Understand how the Literacy Progression works

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Understanding texts description

Understanding texts describes how a student becomes increasingly proficient in decoding, using, interacting with, analysing and evaluating texts to build meaning. Texts include components of print, image, sound, animated movements and symbolic representations. This sub-element is organised into three subheadings: comprehension, processes and vocabulary.

The sub-elements Phonological awareness, Phonic knowledge and word recognition and Fluency provide detail for this sub-element and allow teachers to focus on specific aspects of reading where required. The sub-elements that support Understanding texts are bracketed at the end of relevant indicators.

This sub-element references Text complexity at Appendix 6. The text complexity advice includes four levels: simple, predictable, moderately complex and sophisticated, and describes the scope of texts students need to be able to work with to be successful in the Foundation to Year 10 Australian Curriculum learning areas.

Some students will communicate using augmentative and alternative communication strategies to demonstrate their literacy skills. This may include digital technologies, sign language, braille, real objects, photographs and pictographs.

Each sub-element level has been identified by upper-case initials and in some cases lower-case letters of the sub-element name followed by ascending numbers. The abbreviation for this sub-element is UnT. The listing of indicators within each level is non-hierarchical. Subheadings have been included to group related indicators. Where appropriate, examples have been provided in brackets following an indicator.

UnT1

Comprehension

  • demonstrates interest in texts
  • recognises illustrations in texts
  • recognises some icons or symbols from the environment (familiar logos)

Vocabulary

  • names familiar objects in texts (apple, table, boy)
  • names some familiar icons or symbols in the environment (school crossing sign)

UnT2

Comprehension

  • listens to texts read by an adult
  • repeats fragments of text
  • invents a spoken text based on images

Processes

  • recognises symbols and words in texts (recognises own name)
  • shows awareness of correct orientation of text (the book is the right way up)
  • imitates reading behaviour, beginning at the front and finishing at the back of the book

Vocabulary

  • names familiar objects in texts and adds some detail (the apple is red)

UnT3

Comprehension

  • listens actively to a range of texts read by others
  • engages in group discussion about a text
  • talks about images and/or some printed words in a text
  • answers and poses mainly literal questions about the text

Processes

  • distinguishes features of the text (images, words, numbers)
  • locates the front and back of a book and turns pages correctly
  • locates the starting point for reading on a page or screen
  • uses touch or click features to navigate a text (clicks arrows to move text along, uses pause/play button to start/stop text, clicks icons to view specific aspects of screen-based texts)

Vocabulary

  • asks questions to find out meaning of unfamiliar words
  • knows and can use words in discussions that have been encountered in simple texts

UnT4

Comprehension

  • reads and views simple texts with adult support (see Text complexity)
  • demonstrates understanding of a range of texts read by adults
  • makes relevant comments or asks relevant questions to demonstrate understanding of the text
  • makes connections between texts and personal experiences
  • retells a familiar story

Processes

Vocabulary

UnT5

Comprehension

  • reads and views simple texts independently (see Text complexity)
  • listens to texts to engage with learning area content (a text about family histories)
  • views and discusses the content and features of texts with predictable structures (identifies new or learnt information after reading)
  • expresses an opinion or preference for a topic or text
  • infers meaning by integrating print, visual and audio aspects of simple texts
  • identifies some differences between imaginative and informative texts (different styles of images in a fairy tale and instructions for a game)
  • recounts or describes sequenced ideas or information from simple texts with print and visual elements

Processes

  • uses phonic knowledge, word recognition, sentence structure, punctuation and contextual knowledge to read simple texts (see Phonic knowledge and word recognition) (see Text complexity)
  • pauses when meaning breaks down and attempts to self-correct
  • uses visual and auditory cues to build meaning in multimodal texts (colour, shape and size of images, sound effects)
  • selects appropriate reading paths when reading simple texts and navigates simple screen-based texts for specific purposes

Vocabulary

  • identifies key words and the meaning they carry (nouns, verbs)
  • shows awareness that homonyms have different meanings in different contexts (right, mean, bat)
  • shows awareness of words that sound the same but are spelt differently (their, there, know, no)

