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Rationale

Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic lives.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:

an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live.

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Key ideas

In the Australian Curriculum: Science, there are six key ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and understanding across the disciplines of science, as shown Figure 1 below. These are embedded within each year level description and guide the teaching/learning emphasis for the relevant year level.

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Structure

The three interrelated strands of science
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: science understanding, science as a human endeavour and science inquiry skills.

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Science Scope and Sequence (PDF)

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Science are available as PDF documents. 
Science: Sequence of content
Science: Sequence of achievement 

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Glossary

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Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures, how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts.

In Year 9, students consider the operation of systems at a range of scales. They explore ways in which the human body as a system responds to its external environment and the interdependencies between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. They are introduced to the notion of the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and how this system can change through nuclear decay. They learn that matter can be rearranged through chemical change and that these changes play an important role in many systems. They are introduced to the concept of the conservation of matter and begin to develop a more sophisticated view of energy transfer. They begin to apply their understanding of energy and forces to global systems such as continental movement.


Year 9 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Multi-cellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (ACSSU175 - Scootle )
  • describing how the requirements for life (for example oxygen, nutrients, water and removal of waste) are provided through the coordinated function of body systems such as the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous and excretory systems
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • explaining how body systems work together to maintain a functioning body using models, flow diagrams or simulations
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • identifying responses using nervous and endocrine systems
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating the response of the body to changes as a result of the presence of micro-organisms
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the effects on humans of exposure to electromagnetic radiations such as X-rays and microwaves
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (ACSSU176 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • exploring interactions between organisms such as predator/prey, parasites, competitors, pollinators and disease
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • examining factors that affect population sizes such as seasonal changes, destruction of habitats, introduced species
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • considering how energy flows into and out of an ecosystem via the pathways of food webs, and how it must be replaced to maintain the sustainability of the system
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating how ecosystems change as a result of events such as bushfires, drought and flooding
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical sciences

All matter is made of atoms that are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (ACSSU177 - Scootle )
  • describing and modelling the structure of atoms in terms of the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • comparing the mass and charge of protons, neutrons and electrons
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • describing in simple terms how alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation are released from unstable atoms
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (ACSSU178 - Scootle )
  • identifying reactants and products in chemical reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • modelling chemical reactions in terms of rearrangement of atoms
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing observed reactions using word equations
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering the role of energy in chemical reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • recognising that the conservation of mass in a chemical reaction can be demonstrated by simple chemical equations
    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (ACSSU179 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • investigating reactions of acids with metals, bases, and carbonates
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating a range of different reactions to classify them as exothermic or endothermic
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • recognising the role of oxygen in combustion reactions and comparing combustion with other oxidation reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing respiration and photosynthesis and their role in biological processes
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing how the products of combustion reactions affect the environment
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Earth and space sciences

The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement (ACSSU180 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • recognising the major plates on a world map
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • modelling sea-floor spreading
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • relating the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activity to constructive and destructive plate boundaries
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • considering the role of heat energy and convection currents in the movement of tectonic plates
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • relating the extreme age and stability of a large part of the Australian continent to its plate tectonic history
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Physical sciences

Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models (ACSSU182 - Scootle )
  • exploring how and why the movement of energy varies according to the medium through which it is transferred
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • discussing the wave and particle models and how they are useful for understanding aspects of phenomena
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the transfer of heat in terms of convection, conduction and radiation, and identifying situations in which each occurs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • understanding the processes underlying convection and conduction in terms of the particle model
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating factors that affect the transfer of energy through an electric circuit
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • exploring the properties of waves, and situations where energy is transferred in the form of waves, such as sound and light
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Nature and development of science

Scientific understanding, including models and theories, is contestable and is refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE157 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reflect on ethical action

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating the historical development of models of the structure of the atom
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating how the theory of plate tectonics developed, based on evidence from sea-floor spreading and occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activity
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how ideas about disease transmission have changed from medieval time to the present as knowledge has developed
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • investigating the work of scientists such as Ernest Rutherford, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie on radioactivity and subatomic particles
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating how models can be used to predict the changes in populations due to environmental changes, such as the impact of flooding or fire on rabbit or kangaroo populations
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE158 - Scootle )
  • considering how common properties of electromagnetic radiation relate to its uses, such as radar, medicine, mobile phone communications and microwave cooking
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating technologies involved in the mapping of continental movement
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • considering how the development of imaging technologies have improved our understanding of the functions and interactions of body systems
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

