiates between drawing and writing
  • talks about why people write
  • assigns messages to own texts (‘reads’ back own play writing, but with varying meanings)
  • composes emergent texts for specific purposes (greetings on a birthday card, labels)

Text forms and features

Vocabulary

  • asks about words used in the environment (signs, labels, titles, captions)
  • searches for and sometimes copies words of personal significance found in written texts

CrT3

Crafting ideas

  • expresses an idea drawing on familiar experiences and topics using attempted words and pictures
  • experiments with familiar texts to achieve intentional purposes (birthday card or list)

Text forms and features

Vocabulary

  • writes own name and other personally significant words (family names, dog, house)

CrT4

Crafting ideas

  • talks about the purpose and audience of familiar imaginative and informative texts
  • writes one or more ideas which are not necessarily related, using sentence fragments (labels a drawing)
  • writes texts in different forms (lists, story)
  • combines visuals with written text where appropriate
  • reads back own writing
  • talks about own text and describes details

Text forms and features

Vocabulary

  • writes a small range of familiar common words
  • writes two- and three-letter high-frequency words
  • includes learnt vocabulary in own texts
  • asks for help with less familiar words

CrT5

Crafting ideas

  • writes text for a familiar purpose (to recount a personal experience, to tell a story, to express thoughts and feelings, to give an opinion)
  • writes two or three related ideas which may include other unrelated ideas
  • uses ideas from informative and imaginative texts read or viewed for own writing

Text forms and features

  • structures ideas into simple sentences made up of basic verb groups, noun groups and phrases (see Grammar)
  • uses adjectives to add meaning by describing qualities or features (red, small, long) (see Grammar)
  • expresses feelings and opinions about people and things (nice)
  • writes identifiable clauses often linked using ‘and’ (see Grammar)
  • uses logical word order in sentences (see Grammar)
  • makes plausible attempts to write unfamiliar words phonetically (enjn for engine) (see Spelling)
  • uses upper-case letters correctly to indicate proper nouns (see Punctuation)
  • uses capital letters and full stops correctly at the start and end of sentences (see Punctuation)

Vocabulary

  • uses appropriate key words to represent an idea (aunty, sister, cousin in a text about family)
  • borrows words from other writers
  • uses common and proper nouns particular to students’ contextual knowledge
  • uses high-frequency words
  • uses modifying words (very)

CrT6

Crafting ideas

  • writes for a range of purposes (to recount a personal experience, to observe and describe, to provide a reason why, to express thoughts and feelings about a topic)
  • writes four or more sequenced and clearly connected ideas
  • includes a simple orientation for the reader (At school we are learning about …)
  • expresses ideas appropriate to a task or topic in connected, clearly sequenced sentences (reports or describes an event or experience including at least one key detail; innovates on familiar texts)
  • selects and discards ideas to make texts suitable for familiar audiences and purposes
  • organises text logically (ideas in time sequence)
  • uses key words from informative texts read or viewed in own writing

Text forms and features

  • writes simple and compound sentences related to a topic using conjunctions (and, but, so, because, when) (see Grammar)
  • maintains tense within a sentence (see Grammar)
  • selects images to complement writing
  • spells simple and many high-frequency words correctly (see Spelling)
  • intentionally uses simple punctuation (!, ?) (see Punctuation)
  • uses noun groups to develop ideas (new baby chicken) (see Grammar)
  • uses simple cohesive language (then, after, and)
  • uses adverbs to give precise meaning to verbs (talking loudly) (see Grammar)

Vocabulary

  • uses words to indicate quantity (every, some, a few)
  • uses specific learning area topic vocabulary
  • uses common homophones correctly (two, to)

CrT7

Crafting ideas

  • writes informative, imaginative and persuasive texts using evidence of structure (to recount a personal experience or a sequence of events; to describe a person, thing or process; to provide a reason why; to provide an opinion backed up with a reason; to express thoughts and feelings)
  • writes using learnt ideas on a range of topics from learning areas
  • supports ideas with some detail and elaboration
  • uses sources to refine ideas (ideas introduced from a shared text to add detail and engage the reader)

