Vietnamese

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Context statement

The place of the Vietnamese language and culture in Australia and in the world
Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. It is spoken by approximately 90 million people in Vietnam and approximately four million Vietnamese people living in other countries around the world, with the majority residing in the United States, Cambodia, France, Taiwan and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Vietnamese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of content
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Vietnamese language and culture and a range of strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Vietnamese in these.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Learners are immersed in the Vietnamese language, initiating and engaging in discussions and debates on topics of interest, and responding to enquiries. They reflect on the cultural and linguistic appropriateness of their language use in interactions and make necessary adjustments. They learn to interpret information and evaluate values and practices from diverse perspectives and sources. They make connections with their own experiences to elaborate on and justify their point of view on topical issues or to explain how values and attitudes have remained the same or changed over time. Learners produce a range of texts, such as informative, narrative, descriptive, procedural or persuasive texts, for a variety of contexts, audiences and purposes. Through their engagement with diverse texts and resources, students explore how cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in texts and how language choices shape perspectives and meaning. They develop techniques and intercultural awareness in order to translate and mediate between languages and cultures.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Vietnamese speakers both locally and globally through a variety of modes of communication, including digital, online, collaborative performances and group discussions. The context of interaction extends beyond the classroom and involves investigating and reporting on issues in the local community and transacting with local Vietnamese speakers to negotiate services. These experiences provide learners with a sense of connectedness and purpose as Vietnamese and English speakers.

Texts and resources

Learners use diverse resources, such as Vietnamese newspapers, magazines, documentaries, films, stories, songs, television programs, entertainment performances, artworks and web pages, as references to assist them in discussing and researching Vietnamese language and culture. They explore a variety of text types, such as poems, articles, formal letters, interviews and speeches, and engage with a range of informative, historical or literary perspectives, views and debates.

Extracts from contemporary Vietnamese poems as well as short stories and diverse forms of Vietnamese artistic expression such as tranh dân gian Đông Hồ, tranh sơn dầu; dân ca, nhạc trẻ; cải lương, kịch, phim, are introduced to give learners an insight into Vietnamese folk, traditional and contemporary literature, arts and entertainment. Learners use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners explore Sino-Vietnamese words (phụ huynh, phi trường, hàng hải, giang sơn) and stylistic devices, such as repetition (đi nhanh, nói nhanh, ăn nhanh), similes (hiền như Bụt), personification (mưa nhớ thương ai) and rhetorical questions (Ba đồng một mớ trầu cay, Sao anh chẳng hỏi những ngày còn không?), to identify and convey enhanced meaning in communication. They use compound sentence structures, for example, Nếu trời mưa (thì) chúng tôi sẽ không đi chơi. Trời mưa khi chúng tôi đang đi chơi and conjunctions (càng … càng, vừa … vừa, chẳng những … mà còn), for a variety of communicative purposes in spoken and written texts. They examine the impact of generation, gender, media, technology and globalisation on Vietnamese language and culture to develop their awareness of language variation and evolution. They analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, and develop the language of reflection in Vietnamese.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system, with opportunities for learners to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback combines with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, for example, through portfolios, peer review and e-journalling.

The role of English

Vietnamese is predominantly used as the main medium for classroom interaction and content delivery. English is used only when necessary to allow for further explanation and discussion of more demanding concepts, particularly when making connections with other languages and cultures. Learners explore cultural diversity and gain a greater appreciation of their Vietnamese cultural heritage. They view their bilingualism and biculturalism as an asset for themselves and for Australia.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend interactions with peers and adults, exploring own and peers’ perspectives on youth culture, future aspirations and social experiences

