Understand how the Literacy Progression works

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Phonic knowledge and word recognition description

This sub-element describes how a student becomes increasingly proficient at using letter-sound relationships and visual knowledge as code-breaking skills. Phonic knowledge and word recognition are among the range of resources students use as they read increasingly complex texts. The sub-element Phonic knowledge and word recognition provides a detailed progression of phonics skills that support the sub-element Understanding texts.

Particular links exist between this sub-element and the sub-elements Phonological awareness, Spelling and Understanding texts.

A phoneme is a spoken sound and a grapheme is the letter or group of letters that represent each phoneme.

Some students will communicate using augmentative and alternative communication strategies to demonstrate their literacy skills. This may include digital technologies, sign language, braille, real objects, photographs and pictographs.

Each sub-element level has been identified by upper-case initials and in some cases lower-case letters of the sub-element name followed by ascending numbers. The abbreviation for this sub-element is PKW. The listing of indicators within each level is non-hierarchical. Subheadings have been included to group related indicators. Where appropriate, examples have been provided in brackets following an indicator.

PKW1

Word recognition

  • indicates letters and words in a variety of situations in the environment (in written texts, on a whiteboard) (Note: Not required to read the word or say the sound or name of the letter)

PKW2

  • identifies pictures, words, spaces between words and numerals in texts (points to/indicates pictures, words and spaces around words in a continuous text)
  • reads aloud some familiar words and identifies them in environmental print (classroom labels, shop names, street signs)
  • identifies own name or familiar names when presented in written form
  • distinguishes own name from a small number of alternative words

PKW3

Phonic knowledge

  • says the most common phoneme for taught, single-letter graphemes (b, a, m) and applies knowledge when reading decodable texts
  • blends phonemes of taught graphemes to decode VC (at) and CVC (bat) words and applies this knowledge when reading decodable texts
  • identifies first phoneme in words
  • orally segments and writes CVC words (c-a-t, h-a-t)

Word recognition

  • identifies two or more letters that are the same in two words (tell, bat)
  • reads taught high-frequency words in a decodable text and in the environment (the, to, I, no, go)
  • reads a familiar word in different contexts (brand names, book titles)

PKW4

Phonic knowledge

  • says the most common phoneme for all single-letter graphemes
  • writes/selects corresponding graphemes for all common phonemes
  • blends phonemes for all common, single-letter graphemes to read VC and CVC words and applies this knowledge when reading decodable texts
  • segments and writes VC and CVC words with letters in correct order and reads them aloud

Word recognition

  • reads an increasing number of taught high-frequency words in decodable texts and own writing (was, you, one, said, have, were)

PKW5

Phonic knowledge

  • gives examples of how a phoneme can be represented by more than one letter or letter combination (c, ck)
  • says short and long vowel sounds for letters a, e, i, o, u
  • reads single-syllable words with common double letters (ss – fuss, ll – will, zz – buzz, f – puff) and applies this when reading decodable texts
  • reads single-syllable words with taught consonant digraphs (sh, ch and ck – sh-i-p, r-i-ch, l-o-ck) and applies this when reading decodable texts
  • reads single-syllable words with common long vowels CVCe and applies this when reading decodable texts
  • reads one- and two-syllable words with common suffixes, applies when reading decodable texts and uses appropriately when writing (-ing, -ed,) (jumped)
  • segments and represents CCVC and CVCC words containing consonant digraphs and consonant blends (sh-o-p, b-e-s-t)

Word recognition

  • reads an increasing number of taught high-frequency words in decodable texts and different contexts (own writing, shared reading)

PKW6

Phonic knowledge

  • reads words with taught vowel digraphs (ee, oo, ay, ai, ea, oa, ow) and applies when reading decodable texts
  • reads two-syllable compound words with taught grapheme-phoneme correspondences (desktop, shellfish, carpark, farmyard) and applies when reading decodable texts
  • writes common words with taught consonant blends and vowel digraphs (trip, boat)

Word recognition

PKW7

Phonic knowledge

  • reads CCVCC words (trust), CCCVC words (scrap), CCCVCC words (thrust) and applies when reading continuous texts
  • reads words with r-controlled vowel combinations ar, er, or, ur, ir and writes words accordingly and applies when reading continuous texts
  • applies common phonic generalisations (long e rule, soft c and soft g rule) when reading continuous texts
  • says and represents the new word when asked to delete a phoneme within an initial blend of a single-syllable word (spat/sat)

Word recognition

PKW8

Phonic knowledge and word recognition

  • reads less common graphemes that contain alternative spelling for phonemes (/ch/tch/j/g/) and applies when reading continuous texts
  • reads multisyllabic words, including those with prefixes and suffixes, and applies when reading continuous texts (in-, ex-, dis-, -ful, -able, -ly)
  • reads words with silent letters in digraphs (kn, mb) and applies when reading continuous texts

PKW9

Phonic knowledge and word recognition