Text forms and features

  • expands ideas through intentional use of simple and compound and occasional complex sentences (see Grammar)
  • uses pronouns correctly to link to an object or person across the text (see Grammar)
  • uses images to reinforce ideas in written text
  • maintains consistent tense within and between sentences (see Grammar)
  • organises ideas coherently (rudimentary paragraphing structure)
  • uses cohesive vocabulary to indicate order, cause and effect (next, since)
  • uses some irregular spelling patterns (cough) (see Spelling)
  • applies learnt spelling generalisations
  • accurately spells most high-frequency words (see Spelling)
  • consistently uses correct simple punctuation (separates two adjectives before a noun with a comma – old, broken bike) (see Punctuation)

Vocabulary

  • uses expressive words to describe action and affect the reader (tiptoed, instead of walked)
  • uses creative wordplay to affect the reader (repetitive patterns)
  • intentionally substitutes common or generic words with synonyms (excited for happy)
  • uses words with multiple meanings correctly, according to context (right, bark)

CrT8

Informative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes for a range of learning area purposes (explains a life cycle of a butterfly, recounts a process, describes an artwork)
  • includes structural features appropriate to the type of text and task
  • writes ideas which are relevant to the purpose of the text
  • organises ideas to support the reader (groups ideas under headings)

Text forms and features

  • uses cohesive devices to signpost sections of text to support the reader (word families: bear, cub, polar bear)
  • uses present or timeless present tense consistently throughout text (bears hibernate in winter) (see Grammar)
  • selects multimodal features to expand ideas in written texts (diagrams, tables, images)
  • uses adjectives in noun groups to create more accurate description (its long, sticky tongue ) (see Grammar)

Vocabulary

  • uses a range of learnt topic words to add credibility to information (hibernate instead of sleep)

Persuasive text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes for a range of learning area purposes (designs a healthy food campaign)
  • includes structural features appropriate to the type of text
  • presents a position and supports it with one or two simply stated arguments
  • writes ideas which are relevant to the purpose of the text
  • organises persuasive ideas to support the reader (through the use of an introduction)

Text forms and features

  • uses cohesive devices to link points in an argument (however, on the other hand)
  • uses exaggeration as a persuasive device
  • uses adjectives to persuade (dangerous)
  • uses simple modal verbs and adverbs (should, will, quickly)
  • selects multimodal features to expand arguments in written texts (images, music)

Vocabulary

  • uses a range of learnt topic words to add credibility to arguments

Imaginative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes for a range of learning area purposes (narrates a historical event)
  • includes structural features appropriate to the type of text
  • adapts a familiar text for a new audience
  • writes ideas which are relevant to the purpose of the text
  • organises ideas to support the reader (uses chronological sequencing)

Text forms and features

  • uses cohesive devices such as repetition, synonyms and antonyms to link ideas
  • uses pronouns to track multiple characters (Peter and Leanne … he … they … she … them)
  • writes predominantly in first person
  • uses adjectives in noun groups to create more accurate description (that crazy little cattle dog)
  • selects action verbs (jumped) and saying verbs (screamed) to affect the reader (see Grammar)
  • selects multimodal features to expand ideas in written texts (matches images to points in a text)
  • uses time connectives to show the passage of time (see Grammar)
  • uses figurative language (simile)

Vocabulary

  • uses a range of learnt topic words and words from other authors
  • chooses alternative words to add variety (replied for said)

Generic indicators

  • tense mostly correct throughout text (see Grammar)
  • consistently writes compound sentences correctly and uses a greater range of complex sentences (see Grammar)
  • uses a variety of sentence structures and sentence beginnings
  • spells some complex words correctly (correctly adds prefixes and suffixes to base words) (see Spelling)
  • uses all simple and some complex punctuation correctly (see Punctuation)
  • uses articles accurately (a, an, the) (see Grammar)
  • uses adverbial phrases to support the staging of the text (before lunch, after midnight)

 