[Key concepts: perspective, youth culture, issues; Key processes: discussing, justifying, commenting] (ACLVIC174 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • sharing and discussing future plans, such as further study, career and travelling, in class and via online forums, for example, Bạn định chọn các môn học gì cho lớp 11-12? Mình định tiếp tục theo học tiếng Việt ở lớp 11-12. Còn bạn thế nào? Bạn thích làm nghề gì trong tương lai? Ba mẹ bạn có góp ý vào việc chọn nghề của bạn không?
  • sustaining interactions by extending the topic of discussion or elaborating on ideas for clarification or justification, for example, Bạn nói vậy có nghĩa là sao? Một nhà thiết kế thời trang giỏi thì cần phải có những yếu tố gì? Bạn nghĩ sao về ảnh hưởng của trò chơi điện tử đối với trẻ em? Muốn là bạn tốt thì nên thành thật với nhau vì có thành thật mới chơi với nhau lâu bền được
  • engaging participants through communication strategies such as showing empathy, for example, Mình hiểu/biết/rất thông cảm với bạn, or indicating agreement, for example, Bạn nói đúng lắm. Tôi cũng nghĩ vậy …
  • interacting with peers and adults at social events, for example, Tuần tới có chương trình ca nhạc Việt Nam hay lắm, bạn có muốn cùng đi xem với nhóm mình không? Cô chú thấy việc tổ chức đám cưới ở Úc khác với ở Việt Nam như thế nào?, and expressing opinions on social experiences, for example, Mình cũng như đa số các bạn trẻ ngày nay đều nghĩ rằng … Từ kinh nghiệm bản thân và của bạn bè, mình thấy rằng chúng ta nên cẩn thận khi sử dụng Internet
Participate in a range of collaborative activities that involve transactions and require negotiation and management of different opinions or behaviours

[Key concepts: negotiation, perspective; Key processes: managing, engaging] (ACLVIC175 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • negotiating arrangements, considering alternatives and reaching shared decisions, for example, Cuối tuần này có nhiều phim hay lắm, thời tiết cũng thích hợp để đi bơi nữa, các tiệm quần áo lại đang giảm giá, nhóm mình muốn làm gì? Thôi mình lo đi mua đồ trước đi vì các tiệm chỉ giảm giá có ba ngày thôi, coi phim và đi bơi để tuần sau cũng được mà. Các bạn có đồng ý không?
  • role-playing formal or informal negotiations, such as resolving a disagreement between parents and children or teacher and students, for example, Ba mẹ ơi, con muốn đi làm thêm cuối tuần. Không cần thiết đâu, con nên tập trung lo học đi. Ba mẹ có thể cho con thêm tiền tiêu vặt nếu con cần. Nhưng mà con muốn đi làm thêm để có kinh nghiệm và tiếp xúc với nhiều người. Thôi được, ba mẹ sẽ cho con đi làm thêm nếu điều đó không ảnh hưởng đến kết quả học tập của con. Thưa cô, vì máy vi tính bị hư nên em chưa làm bài xong, cô có thể cho em nộp bài ngày mai được không?
  • collaborating to organise and participate in real or simulated shopping experiences such as a class shopping centre, a flea market or a garage sale, using rehearsed language for negotiating, bargaining, exchanging or returning goods, for example, Có thể giảm giá cho học sinh được không? Tôi có thể trả lại đồ được không nếu lỡ làm mất hóa đơn mua hàng? Cái máy tính bảng (tablet) này không gọi điện thoại được, cô có thể đổi cái mới cho tôi được không?
  • making individual purchasing decisions by comparing items from a range of suppliers for features such as price, country of origin, quality, capacity for recycling, reliability, warranty and safety, for example, Tôi hay mua đồ điện tử ở tiệm đó vì chất lượng cao mà giá cả lúc nào cũng rẻ hơn các tiệm khác. Những vật liệu này có thể tái chế được không? Đồ hiệu tuy có chất lượng cao và nhìn đẹp nhưng rất mắc, không phù hợp với túi tiền của học sinh
    • Sustainability
Extend classroom interactions by offering, elaborating on, justifying and eliciting opinions and ideas