Use and influence of science

People use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they accept claims, explanations or predictions, and advances in science can affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE160 - Scootle )
  • using knowledge of science to test claims made in advertising or expressed in the media

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • investigating how technologies using electromagnetic radiation are used in medicine, such as in the detection and treatment of cancer

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • investigating the use of nanotechnology in medicine, such as the delivery of pharmaceuticals

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • describing how science is used in the media to explain a natural event or justify actions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • evaluating claims relating to products such as electrical devices, fuels, indigestion tablets

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • considering the impact of technological advances developed in Australia, such as the cochlear implant and bionic eye

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • considering how communication methods are influenced by new mobile technologies that rely on electromagnetic radiation

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • considering the impacts of human activity on an ecosystem from a range of different perspectives

    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • recognising aspects of science, engineering and technology within careers such as medicine, medical technology, telecommunications, biomechanical engineering, pharmacy and physiology

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (ACSHE228 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • considering how technologies have been developed to meet the increasing needs for mobile communication
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • investigating how scientific and technological advances have been applied to minimising pollution from industry
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • considering how choices related to the use of fuels are influenced by environmental considerations
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Contribute to civil society

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating the work of Australian scientists such as Fiona Wood and Marie Stoner on artificial skin
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • considering safe sound levels for humans and implications in the workplace and leisure activities
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating contemporary science issues related to living in a Pacific country located near plate boundaries, for example Japan, Indonesia, New Zealand
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Questioning and predicting

Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

  • using internet research to identify problems that can be investigated
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

  • evaluating information from secondary sources as part of the research process
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • revising and refining research questions to target specific information and data collection or finding a solution to the specific problem identified
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • developing ideas from students own or others' investigations and experiences to investigate further
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

Planning and conducting

Plan, select and use appropriate investigation types, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS165 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

  • explaining the choice of variables to be controlled, changed and measured in an investigation
    Numeracy

    Using fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates
    • Apply proportional reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • identifying the potential hazards of chemicals or biological materials used in experimental investigations
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • ensuring that any investigation involving or impacting on animals is justified, humane and considerate of each animal's needs
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • using modelling and simulations, including using digital technology to investigate situations and events
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Manage digital data

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • combining research using primary and secondary sources with students' own experimental investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how investigation methods and equipment may influence the reliablity of collected data
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to collect and record data systematically and accurately (ACSIS166 - Scootle )
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Investigating with ICT
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using probes and data loggers to record information
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • applying specific skills for the use of scientific instruments
    Personal and Social Capability

    Self-management
    • Become confident, resilient and adaptable
    • Work independently and show initiative

Processing and analysing data and information

Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS169 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

  • using spreadsheets to present data in tables and graphical forms and to carry out mathematical analyses on data
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • describing sample properties (such as mean, median, range, large gaps visible on a graph) to predict characteristics of the larger population
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • designing and constructing appropriate graphs to represent data and analysing graphs for trends and patterns
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS170 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • comparing conclusions with earlier predictions and reviewing scientific understanding where appropriate
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • suggesting more than one possible explanation of the data presented
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

Evaluating

Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS171 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • identifying gaps or weaknesses in conclusions (their own or those of others)
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying alternative explanations that are also consistent with the evidence
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critically analyse the validity of information in primary and secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS172 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • discussing what is meant by 'validity' and how we can evaluate the validity of information in secondary sources
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • researching the methods used by scientists in studies reported in the media
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing how scientific arguments are used to make decisions regarding personal and community issues
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

Communicating

Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS174 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Apply logic and reasoning

  • presenting results and ideas using formal experimental reports, oral presentations, slide shows, poster presentations and contributing to group discussions
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • using secondary sources as well as students’ own findings to help explain a scientific concept
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • using the internet to facilitate collaboration in joint projects and discussions
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange
    • Understand computer mediated communications

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks


Year 9 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 9, students explain chemical processes and natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy transfers and describe examples of important chemical reactions. They describe models of energy transfer and apply these to explain phenomena. They explain global features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They describe social and technological factors that have influenced scientific developments and predict how future applications of science and technology may affect people’s lives.

Students design questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They design methods that include the control and accurate measurement of variables and systematic collection of data and describe how they considered ethics and safety. They analyse trends in data, identify relationships between variables and reveal inconsistencies in results. They analyse their methods and the quality of their data, and explain specific actions to improve the quality of their evidence. They evaluate others’ methods and explanations from a scientific perspective and use appropriate language and representations when communicating their findings and ideas to specific audiences.


Year 9 Work Sample Portfolios