CrT9

Informative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes informative texts for a broad range of learning area purposes that describe, explain and document (describe an art work, document the materials and explain why it was created)
  • selects structural elements to suit the purpose (a fact sheet includes an opening statement, labelled diagrams and text boxes)
  • develops ideas with details and examples
  • uses ideas derived from research
  • uses written and visual supporting evidence
  • uses a topic sentence and supporting evidence or examples in a paragraph

Text forms and features

  • includes salient multimodal features to expand on written information (creates graphs and other technical diagrams from authentic data)

Vocabulary

  • uses a range of learnt, technical and discipline-specific terms (adapt, survive)
  • uses words to express cause and effect (therefore)

Persuasive text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes a persuasive text that takes a position and supports it with arguments (examines the benefits of physical activity to health and wellbeing)
  • selects structural elements to suit the purpose (introduces an argument with a clearly articulated statement of position)
  • writes two or more elaborated arguments
  • develops a clear persuasive line/ perspective about a topic or premise
  • concludes by restating

Text forms and features

  • includes salient multimodal features to complement written ideas
  • uses vocabulary to position the reader (precise nouns and adjectives)
  • uses a broader range of modal verbs and adverbs (definitely)

Vocabulary

  • uses words to express cause and effect (consequently, thus)
  • uses words to introduce an argument (obviously)

Imaginative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes imaginative texts that experiment with textual features (reinterprets or creates alternative versions of songs or stories)
  • narrates with connected characters and events
  • uses ideas that support an underpinning theme or concept (survival or friendship)
  • selects structural elements to suit the purpose (a narrative may include an orientation, evidence of complication)

Text forms and features

  • includes salient multimodal features integrated with written ideas
  • uses expressive verbs and less common emotive adjectives
  • intentionally tightens a text by leaving out words that can be readily inferred from the context (Kokou must be hungry. But he was not [hungry])
  • writes in third person

Vocabulary

  • uses vivid and less predictable vocabulary to affect the reader (stroll, prowl for walk)
  • accurately uses vocabulary that has different meanings in different contexts
  • uses vocabulary to evoke humour (pun)

Generic indicators

  • maintains appropriate tense throughout the text (see Grammar)
  • uses a range of sentences including correctly structured complex sentences (see Grammar)
  • spells simple, most complex and some challenging words correctly (see Spelling)
  • uses complex punctuation correctly (apostrophes of possession) (see Punctuation)

CrT10

Informative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes to explain and analyse (analyses how artists use visual conventions in artworks)
  • writes to compare and contrast phenomena (identify the differences between elements)
  • orients the reader to the topic or concept (using a definition or classification in the opening paragraph)
  • intentionally selects structural elements for effect (includes an appropriate conclusion that summarises, restates or synthesises)
  • uses evidence and research including multimodal resources to expand upon information and concepts and add authority

Text forms and features

  • varies sentence structure for effect (see Grammar)
  • uses more elaborate noun groups that include classifying adjectives and specific nouns (mineral component of sedimentary rocks)
  • creates cohesive flow by condensing previous information into a summarising noun (In history, A sequence of events which together..)
  • uses passive voice and nominalisation strategically (the results were analysed) (see Grammar)

Vocabulary

  • uses discipline-specific terminology to provide accurate and explicit information (discipline metalanguage)
  • uses a range of synonyms for frequently occurring words, in a longer text (repair, fix, remedy)
  • uses vocabulary to indicate and describe relationships (additionally, similarly)

Persuasive text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes to discuss, evaluate and review (evaluates and reviews design ideas)
  • orients the reader to the persuasive premise of the text
  • includes persuasive points with effective elaborations and supporting evidence
  • uses multimodal resources to add impact to written text
  • intentionally selects structural elements for effect (includes an appropriate conclusion that sums up, recommends or reiterates)
  • includes counterargument or refutation if appropriate

Text forms and features

  • uses rhetorical devices such as rhetorical questions or repetition
  • uses research including multimodal resources to add authority
  • varies sentence structure for effect (see Grammar)
  • skilfully uses a range of cohesive devices to make connections between arguments (foreshadows key points in introduction and reinforces key points in topic sentences)
  • judiciously selects evidence and language to strengthen arguments
  • uses modal language to illustrate shades of meaning
  • uses passive voice and nominalisation strategically (an expectation of failure became common)