UnT6

Comprehension

  • reads and views simple texts and some predictable texts (see Text complexity)
  • locates specific information in a predictable print text or a given set of digital sources
  • describes the purpose of informative, imaginative and persuasive texts
  • draws inferences and explains using background knowledge or text features (infers character’s feelings from actions)
  • makes connections within and between texts (between spoken and written texts that present similar information)
  • discusses how new information builds on current knowledge (I know that insects have wings but I didn’t know all insects have six legs)
  • recounts or describes the most relevant details from a text

Processes

  • recognises when meaning breaks down, pauses and uses phonic knowledge, contextual knowledge, and strategies such as repeating words, re-reading and reading on to self-correct (see Phonic knowledge and word recognition)
  • identifies parts of text used to answer literal and inferential questions
  • identifies connectives that develop coherence between ideas or events (tracks pronoun referencing) (see Grammar)
  • identifies phrases that provide ‘chunks of meaning’ within a sentence (noun, verb and adjectival groups) (see Fluency and Grammar)
  • recognises the effect of punctuation on meaning
  • identifies common features in similar texts (photographs in informative texts)

Vocabulary

  • uses morphological knowledge to explain words (help (base) + less (suffix) = helpless)
  • discusses the vocabulary and visual features of texts
  • identifies creative use of language (a very tall character is called ‘Tiny’)
  • uses context and grammar knowledge to understand unfamiliar words (the word vast in the phrase vast desert)

UnT7

Comprehension

  • reads and views predictable texts and some moderately complex texts (see Text complexity)
  • identifies the main idea in a predictable text
  • identifies the purpose of predictable texts and moderately complex texts
  • monitors the development of ideas using language and visual features (topic sentences, key verbs, graphs)
  • recognises that texts can present different points of view
  • distinguishes between fact and opinion in texts
  • interprets visual elements in multimodal texts (salience, framing, colour palette)
  • compares and contrasts texts on the same topic to identify how authors represent the same ideas differently
  • answers inferential questions

Processes

  • monitors reading for meaning using phonic knowledge and contextual knowledge and selecting strategies such as re-reading and reading on) (see Phonic knowledge and word recognition and Fluency)
  • identifies simple language and text features that signal purpose (diagrams, dialogue)
  • cites text evidence to support inferences
  • uses common signposting devices such as headings, subheadings, paragraphs, navigation bars and links to navigate texts

Vocabulary

  • interprets creative use of language (figurative language, metaphor, simile, onomatopoeia)
  • explains how unfamiliar words can be understood using grammatical knowledge, morphological knowledge and etymological knowledge
  • describes the language and visual features of texts using metalanguage (grammatical terms such as cohesion, tense, noun groups)
  • recognises how synonyms are used to enhance a text (transport, carry, transfer)
  • draws on knowledge of word origin to work out meaning of discipline-specific terms (universe)

UnT8

Comprehension

  • reads and views some moderately complex texts (see Text complexity)
  • identifies author’s perspective
  • accurately retells a text including most relevant details
  • evaluates the accuracy of texts on the same topic or texts that present differing points of view or information
  • explains how authors use evidence and supporting detail in texts
  • poses and answers inferential questions

Processes

  • uses prior knowledge and context to read unknown words (uses morphemic knowledge of ‘explosion’ to decode ‘explosive’ and uses context and knowledge of metaphorical use of language to understand ‘explosive outburst’.)
  • uses knowledge of cohesive devices to track meaning throughout a text (connectives such as however, on the other hand) (see Grammar)
  • uses knowledge of the features and conventions of the type of text to build meaning (recognises that the beginning of a persuasive text may introduce the topic and the line of argument)
  • identifies language features used to present opinions or points of view
  • skims and scans texts for key words to identify main idea

Vocabulary

  • use knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to read and interpret unfamiliar words
  • identifies how technical and discipline-specific words develop meaning in texts
  • recognises how the use of antonyms, synonyms and common idiomatic language enhance meaning in a text
  • understand precise meaning of words with similar connotations (generous, kind-hearted, charitable)

UnT9

Comprehension

  • reads and views moderately complex texts (see Text complexity)
  • identifies the main themes or concepts in moderately complex texts
  • summarises the text identifying key details
  • compares and contrasts the use of visual elements in multimodal texts with similar purposes
  • interprets and integrates visual, auditory and print elements of multimodal texts
  • identifies how authors create a sense of playfulness (pun, alliteration)
  • builds meaning by actively linking ideas from a number of texts or a range of digital sources
  • interprets point of view or perspective in a moderately complex text
  • justifies an opinion or response by citing evidence from a text
  • evaluates text for relevance to purpose and audience
  • classifies ideas or information for a set task or purpose

Processes

  • uses processes such as predicting, confirming predictions, monitoring, and connecting relevant elements of the text to build or repair meaning
  • uses knowledge of a broader range of cohesive devices to track meaning (paragraph markers, topic sentences) (see Grammar)
  • selects reading/viewing pathways appropriate to reading purpose (scans text for key phrase or close reading for learning)
  • analyses how language in texts serves different purposes (identifies how descriptive language is used differently in informative and persuasive texts) (see Grammar)
  • judiciously selects texts for learning area tasks and purposes
  • distils information from a number of sources according to task and purpose (uses graphic organisers)

Vocabulary

  • identifies language used to create tone or atmosphere
  • analyses language and visual features in texts using metalanguage (paragraph, apostrophe, camera angle)
  • applies knowledge of root words and word origins to understand the meaning of unfamiliar, discipline-specific words
  • uses a range of context and grammatical cues to understand unfamiliar words

UnT10

Comprehension

  • reads and views moderately complex or some sophisticated texts (see Text complexity)
  • interprets abstract or more remote content
  • analyses visual text to identify point of view
  • recognises layers of meaning
  • synthesises information from a variety of complex texts
  • evaluates the effectiveness of language forms and features used in moderately complex or some sophisticated texts
  • evaluates the reasoning and evidence in a persuasive text
  • explains how context (time, place, situation) influences interpretations of a text
  • analyses the author’s perspectives in moderately complex or some sophisticated texts
  • analyses the techniques authors use to position readers
  • recognises when ideas or evidence have been omitted from a text to position the reader

Processes

  • integrates automatically a range of processes such as predicting, confirming predictions, monitoring, and connecting relevant elements of the text to build meaning
  • applies and articulates criteria to evaluate the structure, purpose or content of a text
  • describes how sophisticated cohesive devices establish patterns of meaning (class – subclass, cause–effect)
  • selects and cites the most appropriate evidence from a text to support an argument or opinion

Vocabulary

  • demonstrates an understanding of nuances and subtleties in words of similar meaning (frustrated, discouraged, baffled)

UnT11

Comprehension

  • reads and views sophisticated texts (see Text complexity)
  • interprets symbolism in texts, providing evidence to justify interpretation
  • derives a generalisation from abstract ideas in texts
  • critically evaluates the use of visual elements in multimodal texts on the same topic or with similar purposes
  • integrates existing understanding with new concepts in texts
  • analyses the credibility and validity of primary and secondary sources
  • evaluates the style of a text
  • evaluates the use of devices such as analogy, irony and satire
  • analyses how authors manipulate language features, image and sound for a purpose (to create humour or playfulness)
  • analyses bias in texts
  • explains assumptions, beliefs and implicit values in texts (economic growth is always desirable)
  • evaluates the social, moral and ethical positions taken in texts

Processes

  • strategically adjusts the processes of reading and viewing to build meaning according to the demands of tasks and texts
  • navigates digital texts to efficiently locate precise information that supports the development of new understandings
  • identifies contradictions and inconsistencies in texts
  • identifies relevant and irrelevant information in texts
  • judiciously selects and synthesises evidence from multiple texts to support ideas or arguments

Vocabulary

  • interprets complex, formal and impersonal language in academic texts
  • interprets and analyses complex figurative language (euphemisms, hyperbole)
  • demonstrates self-reliance in exploration and application of word learning strategies