This sub-element describes how a student becomes increasingly faster, smoother, more accurate and expressive in their reading aloud of progressively complex print texts. At higher levels of the progression, students demonstrate comprehension of a text through confident use of intonation, pausing, accuracy and pace. The sub-element of Fluency provides the detailed progression in support of the sub-element Understanding texts.
Each sub-element level has been identified by upper-case initials and in some cases lower-case letters of the sub-element name followed by ascending numbers. The abbreviation for this sub-element is FlY. The listing of indicators within each level is non-hierarchical. Where appropriate, examples have been provided in brackets following an indicator.
- reads aloud decodable texts word by word, with emphasis on one-to-one matching
- reads with some intonation and expression
- reads decodable texts by phrasing two words at a time with some attention to expression
- reads aloud a range of moderately complex texts with fluency and phrasing, adjusting pace, volume, pitch and pronunciation to enhance meaning and expression
- varies pace according to purpose and audience
- reads aloud with expression that reflects the author’s purpose and meaning (see Understanding texts)
- reads aloud a range of moderately complex and sophisticated texts which include multisyllabic words and complex sentences with fluency and appropriate expression
- consistently and automatically integrates pausing, intonation, phrasing and rate