[Key concepts: exchange, discussion; Key processes: justifying, stating views, sharing opinions] (ACLVIC176 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • extending interactions by inviting others to contribute to discussions or provide feedback on own ideas, for example, Các bạn nghĩ sao về việc học thêm cuối tuần? Chúng ta nên làm sao để giữ cho tình bạn được lâu dài? Các bạn nghĩ sao về ý kiến của mình?
  • using evaluative language to acknowledge strengths in others’ arguments or provide evidence to justify, contradict, challenge or rebut alternative views in a courteous manner, for example, Tôi rất thích cách giải thích của bạn, rõ ràng và hợp lý lắm. Bạn nói có lý nhưng tôi nghĩ rằng … Lý thuyết thì như vậy, nhưng trên thực tế thì… Hay là mình thử làm thế này/cách khác xem sao?
  • debating with peers on social, environmental or educational issues with reference to Vietnamese and Australian views and values, for example, Có nên bắt buộc học sinh học ngoại ngữ không? Có phải vào đại học là cách tốt nhất để thành công ngày nay?, using evaluative language such as hay/đúng/thú vị/hợp lý/công bằng lắm. Giới trẻ ngày nay rất giỏi sử dụng nhưng cũng bị lệ thuộc quá nhiều vào khoa học kỹ thuật
    • Sustainability
  • exchanging ideas and justifying and elaborating on opinions in class discussions about issues associated with the school or local community, such as school facilities, local services or environmental issues, for example, Chúng em đề nghị căn-tin nhà trường nên bán nhiều thức ăn bổ dưỡng hơn cho học sinh với giá rẻ hơn. Chúng em mong nhà trường nên sửa sang lại các phòng vệ sinh cho sạch sẽ hơn. Có tình trạng xả rác bừa bãi trong các công viên ở địa phương mình
    • Sustainability
  • using Vietnamese idioms and proverbs to illustrate ideas and opinions about learning, for example, Không thầy đố mày làm nên, Học thầy không tầy học bạn

Informing

Locate, synthesise, interpret and evaluate information and opinions from different perspectives relating to social issues and other areas of interest to teenagers

[Key concepts: perspective, interconnection, representation; Key processes: synthesising, evaluating, interpreting] (ACLVIC177 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • researching different perspectives on the same issue in a range of media sources, such as television programs, radio news items, songs, performances, video clips, films, documentaries, online articles, newspapers, magazines and books, to form a balanced view on a subject of discussion such as deforestation, sustainable development or overpopulation
    • Sustainability
  • synthesising information from diverse sources, such as newspapers, magazines, online articles, television news/programs, class surveys or social network profiles, comparing and evaluating the reliability of information
  • conducting surveys and interviews with peers to explore their perspectives on topics related to youth culture and social experiences, for example, Mỗi ngày bạn mất bao nhiêu thời gian để lên mạng? Bạn sử dụng máy vi tính để làm gì?
  • analysing similarities and differences in attitudes or views of different speakers or writers, and comparing and connecting them to own and others’ experiences to form personal perspectives on the issues being discussed
  • comparing and evaluating a range of perspectives relating to teenage interests or social issues, such as arguments for and against social networks, technology advance, cultural practices or traditional values, and explaining the reasons for differences in perspectives
  • analysing articles written by different people, for example, an educator, a welfare worker and a politician, on a social issue such as bullying, identifying different perspectives and the tone of each article, for example, sympathetic, assertive or respectful
Convey information, ideas and viewpoints from different perspectives, selecting appropriate modes of presentation to achieve specific purposes for particular audiences in relevant contexts

[Key concepts: perspective, representation, purpose; Key processes: connecting, presenting, persuading, evaluating] (ACLVIC178 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • producing a range of spoken, written, digital and multimodal texts (posters, emails, formal letters, blog posts, articles, speeches, PowerPoint presentations) for diverse audiences (children, peers, parents, employers), contexts (school, home, community, social group) and purposes (informing, reporting, explaining, promoting, persuading), to convey own ideas on topics such as balancing study and recreation, the benefits of recycling, or the impact of technology
  • writing informative and persuasive texts aimed at a particular audience and context, for example, a brochure promoting a holiday destination (for teenagers), a poster for a doctor’s surgery encouraging healthy eating (among children), a speech to promote healthy and sustainable lifestyles (among young people), a youth web page reviewing a new music or movie release, or an article warning people about environmental pollution or the dangers of cyber bullying
    • Sustainability
  • creating texts pitched to specific age or interest groups, making choices regarding vocabulary, structure, visual and cultural elements, for example, fashion/health advice for a youth forum, school information for new students, suggestions for ways to bridge the generation gap for a family magazine, or a request for donations to help save an endangered animal
    • Sustainability
  • justifying own views with quotes or text references, for example, Chúng ta không nên đánh giá con người qua bề ngoài bởi vì tục ngữ có câu ‘Đừng có trông mặt mà bắt hình dong’. Tôi nghĩ rằng nạn phá rừng đã gia tăng đến mức báo động vì thống kê cho thấy mỗi năm diện tích rừng trên thế giới giảm 20%
  • exploring social and cultural themes through modes of presentation that combine elements such as photos, videos and music to enhance effect of text

