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Rationale

Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic lives.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:

an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live.

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Key ideas

In the Australian Curriculum: Science, there are six key ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and understanding across the disciplines of science, as shown Figure 1 below. These are embedded within each year level description and guide the teaching/learning emphasis for the relevant year level.

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Structure

The three interrelated strands of science
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: science understanding, science as a human endeavour and science inquiry skills.

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Science Scope and Sequence (PDF)

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Science are available as PDF documents. 
Science: Sequence of content
Science: Sequence of achievement 

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Glossary

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Year 1

Year 1 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

From Foundation to Year 2, students learn that observations can be organised to reveal patterns, and that these patterns can be used to make predictions about phenomena.

In Year 1, students infer simple cause-and-effect relationships from their observations and experiences, and begin to link events and phenomena with observable effects and to ask questions. They observe changes that can be large or small and happen quickly or slowly. They explore the properties of familiar objects and phenomena, identifying similarities and differences. Students begin to value counting as a means of comparing observations, and are introduced to ways of organising their observations.


Year 1 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Living things have a variety of external features (ACSSU017 - Scootle )
  • recognising common features of animals such as head, legs and wings
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing the use of animal body parts for particular purposes such as moving and feeding
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying common features of plants such as leaves and roots
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing the use of plant parts for particular purposes such as making food and obtaining water
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Living things live in different places where their needs are met (ACSSU211 - Scootle )
  • exploring different habitats in the local environment such as the beach, bush and backyard
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that different living things live in different places such as land and water
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • exploring what happens when habitats change and some living things can no longer have their needs met
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical sciences

Everyday materials can be physically changed in a variety of ways (ACSSU018 - Scootle )
  • predicting and comparing how the shapes of objects made from different materials can be physically changed through actions such as bending, stretching and twisting
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

  • exploring how materials such as water, chocolate or play dough change when warmed or cooled
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Earth and space sciences

Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape (ACSSU019 - Scootle )
  • exploring the local environment to identify and describe natural, managed and constructed features
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • recording short and longer term patterns of events that occur on Earth and in the sky, such as the appearance of the moon and stars at night, the weather and the seasons
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Physical sciences

Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed (ACSSU020 - Scootle )
  • recognising senses are used to learn about the world around us: our eyes to detect light, our ears to detect sound, and touch to feel vibrations
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying the sun as a source of light
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that objects can be seen when light from sources is available to illuminate them
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • exploring different ways to produce sound using familiar objects and actions such as striking, blowing, scraping and shaking
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing sounds made by musical instruments using characteristics such as loudness, pitch and actions used to make the sound
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Nature and development of science

Science involves observing, asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE021 - Scootle )
  • jointly constructing questions about the events and features of the local environment with teacher guidance
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that descriptions of what we observe are used by people to help identify change
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Use and influence of science

People use science in their daily lives, including when caring for their environment and living things (ACSHE022 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Social awareness
  • Contribute to civil society

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reflect on ethical action

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context
  • Recognise ethical concepts

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values

  • considering how science is used in activities such as cooking, fishing, transport, sport, medicine and caring for plants and animals
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering that technologies used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people require an understanding of how materials can be used to make tools and weapons, musical instruments, clothing, cosmetics and artworks
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • exploring how musical instruments can be used to produce different sounds
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • comparing how different light sources are used in daily life
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying ways that science knowledge is used in the care of the local environment such as animal habitats, and suggesting changes to parks and gardens to better meet the needs of native animals
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas
    • Consider alternatives

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Contribute to civil society

Questioning and predicting

Pose and respond to questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS024 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Pose questions

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Literacy

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Listen and respond to learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Communicate effectively

  • thinking about "What will happen if……?" type questions about everyday objects and events
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

  • using the senses to explore the local environment to pose interesting questions and making predictions about what will happen
    Literacy

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Planning and conducting

Participate in guided investigations to explore and answer questions (ACSIS025 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Listen and respond to learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Work collaboratively

  • manipulating objects and making observations of what happens
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

  • researching ideas collaboratively using big books, web pages and ICT within the classroom
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively

  • exploring different ways of solving science questions through guided discussion
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • sorting information and classifying objects based on easily observable characteristics with teacher guidance
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Use informal measurements to collect and record observations, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS026 - Scootle )
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Manage digital data

Investigating with ICT
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • using units that are familiar to students from home and school, such as cups (cooking), hand spans (length) and walking paces (distance) to make and record observations with teacher guidance
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

Processing and analysing data and information

Use a range of methods to sort information, including drawings and provided tables and through discussion, compare observations with predictions (ACSIS027 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • using matching activities, including identifying similar things, odd-one-out and opposites
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • discussing original predictions and, with guidance, comparing these to their observations
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • exploring ways of recording and sharing information through class discussion
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • jointly constructing simple column graphs and picture graphs to represent class investigations
    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively

Evaluating

Compare observations with those of others (ACSIS213 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Listen and respond to learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • discussing observations as a whole class to identify similarities and differences in their observations
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Listen and respond to learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Communicate effectively

Communicating

Represent and communicate observations and ideas in a variety of ways (ACSIS029 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups

Word Knowledge
  • Use spelling knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • discussing or representing what was discovered in an investigation
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • engaging in whole class or guided small group discussions to share observations and ideas
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively
    • Work collaboratively

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary


Year 1 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 1, students describe objects and events that they encounter in their everyday lives, and the effects of interacting with materials and objects. They describe changes in their local environment and how different places meet the needs of living things.

Students respond to questions, make predictions, and participate in guided investigations of everyday phenomena. They follow instructions to record and sort their observations and share them with others.


Year 1 Work Sample Portfolios