Science

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Rationale

Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic lives.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:

an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live.

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Key ideas

In the Australian Curriculum: Science, there are six key ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and understanding across the disciplines of science, as shown Figure 1 below. These are embedded within each year level description and guide the teaching/learning emphasis for the relevant year level.

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Structure

The three interrelated strands of science
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: science understanding, science as a human endeavour and science inquiry skills.

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Science Scope and Sequence (PDF)

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Science are available as PDF documents. 
Science: Sequence of content
Science: Sequence of achievement 

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Glossary

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Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts.

In Year 8, students are introduced to cells as microscopic structures that explain macroscopic properties of living systems. They link form and function at a cellular level and explore the organisation of body systems in terms of flows of matter between interdependent organs. Similarly, they explore changes in matter at a particle level, and distinguish between chemical and physical change. They begin to classify different forms of energy, and describe the role of energy in causing change in systems, including the role of heat and kinetic energy in the rock cycle. Students use experimentation to isolate relationships between components in systems and explain these relationships through increasingly complex representations. They make predictions and propose explanations, drawing on evidence to support their views while considering other points of view.


Year 8 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Cells are the basic units of living things; they have specialised structures and functions (ACSSU149 - Scootle )
  • examining a variety of cells using a light microscope, by digital technology or by viewing a simulation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

  • distinguishing plant cells from animal or fungal cells
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying structures within cells and describing their function
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • recognising that some organisms consist of a single cell
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that cells reproduce via cell division
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing mitosis as cell division for growth and repair
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs carrying out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (ACSSU150 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • identifying the organs and overall function of a system of a multicellular organism in supporting the life processes
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing the structure of each organ in a system and relating its function to the overall function of the system
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • examining the specialised cells and tissues involved in structure and function of particular organs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing similar systems in different organisms such as digestive systems in herbivores and carnivores, respiratory systems in fish and mammals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • distinguishing between asexual and sexual reproduction
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing reproductive systems of organisms
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Chemical sciences

Properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (ACSSU151 - Scootle )
  • explaining why a model for the structure of matter is needed
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • modelling the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using the particle model to explain observed phenomena linking the energy of particles to temperature changes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described at a particle level (ACSSU152 - Scootle )
  • modelling the arrangement of particles in elements and compounds
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that elements and simple compounds can be represented by symbols and formulas
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • locating elements on the periodic table
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (ACSSU225 - Scootle )
  • investigating chemical reactions employed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the production of substances such as quicklime, plaster, pigments, acids, salts and ethanol (OI.5)

  • identifying the differences between chemical and physical changes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying evidence that a chemical change has taken place
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating simple reactions such as combining elements to make a compound
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that the chemical properties of a substance, for example its flammability and ability to corrode, will affect its use
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Earth and space sciences

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153 - Scootle )
  • exploring the traditional geological knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples that is used in the selection of different rock types for different purposes (OI.2, OI.5)

  • representing the stages in the formation of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, including indications of timescales involved
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying a range of common rock types using a key based on observable physical and chemical properties
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • recognising that rocks are a collection of different minerals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering the role of forces and energy in the formation of different types of rocks and minerals
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that some rocks and minerals, such as ores, provide valuable resources
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Physical sciences

Energy appears in different forms, including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and energy transformations and transfers cause change within systems (ACSSU155 - Scootle )
  • investigating traditional fire-starting methods used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and their understanding of the transformation of energy (OI.5, OI.7)

  • recognising that kinetic energy is the energy possessed by moving bodies
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that potential energy is stored energy, such as gravitational, chemical and elastic energy
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating different forms of energy in terms of the effects they cause, such as gravitational potential causing objects to fall and heat energy transferred between materials that have a different temperature
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • recognising that heat energy is often produced as a by-product of energy transfer, such as brakes on a car and light globes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • using flow diagrams to illustrate changes between different forms of energy
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Nature and development of science

Scientific knowledge has changed peoples’ understanding of the world and is refined as new evidence becomes available (ACSHE134 - Scootle )
  • investigating developments in the understanding of cells and how this knowledge has impacted on areas such as health and medicine
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • discovering how people’s understanding of the nature of matter has changed over time as evidence for particle theory has become available through developments in technology
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering how the idea of elements has developed over time as knowledge of the nature of matter has improved
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the development of the microscope and the impact it has had on the understanding of cell functions and division
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Science knowledge can develop through collaboration across the disciplines of science and the contributions of people from a range of cultures (ACSHE226 - Scootle )
  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples connect knowledge from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology and geology in the development of material culture (OI.3, OI.5)

  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples employ knowledge from the disciplines of chemistry, biology, physics and geology in their development of pigments and dyes (OI.3, OI.5)