Creating

Explore a range of traditional and contemporary forms of art, literature and entertainment, by analysing values, purposes and language techniques, and discussing issues and themes

[Key concepts: imagination, morality, style; Key processes: exploring, relating, analysing] (ACLVIC179 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • viewing and/or listening to different forms of traditional and contemporary Vietnamese arts and entertainment, such as painting, photography, (water) puppetry, dance, music, theatre and cinema, and discussing how practices and beliefs may have changed over time, for example, comparing tranh dân gian Đông Hồ with tranh sơn dầu; dân ca with nhạc trẻ; cải lương/ kịch with phim; and trò chơi dân gian with trò chơi điện tử
  • discussing common features of forms of entertainment, for example, analysing technical effects such as sound effects and background music, lighting, scenery, costumes or make-up, and narrative effects such as what makes an engaging plot and inspiring characters
  • comparing how common themes such as love, friendship, beauty, home, happiness and success are represented in traditional and contemporary Vietnamese arts and entertainment
  • recognising how characters’ feelings and attitudes are expressed through language, such as use of language features such as emotive language, for example, hạnh phúc, vui mừng, phấn khởi, buồn bã, cô đơn, xót xa, bồi hồi
  • discussing with peers how social context and cultural values influence a writer’s representation of issues and topics, for example, how the author’s background or concept of filial piety shapes the characters’ reactions and decisions in regard to their relationships
  • comparing the values, beliefs, attitudes, emotions and language of characters in traditional and contemporary Vietnamese arts and entertainment, analysing how values have changed over time and explaining possible reasons for these changes, for example, contrasting the original story Sự Tích Ông Táo with its modern comedy version
  • analysing the use of images, sounds, gestures and language in songs, films and performances to explain how they convey Vietnamese cultural values and practices
Create a range of imaginative texts in different formats, including multimodal and digital formats, for a range of audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: morality, emotion, journey; Key processes: experimenting, connecting, expressing] (ACLVIC180 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • composing reviews in response to artworks, songs, films or stories, discussing themes, characters and language use
  • creating print or digital stories that reflect Vietnamese practices, values and beliefs, such as Vietnamese New Year celebrations, eating etiquette, filial piety, or belief in the importance of education, presenting an issue or situation related to Vietnamese communities
  • creating a range of texts, such as stories, songs, skits or comics, considering main characters, themes, settings and plots, for diverse audiences, for example, children, peers, parents, teachers and social or interest groups
  • writing scripts and performing role-plays or plays that reflect own perspectives on Vietnamese values and practices, such as own view of traditional filial piety and value of education in the modern context
  • composing own imaginative texts, such as animated stories, games or short films, with different settings, characters and events, using a range of devices for effect, and reflecting on values and practices across cultures
  • creating own imaginative texts, such as dialogues, poems, songs or short stories, using an array of cues, for example, pictures, gestures, music and language, to convey different emotions such as love, happiness, excitement, frustration and sadness

Translating

Translate and interpret texts for different audiences and contexts, and explore how cultural concepts, values and beliefs are represented differently in Vietnamese and English

[Key concepts: sensitivity, empathy; Key processes: analysing, interpreting] (ACLVIC181 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • viewing English-language films with Vietnamese subtitles (and vice versa), evaluating the effectiveness of the translations and explaining associated cultural aspects
  • reading short texts and excerpts from a range of informative, personal and literary texts, identifying cultural elements and reflecting on how they are encoded differently in Vietnamese and English, for example, the use of family terms, titles and terms of address (cô, chú, anh, chị, em)
  • analysing and discussing similarities and differences and cultural influences in common Vietnamese and English idiomatic expressions, for example, Có chí thì nên = ‘Where there’s a will there’s a way’, Đừng có trông mặt mà bắt hình dong = ‘Don’t judge a book by its cover’, đẻ bọc điều = ‘To be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth’, Dạy con từ thuở còn thơ = ‘Strike while the iron is hot’
  • translating written expressions associated with politeness and social behaviours in Vietnamese, for example, opening and closing of formal/informal letters with phrases such as Kính thưa giám đốc, Ba mẹ kính yêu/Bạn thân mến/Em yêu, Thân/Thân mến/Thương mến/Thân chào/Trân trọng kính chào, and comparing them with standard expressions in English, such as ‘Dear …’, ‘Yours sincerely/faithfully’, ‘Kind regards’/‘Regards’
  • experimenting with translating idiomatic expressions and proverbs as well as a range of short texts that involve cultural elements, exploring how to convey meaning and cultural significance in Vietnamese and English, and recognising that the translation of expressions, idioms and proverbs requires both literacy skills and cultural knowledge to mediate between languages
  • translating a range of texts, such as advertisements, speeches, songs, and story or film extracts, and examining the appropriateness of translation for specific audiences and contexts
Create bilingual texts in multimodal forms, including digital, that reflect aspects of culture and language for a variety of Vietnamese and Australian audiences