Vocabulary

  • uses a range of synonyms for frequently occurring words, in a longer text (impact, consequence, result)
  • uses topic-specific vocabulary to add credibility and weight to arguments (cadence, interplanetary, silt)
  • uses language that evokes an emotional response (the netballers triumphed)

Imaginative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes imaginative texts with less predictable features to emotionally and intellectually engage the reader (writes to convey character perspective)
  • includes relevant rich, evocative description
  • orients the reader to the imaginative premise of the text
  • uses literary techniques such as dialogue and vivid description, to carry the plot
  • generates, selects and crafts ideas to support a recognisable theme
  • selects text form or type to effectively support ideas (adventure story, short video which provides a fictional perspective on a real event)
  • includes multimodal resources to support the development of ideas throughout the text (uses audio to complement mood of text)
  • intentionally selects structural elements to organise and stage the text (stanzas, scenes)

Text forms and features

  • uses language features to engage reader (uses sensory description to build atmosphere)
  • uses imagery and figurative devices appropriately (metaphor)
  • varies sentence structure for effect (see Grammar)

Vocabulary

  • uses words that invite connotations (startled, dismayed)
  • substitutes precise vocabulary for common or everyday words (stinging, icy for cold)
  • uses language that evokes an emotional response (a piercing scream echoed through the valley)

Generic indicators

  • organises related information and ideas into paragraphs/sections
  • uses a range of complex punctuation flexibly and correctly (see Punctuation)
  • spells complex and most challenging words correctly (see Spelling)
  • uses a range of sentence types for effect
  • writes paragraphs which develop one main idea

CrT11

Informative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes sustained, informative texts that precisely explain, analyse and evaluate concepts or abstract entities
  • uses structural features flexibly to organise ideas strategically (includes a defined, cogent conclusion /summation)
  • uses classification to organise ideas and information (types of landscapes, Australian state government)
  • writes texts with forms and features combined strategically for purpose (describes a historical event from the perspective of a secondary source)
  • uses evidence and references
  • writes succinct short-answer explanatory texts as well as complex, multi-staged extended texts

Text forms and features

  • maintains tone appropriate to the audience
  • uses extended noun groups including adjectival phrases (a sturdy construction with modern design features) (see Grammar)
  • judiciously uses language and multimodal resources to emotionally or intellectually affect audience

Vocabulary

  • uses complex abstractions (economic, sociocultural)

Persuasive text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes sustained, robust arguments on complex learning area topics (should bushrangers be afforded hero status?)
  • anticipates reader knowledge and possible bias and accommodates these in development of arguments (you may have thought that …)
  • uses structural features flexibly to organise ideas strategically (uses citation and referencing from authoritative source)
  • positions the reader effectively by previewing the arguments
  • develops a cohesive argument with an effective conclusion
  • strategically selects multimodal resources to position the reader/viewer (a video clip of an authoritative source)

Text forms and features

  • uses evaluative language devices such as allusion, evocative vocabulary and metaphor
  • uses language devices for persuasive effect
  • uses sophisticated evaluative language (the damaging report, conclusive research)
  • judiciously uses language and multimodal resources to emotionally or intellectually affect audience

Vocabulary

  • uses vocabulary for precision (the underwhelming performance of the opening batsmen)

Imaginative text indicators

Crafting ideas

  • writes sustained texts that develop more abstract themes or concepts in imaginative ways
  • uses structural features flexibly to organise ideas strategically (deliberate repetition to reinforce a point or create a rhythmic flow)
  • develops an imaginative text around a theme or social issue

 Text forms and features

  • uses stylistic features for effect (narrates from an omniscient point of view)
  • uses recurring imagery for cohesion
  • uses a range of literary techniques such as personification
  • uses language to create humour (irony, satire)
  • uses complementary noun and verb groups (through narrowed eyes she scrutinised the haggard face) (see Grammar)

Vocabulary

  • uses vocabulary for precision (shrouded for covered)
  • uses figurative language to create subtle and complex meaning (offering a silent prayer to the deaf sky)

Generic indicators

  • spells a range of challenging words correctly (see Spelling)