Vietnamese

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Context statement

The place of the Vietnamese language and culture in Australia and in the world
Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. It is spoken by approximately 90 million people in Vietnam and approximately four million Vietnamese people living in other countries around the world, with the majority residing in the United States, Cambodia, France, Taiwan and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Vietnamese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of content
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence …

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Years 7 and 8

Years 7 and 8 Band Description

The nature of the learners

These years represent a transition to secondary school. Students in this sequence are continuing to study Vietnamese, bringing with them an established capability to interact in different situations, to engage with a variety of texts and to communicate about their immediate world and that of Vietnam and other Vietnamese-speaking communities.

Vietnamese language learning and use

The focus of learning shifts from the world of learners’ own experience and imagination to the wider world. Learners make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences relating to teenage life and interests. They increasingly access information from local sources and the internet to explore topical themes and issues such as friends and family, home and school, discipline and freedom, study and relaxation, appearance and personality, food and health, and the natural and built environments. They read a range of Vietnamese texts, such as diary entries, emails, letters, travel brochures, print or online reports and articles, to collate and use information about aspects of culture, both in Vietnam and in Vietnamese-speaking communities in the Australian context.

Vietnamese folk tales, common idioms, proverbs and folk songs (ca dao), such as Tấm Cám, Sơn Tinh Thủy Tinh; mò kim đáy biển; Ăn trái nhớ kẻ trồng cây; Cá không ăn muối cá ươn, Con cưỡng/cãi cha mẹ trăm đường con hư, are also introduced at this level to familiarise students with Vietnamese folk literature. Students learn to evaluate information and explore the representation of places, people, experiences and cultures in diverse sources. They use different processing strategies and their knowledge of language, increasingly drawing on understanding of text types, for example, when writing a recount or report. They produce descriptive, imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to present information and opinions on topics and concepts studied. They use vocabulary and grammar with increasing accuracy, drafting and editing to improve structure and clarify meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners work both collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. They use Vietnamese to interact with teachers, peers and local Vietnamese speakers, participating in authentic situations at home and school and within the local community. The context of interactions extends beyond the classroom and involves participating actively in planning individual events or celebrations, for example, Tuần tới chúng mình tổ chức sinh nhật cho Nam ở trường nhé. Cuối năm nay nhà mình đi chơi ở đâu? Con sẽ giúp ba mẹ quét dọn nhà cửa để ăn Tết. Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and on life experiences in different contexts and cultures. They listen to and view advertisements, announcements, conversations, television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Vietnamese language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communication technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Vietnamese in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Vietnamese-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners use appropriate pronunciation, accent and intonation patterns and spelling in a range of sentences, such as statements, questions and exclamations. By building their language knowledge, learners are able to develop and express more complex concepts in Vietnamese. They use a range of grammatical forms and structures to convey relationships between people, places, events and ideas. They employ a variety of sentence structures and grammatical features, including direct and indirect speech (Ba mẹ nói với tôi: Con nên chăm học’. Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học) to elaborate on ideas and opinions. Learners explore Vietnamese use of alliteration (vui vẻ, mát mẻ, hớn hở) and common onomatopoeic forms (ào ào, rì rào, đì đùng), as well as common expressions, idioms and proverbs, such as tiền rừng bạc biển, có chí thì nên, uống nước nhớ nguồn, to enrich their understanding and use of language. They learn to distinguish between the meanings of Vietnamese homonyms such as ăn (‘eat’ or ‘win’) and hay (‘interesting’, ‘usually’ or ‘or’), depending on the context of use. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language, for example, chữ hiếu, ơn nghĩa sinh thành, tình nghĩa thầy trò, ở hiền gặp lành, and how language choices determine how people, issues and circumstances are represented, for example, con cưng/con yêu quý, lợi ích to lớn/thiệt hại đáng kể, hoàn cảnh khó khăn.

Level of support

The class will likely comprise background learners with a range of prior experience in studying Vietnamese. Learners are supported through multilevel and differentiated tasks. Consolidation of prior learning is balanced with the provision of new, engaging and challenging experiences. As they develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users, learners are supported to self-monitor and reflect on language use in response to their experiences in diverse contexts.

The role of English

The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Vietnamese being the principal language of communication. English may be used separately or in conjunction with Vietnamese to compare and evaluate translations, or to express ideas, personal views and experiences. Learners continue to develop a metalanguage for thinking and communicating about language and culture from a bilingual perspective, and discussing connections within and across languages and cultures. They recognise significant Vietnamese practices (mừng tuổi, xông đất, lì xì, thờ cúng ông bà), values (lòng hiếu thảo, coi trọng giáo dục) and beliefs (đạo Phật, Nho giáo), and explore the impact of culture on language use, for example, honorific words (dạ/dạ thưa/thưa/kính thưa) and expressions such as kính lão đắc thọ, kính trên nhường dưới. They examine their personal and cultural identity and reflect on the nature of intercultural exchanges in which they are involved, comparing themselves with other people and generations, questioning their own assumptions and others’ interpretation of their linguistic, social and cultural practices.


Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions with peers and known adults on topics and issues related to social activities and personal interests

[Key concepts: discussion, exchange, interaction; Key processes: expressing, sharing] (ACLVIC157 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • initiating conversations, including face-to-face and online conversations, by asking peers about personal interests, for example, Lúc rảnh rỗi bạn thích làm gì? Bạn thích ăn mặc thế nào khi đi chơi?
  • sustaining conversations by further exploring peers’ perspectives on topics of discussion, for example, Ngoài âm nhạc ra bạn còn sở thích gì khác? Tại sao vậy? Tôi nghĩ đọc sách rất có ích. Bạn có đồng ý với tôi không?
  • exchanging opinions about a range of topics such as friends, family, lifestyles, celebrations, food and health, for example, Mình nên cẩn thận khi quen bạn ở trên mạng. Chúng ta nên ăn uống lành mạnh để có sức khỏe tốt
  • summarising different opinions in interactions, for example, Có bạn thì thích phim hành động, có bạn thì thích phim tình cảm
  • interacting with family and friends at school and home events, for example, Hôm nay đội bóng đá trường mình chơi hay lắm! Năm nay ngày hội đa văn hóa trường mình tổ chức vào ngày nào? Ba mẹ ơi, năm nay nhà mình đi chơi ở đâu/ăn Tết thế nào? Tết này cô chú và các em về Việt Nam ăn Tết à? Cho con gởi lời thăm ông bà và các cô chú ở Việt Nam
Engage in collaborative tasks and transactions in real or simulated contexts that involve solving problems and making decisions

[Key concepts: collaboration, transaction; Key processes: collaborating, planning, negotiating] (ACLVIC158 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • responding to invitations by accepting, declining or apologising, for example, Cám ơn bạn. Được, tôi sẽ đến dự sinh nhật của bạn. Xin lỗi, tôi không đến được vì bận đi đám cưới với gia đình
  • collaborating with peers to plan individual, family, class or school events such as a birthday party, housewarming, class excursion or school performance, taking the initiative, discussing alternatives and making decisions, for example, Tuần tới chúng mình sẽ tổ chức sinh nhật cho Minh ở trường nhưng Trang bận quá. Vậy Hùng email mời các bạn giùm, còn Lan và Hương sẽ mua bánh và quà cho Minh
  • commenting on the organisation of local community events and making suggestions for improvements, for example, Tết Trung Thu năm nay vui quá. Các cửa tiệm nên bán thêm nhiều lồng đèn hơn
  • participating in transactions in authentic, simulated or online situations, such as purchasing goods or services, for example, Cái áo này bao nhiêu tiền? Vé xe lửa/ xe buýt khứ hồi đi đến trung tâm thành phố bao nhiêu tiền? Có số nhỏ/lớn hơn cho cái quần này không?
Interact in classroom activities and discussions through asking and responding to open-ended questions, and offering and justifying opinions

[Key concepts: friendship, contribution; Key processes: responding, expressing, justifying, sharing] (ACLVIC159 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • requesting repetition or asking for and providing clarification, for example, Bạn vui lòng lặp lại/nói rõ hơn về … , Bạn nghĩ sao về việc … ? Thưa cô, chữ ‘vẻ mặt’ là dấu hỏi hay dấu ngã? Làm sao biết khi nào dùng dấu hỏi hay dấu ngã?
  • asking and responding to open-ended questions about learning activities or strategies, for example, Hôm qua có bài làm về nhà gì cho môn tiếng Việt? Cô giáo dặn mình phải đọc và trả lời câu hỏi cho bài Tết Trung Thu. Mình phải làm sao để phân biệt được các dấu trong tiếng Việt? Thì bạn phải ráng tập nghe, tập đọc và tập viết cho nhiều, chú ý cách phát âm các dấu khác nhau thế nào
  • using descriptive or expressive language when discussing contrasting aspects of personal world such as home and school, discipline and freedom, study and entertainment, appearance and personality, and when offering and justifying opinions, for example, Chúng ta nói tiếng Anh với thầy cô và bạn bè ở trường nhưng nên nói tiếng Việt với gia đình ở nhà. Chúng ta nên biết cân bằng giữa học hành và giải trí. Gia đình tôi sống rất hòa thuận và vui vẻ. Cuối tuần tôi thường đi bơi hay đi coi phim với bạn bè
  • participating in authentic cultural experiences in the community, such as an excursion to a Vietnamese restaurant or festival, and rehearsing studied vocabulary, structures and manners, for example, Mình nên dùng món khai vị gì? Còn món ăn chính thì sao? Chúng ta nên ăn tráng miệng bằng trái cây thay cho bánh ngọt. Các bạn nhớ đừng nói chuyện ồn ào khi ăn uống

Informing

Locate, analyse and compare information relating to topics of shared interest or other learning areas from a range of print, visual, digital and online sources