[Key concepts: cultural literacy, interconnection; Key processes: judging adequacy, translating, interpreting] (ACLVIC182 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating programs for Vietnamese cultural events, including footnotes in English to explain key words, for example, tết Nguyên đán, tết Trung thu, lễ Vu lan, rằm tháng Giêng
  • creating a range of bilingual texts, such as advertisements, announcements and recipes, for different audiences and contexts, and discussing ways of expressing concepts in each language
  • creating bilingual ‘survival guides’ on language and etiquette in the form of brochures or slideshow presentation for visitors to Vietnam or Australia, and providing advice for specific scenarios, for example, at the airport, hotel, supermarket, restaurant or tourist attraction
  • creating bilingual texts in multimodal forms, including digital, that explain Vietnamese and Australian cultural practices, for example, tục lệ ngày Tết, đám giỗ, đầy tháng, thôi nôi, and New Year, Christmas, birthday or Australia Day activities
  • translating children’s stories from English into Vietnamese and vice versa, and discussing how to maintain original meaning when tailoring texts to different audiences and cultural backgrounds
  • adapting classic Australian stories for young Vietnamese readers, and explaining language and setting choices

Reflecting

Reflect on how meanings vary according to cultural assumptions that Vietnamese and English speakers bring to interactions, and take responsibility for contributing to mutual understanding

[Key concepts: cultural assumptions, judgement; Key processes: reflecting, relating interculturally] (ACLVIC183 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • considering how being bilingual offers different ways of interpreting the world and representing experience
  • explaining how cultural assumptions influence meaning, for example, the action of hugging as an indication of friendliness in English-speaking contexts versus gender intimacy in Vietnamese-speaking contexts
  • challenging cultural assumptions and bringing different perspectives to new cultural contexts or situations, for example, using the personal pronouns anh/em to indicate informality between colleagues rather than to define husband–wife or brother–sister relationships as traditionally assumed
  • considering own and others’ responses and reactions in Vietnamese–English intercultural exchanges and discussing reasons for different interpretations of meaning, for example, knowing that Vietnamese people like to please and therefore may give an inaccurate answer whereas Australians would prefer to say directly what they really think or mean
  • identifying moments of embarrassment or communication breakdown in own intercultural interactions, exploring reasons for these and suggesting adjustments to language and/or behaviours that could be made to enhance mutual understanding
  • discussing elements of successful intercultural communication, for example, flexibility, awareness of differences in cultural and religious practices, respect for elderly people and other traditions, attitudes to privacy or different levels of directness in discussions
Reflect on own cultural identity and how it is both shaped by and influences ways of communicating, thinking and behaving

[Key concepts: perception, identity, communication; Key processes: discussing, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLVIC184 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making decisions about relevant information to be included in a cultural identity profile to exchange with non-Vietnamese speakers, for example, deciding what personal details to include such as age, gender and salary, depending on contexts, purpose and relationships
  • reflecting on choices made to present self to others in particular ways or to conceal aspects of identity when interacting across cultures; and noticing differences in the way they communicate, think and behave in different contexts
  • exploring how individual ways of communicating, thinking and behaving help shape views of own cultural identity, for example, why a Vietnamese-Australian teenager who speaks English better than they do Vietnamese and understands more about Australian culture than Vietnamese culture may view themselves as more Australian than Vietnamese
  • comparing and contrasting a Vietnamese and Australian experience, such as a celebration, and considering how their own and others’ identity may shift according to the context

Systems of language

Understand the role of pronunciation, pauses, pace, intonation, fluency and appropriate writing conventions in effective communication and apply this knowledge to own interactions

[Key concept: intonation, fluency, meaning; Key process: applyng] (ACLVIU185 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • recognising and using rhythm in complex sentences, using pauses and intonation to signal clause boundaries and emphasis, for example, Con thích cái áo mà mẹ tặng cho con hôm sinh nhật vừa rồi
  • recognising the challenges of communication associated with clarity and pace in audio texts in certain situations, for example, station or airport announcements or recorded phone messages
  • recognising that tone of voice can indicate the relationship between the speakers, convey emotion and shape meaning, for example, distinguishing between a compliment and irony in the exclamatory sentence Hôm nay em đến sớm thế!
  • applying knowledge of pronunciation, intonation, tone and pace to own use of spoken Vietnamese for a range of social interactions, for example, asking questions or expressing emotions such as happiness, sadness, surprise or excitement
  • identifying the people and factors that influence their own Vietnamese language use and speech patterns, such as parents, teachers, peers and films
Understand and use compound sentence structures, conjunctions, and a range of language features, such as similes or rhetorical questions, and combine them with knowledge of Sino-Vietnamese words and abstract vocabulary to enhance communication and achieve particular effects

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: understanding, applying] (ACLVIU186 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • using compound sentence structures to elaborate on ideas and clarify or justify opinions, for example, Con thích đi ăn ở nhà hàng mà mẹ tổ chức sinh nhật cho bà nội lúc bà qua Úc năm rồi vì chỗ đó thức ăn ngon mà lại rẻ nữa
  • sequencing and adding ideas, events and actions using a variety of high-level cohesive devices such as ngoài ra, hơn nữa, tuy nhiên and bên cạnh đó
  • comparing the meaning and use of Vietnamese and English conjunctions, such as càng … càng = ‘the more … the more …’ or ‘more and more’, vừa … vừa … = ‘both … and’, chẳng nhữngmà còn = ‘not only … but also’, không … mà cũng không = ‘neither … nor’, and using them in own speech and writing
  • using a range of sentence endings to soften commands, for example, Học bài đi chứ! Học bài đi nha!
  • using a range of words and expressions to express different levels of certainty in opinions, for example, Tôi đoán/nghĩ/tin/chắc chắn rằng …
  • expressing levels of possibility and certainty using lẽ ra, có thể là, chắc là, ắt hẳn là
  • explaining the effect of stylistic devices used in Vietnamese texts and using them to enhance communication, for example, Chẳng lẽ mình là người Việt mà lại không biết nói tiếng Việt sao? (rhetorical question); đi nhanh, ăn nhanh, nói nhanh (repetition); đẹp như tiên (simile); Hôm nay lạnh mặt trời đi ngủ sớm (personification)
  • understanding and using onomatopoeic words such as ầm ầm, ào ào, rào rào, rì rào, róc rách, tí tách, đì đùng in own spoken and written texts, for example, sấm chớp ầm ầm, mưa rơi tí tách, gió thổi rì rào, suối chảy róc rách, pháo nổ đì đùng
  • exploring the meaning of Sino-Vietnamese words and providing their equivalents in modern Vietnamese, for example, tổ quốc = đất nước, phụ mẫu = cha mẹ, phụ nữ = đàn bà, huynh đệ = anh em, phi trường= sân bay, lương thực = đồ ăn
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding and using common Sino-Vietnamese words as appropriate to context (such as for formal occasions), for example, hội phụ nữ, not hội đàn bà; viện dưỡng lão, not nhà người già
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding and using abstract nouns, adjectives and verbs to express abstract or sophisticated concepts and attitudes, for example, Không gì có thể sánh bằng công ơn và tình thương của cha mẹ đối với con cái. Phụ nữ Việt Nam hết lòng tận tụy, hy sinh cho gia đình
  • using specialised vocabulary to discuss a range of topics of interest, for example, the environment (ô nhiễm môi trường, tái chế, năng lượng sạch), technology (an toàn trên mạng, nhật ký điện tử, mạng lưới toàn cầu), and migration (tỵ nạn, di dân, định cư, hội nhập, thường trú nhân, quốc tịch)
  • using sympathetic language to signal empathy, restraint or indirect disagreement, for example, Tôi hiểu/rất thông cảm với bạn …, Thôi bạn đừng buồn nữa …, Thôi được rồi, khoan đã
Understand the relationship between purpose, audience, context, linguistic features, and textual and cultural elements associated with different types of personal, reflective, informative and persuasive texts

[Key concept: textual conventions; Key processes: discussing, applying] (ACLVIU187 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • analysing how language choices help achieve particular purposes and effects, for example, descriptive language to promote a product, evaluative language to reflect on an experience or to review a literary work, persuasive language to influence audience, or humorous techniques to entertain
  • recognising and explaining cultural aspects reflected in a range of texts, including multimodal and digital texts, such as school reports, weather reports, official announcements, television programs, or recipes, particularly in the use of idiomatic expressions or proverbs
  • identifying appropriate salutations, depending on personal relationship or social ranking, in specific text types such as emails, speeches or interviews, for example, Kính thưa … /Thưa … , …thân mến/thương mến, kính chào/chào …
  • understanding and transforming texts to suit different purposes (to persuade, to entertain), different audiences (children, adolescents, Vietnamese people, Australians) and different types of texts (an article, a report, speech)
  • understanding the importance of choosing a text type appropriate to their audience and purpose, for example, a speech to persuade Year 8 students to choose Vietnamese as their elective in Year 9, or an article to express own opinions on the impact of technology on teenagers
  • recognising and analysing similarities or differences that might be culturally significant across cultures, for example, similarities such as the use of the heart as a symbol of love or pigeons as a symbol of peace, and differences such as the use of the colour white to signify purity in Western cultures but bad luck in Eastern cultures
  • recognising and discussing cultural concepts or values reflected in texts, for example, cultural icons used in commercial advertisements
  • identifying language features and cultural references that contribute to the overall meaning or purpose of texts, for example, a rhetorical question such as Chẳng lẽ chúng ta chịu bó tay sao? to call for action, or truyền thống tôn sư trọng đạo to promote the value of education

Language variation and change

Analyse and explain how and why language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes

[Key concepts: register, variation based on audience, context and purpose; Key processes: analysing, explaining] (ACLVIU188 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying and analysing variations in language use (choice of vocabulary and structures) between diverse participants, for example, old people and teenagers, males and females, educated and uneducated people, in a range of different interactions
  • analysing and comparing language use in a range of blogs, interviews or transcripts of speeches to deduce the age, gender, interests or educational level of the audience
  • understanding the importance of adapting own language use for different audiences or degrees of formality, for example, moving from informal (mẹ ơi/ông ơi/bà ơi) to respectful tone (thưa mẹ/kính thưa ông bà), or simple (lòng thương người) to sophisticated (lòng nhân ái) vocabulary/structures
  • discussing variations in language use in Vietnamese traditional and contemporary literature, arts and entertainment relating to the same theme or topic, and analysing how language changes (with regard to vocabulary and structures) in different settings and contexts
  • comparing own written language use in various modes of communication and for a range of purposes, for example, text messages, online chatting, emailing or doing schoolwork, and reflecting on how and why the writing style differs and considering the effect on meaning
Analyse the impact of media, technology, globalisation, migration and popular culture on Vietnamese language use in Vietnam and overseas

[Key concepts: impact, consequence; Key processes: analysing, explaining, comparing] (ACLVIU189 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing the influence of electronic ‘chat’ language on students’ literacy skills in Vietnamese and English
  • exploring how globalisation has resulted in the introduction of English words and expressions into Vietnamese, for example, the use of English terms for technology, such as CD, DVD, USB, video, TV, remote control, computer, laptop, internet and website, despite the existence of Vietnamese equivalents, or mixing English into the lyrics of contemporary Vietnamese popular music, and discussing the advantages/disadvantages of such influences
  • exploring the influence of popular culture on Vietnamese language spoken in Vietnam and overseas through the development of new vocabulary such as phong cách / thời trang Hàn quốc, truyện tranh Nhật Bản, nhạc RIB/hiphop
  • exploring the Vietnamese words used in Vietnam that are unfamiliar in Vietnamese-speaking communities in other countries, for example, bức xúc, vấn đề nổi cộm

Role of language and culture

Understand the reciprocal relationship between language, culture and communication and how this relationship impacts on attitudes and beliefs