  • investigating how knowledge of the location and extraction of mineral resources relies on expertise from across the disciplines of science
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • considering how advances in technology, combined with scientific understanding of the functioning of body systems, has enabled medical science to replace or repair organs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • researching the use of reproductive technologies and how developments in this field rely on scientific knowledge from different areas of science
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Use and influence of science

Solutions to contemporary issues that are found using science and technology, may impact on other areas of society and may involve ethical considerations (ACSHE135 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating use of sustainable technologies to deliver basic services in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and considering ethical implications of these (OI. 6)

  • investigating requirements and the design of systems for collecting and recycling household waste
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating strategies implemented to maintain part of the local environment, such as bushland, a beach, a lake, a desert or a shoreline
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating how energy efficiency can reduce energy consumption
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the development of vehicles over time, including the application of science to contemporary designs of solar-powered vehicles
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • discussing ethical issues that arise from organ transplantation
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

People use science understanding and skills in their occupations and these have influenced the development of practices in areas of human activity (ACSHE136 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples used scientific understandings of complex ecological relationships to develop specific fire-based agricultural practices (OI.2, OI.3, OI.5)

  • describing how technologies have been applied to modern farming techniques to improve yields and sustainability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

  • describing the impact of plant cloning techniques (asexual production) in agriculture such as horticulture, fruit production and vineyards
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the role of science in the development of technology important to the economies and communities of the Asia–Pacific regions, for example car manufacture, earthquake prediction and electronic optics
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • recognising the role of knowledge of the environment and ecosystems in a number of occupations
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering how engineers improve energy efficiency of a range of processes
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • recognising the role of knowledge of cells and cell divisions in the area of disease treatment and control
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • investigating how scientists have created new materials such as synthetic fibres, heat-resistant plastics and pharmaceuticals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

Questioning and predicting

Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS139 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • considering whether investigation using available resources is possible when identifying questions or problems to investigate
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • recognising that the solution of some questions and problems requires consideration of social, cultural, economic or moral aspects rather than or as well as scientific investigation
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • using information and knowledge from their own investigations and secondary sources to predict the expected results from an investigation
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

Planning and conducting

Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (ACSIS140 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Work collaboratively
  • Make decisions

Self-management
  • Work independently and show initiative

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the planning of scientific investigations, including considerations of heritage sites and artefacts

  • working collaboratively to decide how to best approach an investigation
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

  • identifying any ethical considerations that may apply to the investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • taking into consideration all aspects of fair testing, available equipment and safe investigation when planning investigations
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Measure and control variables, select equipment appropriate to the task and collect data with accuracy (ACSIS141 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • using specialised equipment to increase the accuracy of measurement within an investigation
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • identifying and explaining the differences between controlled, dependent and independent variables
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Processing and analysing data and information

Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS144 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Investigating with ICT
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • describing measures of central tendency and identifying outliers for quantitative data
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining the strengths and limitations of representations such as physical models, diagrams and simulations in terms of the attributes of systems included or not included
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions based on evidence (ACSIS145 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • constructing tables, graphs, keys and models to represent relationships and trends in collected data
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • drawing conclusions based on a range of evidence including primary and secondary sources
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

Evaluating

Reflect on scientific investigations including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identifying improvements (ACSIS146 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • suggesting improvements to investigation methods that would improve the accuracy of the data recorded
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • discussing investigation methods with others to share ideas about the quality of the inquiry process
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to evaluate claims based on evidence (ACSIS234 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • identifying the scientific evidence available to evaluate claims
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • deciding whether or not to accept claims based on scientific evidence
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • identifying where science has been used to make claims relating to products and practices
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Communicating

Communicate ideas, findings and evidence based solutions to problems using scientific language, and representations, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS148 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software
  • Manage digital data

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Communicating with ICT
  • Collaborate, share and exchange
  • Understand computer mediated communications

  • using digital technologies to construct a range of text types to present science ideas
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Manage digital data
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • selecting and using appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas within a specified text type and for a specified audience

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary


Year 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students compare physical and chemical changes and use the particle model to explain and predict the properties and behaviours of substances. They identify different forms of energy and describe how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They compare processes of rock formation, including the timescales involved. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. Students examine the different science knowledge used in occupations. They explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea and describe situations in which scientists collaborated to generate solutions to contemporary problems. They reflect on implications of these solutions for different groups in society.

Students identify and construct questions and problems that they can investigate scientifically. They consider safety and ethics when planning investigations, including designing field or experimental methods. They identify variables to be changed, measured and controlled. Students construct representations of their data to reveal and analyse patterns and trends, and use these when justifying their conclusions. They explain how modifications to methods could improve the quality of their data and apply their own scientific knowledge and investigation findings to evaluate claims made by others. They use appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas, methods and findings in a range of text types.


Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios