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Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic lives.



The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:

an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live.


Key ideas

In the Australian Curriculum: Science, there are six key ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and understanding across the disciplines of science, as shown Figure 1 below. These are embedded within each year level description and guide the teaching/learning emphasis for the relevant year level.



The three interrelated strands of science
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: science understanding, science as a human endeavour and science inquiry skills.


Science Scope and Sequence (PDF)

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Science are available as PDF documents. 
Science: Sequence of content
Science: Sequence of achievement 




Foundation Year

Foundation Year Level Description

The Science content includes the three strands of science understanding, science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

From Foundation to Year 2, students learn that observations can be organised to reveal patterns, and that these patterns can be used to make predictions about phenomena.

In Foundation, students observe and describe the behaviours and properties of everyday objects, materials and living things. They explore change in the world around them, including changes that impact on them, such as the weather, and changes they can effect, such as making things move or change shape. They learn that seeking answers to questions they pose and making observations is a core part of science and use their senses to gather different types of information.

Foundation Year Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Living things have basic needs, including food and water (ACSSU002 - Scootle )
  • identifying the needs of humans such as warmth, food and water, using students’ own experiences
  • recognising the needs of living things in a range of situations such as pets at home, plants in the garden or plants and animals in bushland
  • comparing the needs of plants and animals

Chemical sciences

Objects are made of materials that have observable properties (ACSSU003 - Scootle )
  • sorting and grouping materials on the basis of observable properties such as colour, texture and flexibility
  • thinking about how the materials used in buildings and shelters are suited to the local environment
  • investigating different forms of clothing used for different activities
  • comparing the traditional materials used for clothing from around the world

Earth and space sciences

Daily and seasonal changes in our environment affect everyday life (ACSSU004 - Scootle )
  • linking the changes in the daily weather to the way we modify our behaviour and dress for different conditions, including examples from different cultures
  • investigating how changes in the weather might affect animals such as pets, animals that hibernate, or migratory animals
  • learning how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander concepts of time and weather patterns explain how things happen in the world around them

Physical sciences

The way objects move depends on a variety of factors, including their size and shape (ACSSU005 - Scootle )
  • observing the way different shaped objects such as balls, blocks and tubes move
  • comparing the way different sized, but similar shaped, objects such as tennis balls, golf balls, marbles and basketballs roll and bounce
  • observing how the movement of different living things depends on their size and shape

Nature and development of science

Science involves observing, asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and events (ACSHE013 - Scootle )
  • recognising that observation is an important part of exploring and investigating the things and places around us
  • sharing observations with others and communicating their experiences
  • exploring and observing using the senses: hearing, smell, touch, sight and taste

Questioning and predicting

Pose and respond to questions about familiar objects and events (ACSIS014 - Scootle )
  • considering questions relating to the home and school and objects used in everyday life

Planning and conducting

Participate in guided investigations and make observations using the senses (ACSIS011 - Scootle )
  • using sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell so that students can gather information about the world around them

Processing and analysing data and information

Engage in discussions about observations and represent ideas (ACSIS233 - Scootle )
  • taking part in informal and guided discussions relating to students’observations
  • using drawings to represent observations and ideas and discussing their representations with others


Share observations and ideas (ACSIS012 - Scootle )
  • working in groups to describe what students have done and what they have found out
  • communicating ideas through role play and drawing

Foundation Year Achievement Standards

By the end of the Foundation year, students describe the properties and behaviour of familiar objects. They suggest how the environment affects them and other living things.

Students share and reflect on observations, and ask and respond to questions about familiar objects and events.

Foundation Year Work Sample Portfolios