[Key concepts: language, culture, reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, analysing] (ACLVIU190 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • exploring how cultural concepts such as respect for authority influence Vietnamese communicative practices, for example, not making eye contact when interacting with others, and not expressing differing personal views to elderly people, and how these may be misinterpreted by English speakers as lack of engagement or initiative
  • examining the influence of Vietnamese culture on gestures, tone and word choices in social interactions, for example, the practice of using family terms (chú, bác) to indicate informality when addressing an unrelated person reflects the value and importance placed on family in Vietnamese culture
  • identifying ways to enhance mutual cultural understanding, such as using cultural behaviours appropriately according to audience and context of communication, for example, making eye contact when talking to Australians but not when talking to elderly Vietnamese people
  • comparing how the same practice, concept or value is represented differently in different contexts and types of texts due to changes in attitudes and views, for example, how the concept of filial piety (chữ hiếu) is reflected in Vietnamese opera (cải lương) and in contemporary Vietnamese films, and in folk and contemporary literature
  • exploring significant values, practices and beliefs of other cultures, including those from other Asian cultures, that are reflected in different forms of media such as the internet, arts and entertainment, and stories
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring how learning and using Vietnamese has impacted on own view of Vietnamese culture and other cultures, including their understanding of the role of culture in respecting and sustaining the environment
    • Sustainability

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use spoken and written Vietnamese to initiate, sustain and extend interactions with peers, teachers and others in a range of contexts and for a range of purposes, such as to explore peers’ perspectives on youth culture and personal experiences. They use language spontaneously in the classroom, offering and justifying their own opinions and ideas and eliciting those of others. They negotiate with others to complete shared tasks and transactions, using evaluative language, for example, Ý kiến của bạn rất mới lạ/hợp thời. Bạn nói có lý nhưng tôi nghĩ rằng , to acknowledge others’ opinions and to challenge and manage alternative views. They use transitional sentences, such as Hay là mình thử làm thế này xem sao. Còn vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường thì sao?, to manage shifts of topic and speaker. They speak fluently, pausing where appropriate, and use stress in extended sentences to enhance communication. Students gather, synthesise and evaluate information and opinions from different perspectives and create original texts for diverse audiences and purposes in a range of contexts. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by analysing their purpose and language techniques, forming their own position on the issues, themes and values addressed. They create a range of imaginative texts to express a variety of perspectives and values in modes of presentation selected to suit audience, purpose and context. They combine knowledge of Sino–Vietnamese words and abstract vocabulary with stylistic devices to enhance expression, create particular effects and influence others, for example, through repetition (for example, đi nhanh, nói nhanh, ăn nhanh), similes (for example, mắt sáng như sao), personification (for example, lá sầu), onomatopoeia (for example, ào, rì rào, đùng), and rhetorical questions, for example, Chẳng lẽ mình là người Việt mà lại không biết nói tiếng Việt? They adjust their own language use when addressing a different audience or in a different context, for example, shifting from an informal to a respectful tone, and from simple to sophisticated vocabulary or structures. They convert informal everyday speech (for example, ai cũng biết hết) into formal register (for example, như quý vị đã biết), as appropriate. Students use conjunctions, such as trước tiên, sau cùng, ngoài ra, hơn nữa, do đó, càng càng, vừa vừa, chẳng những mà còn, nếu…thì, tuy… nhưng, vì…cho nên, to sequence and connect ideas in texts, and apply accurate spelling to enhance communication. They translate and interpret texts and create bilingual resources for Vietnamese and English-speaking audiences, explaining how cultural concepts, values and beliefs are embedded in language. They compare views on the relationship between cultural identity and communication, question cultural assumptions, and modify language and behaviours in intercultural interactions as appropriate.

Students explain how pronunciation, intonation, pace and rhythm in spoken Vietnamese can express different emotions, for example, Con thích cái áo mà mẹ tặng cho con hôm sinh nhật vừa rồi, and signal clause boundaries and emphasis. They explain why Sino-Vietnamese words are used in formal contexts, for example, hội phụ nữ (not hội đàn bà) and viện dưỡng lão (not nhà người già). They analyse a range of personal, informative, reflective and persuasive texts and explain the relationship between context, purpose, audience, linguistic features and textual and cultural elements. They analyse how language use varies according to cultural contexts, relationships and purposes, explaining why they adjust their vocabulary and level of politeness and formality in intercultural interactions. They explain the impact of media, technology, globalisation, migration and popular culture on Vietnamese language use in both Australia and Vietnam. They explain the reciprocal nature of the relationship between language, culture and communication, identifying its impact on attitudes and beliefs.