[Key concepts: representation, media, leisure; Key processes: analysing, comparing, connecting] (ACLVIC160 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • accessing diverse sources in a range of media, such as books, web pages, television programs, radio news items, interviews, reports, video clips or documentaries, to collate information about aspects of Vietnamese and Australian lifestyles, for example, schooling, leisure activities or preservation of natural environments
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • researching young people’s lifestyles across Vietnamese-speaking communities, comparing information from different cultural contexts to identify the impact of such factors as climate, customs, transport, economy or globalisation, for example, the influence of Korean pop culture on Vietnamese teenagers’ fashion and hairstyles, and their tastes in food, music and movies
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using reading strategies to enhance understanding of texts, such as identifying and clarifying the meaning of key words or concepts, or distinguishing main points from supporting details
  • summarising, analysing and comparing information obtained from a range of sources, for example, information about Vietnam from a cookbook, a tourism website and a documentary such as Luke Nguyen in Vietnam or Hành Trình Xuyên Việt, selecting appropriate resources for research projects, and discussing and explaining the reasons for similarities and differences in the information obtained
  • comparing key points and supporting details from a range of texts about special occasions and ceremonies, and discussing culture-specific terms and representations
  • using concept maps, charts and tables to organise and analyse information
  • contributing to a shared class database or online library information that has been drawn from various sources, and classifying selected information according to topic, genre or level
Convey information and ideas on different topics or events, describing and comparing views, experiences and aspects of culture, using different modes of presentation for particular audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: representation, experience, audience, context; Key processes: conveying, describing, representing, comparing] (ACLVIC161 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • creating texts for a Vietnamese-speaking audience, using different forms and modes of presentation to enhance effect, for example, creating a digital presentation with visual and audio effects to introduce a famous tourist attraction or preparing a video clip of a cooking demonstration
  • investigating a social, environmental or cultural issue such as cyber bullying or cultural maintenance and presenting the findings summarising opinions, attitudes and comments collected from surveys, interviews or media sources
    • Sustainability
  • creating a range of texts to inform others of features of Vietnamese and Australian lifestyles, family life, schooling, and social and cultural norms, for example, an email in response to a Vietnamese friend’s enquiry about Australian schooling or leisure activities, a review to promote a Vietnamese restaurant, an advertisement to promote a new product, or a blog entry reflecting on the differences between Australian and Vietnamese foods or eating etiquette
  • delivering speeches or writing emails or letters to friends or relatives describing and analysing differences and similarities between the lives of Vietnamese and Australian teenagers, providing a balanced view of the lives and interests of teenagers in each country, referring to different perspectives from a range of resources and making connections with own or peers’ experiences
  • reporting in the form of a personal recount or diary entry a personal experience such as a school excursion, a holiday trip or a local cultural event, for example, a Moon festival
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Creating

Respond to different types of imaginative texts by explaining themes, messages and plot, and commenting on characters and events

[Key concepts: moral, representation, character, experience; Key processes: connecting, expressing, explaining, describing] (ACLVIC162 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • listening to, viewing and reading a range of narratives, including multimodal and digital narratives, such as cartoons, films, comics, stories, poems and songs, and identifying and analysing themes, messages and plot
  • comparing different expressive forms of the same story, event, character or place, to consider how form affects meaning and creates effects, for example, comparing the way the same story is expressed in the film Ăn Khế Trả Vàng and in the folk tale Ăn Khế Trả Vàng
  • reflecting on the ways in which people, places and experiences are described in Vietnamese imaginative texts, and comparing representations with those expressed across cultures, for example, comparing Vietnamese and Australian folk songs (hò leo núi/kéo gỗ/cấy lúa and ‘Waltzing Matilda’) or Vietnamese and Western folk tales (Tấm Cám and Cinderella), and discussing the reasons for similar or different values, practices and beliefs
  • comparing key messages and beliefs from Vietnamese stories (Sự Tích Trái Dưa Hấu, Sơn Tinh Thủy Tinh) and imaginative texts in the Australian context, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander texts such as ‘The Rainbow Serpent’
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • responding to different expressions of humour in Vietnamese comedies and comparing them with Australian/Western expressions of humour, for example, comparing comedies by Thúy Nga, Asia with Anh Do/Mr Bean
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • commenting on and stating personal preferences relating to characters, actions and events in texts, using descriptive and evaluative language, including antonyms such as hiền lành/hung dữ, thành thật/gian xảo, rộng rãi/keo kiệt, thiện/ác, and relevant idioms or proverbs such as ở hiền gặp lành, gieo gió gặt bão, có chí thì nên, ăn quả nhớ kẻ trồng cây
  • comparing contemporary music popular among Vietnamese and Australian teenagers by listening to radio music stations and albums and viewing video clips, identifying similarities and differences in themes, messages, expression, styles of performance and singers’ fashion
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Create and present a range of texts, including multimodal and digital texts, involving imagined places, events, people and experiences, to entertain others

[Key concepts: imagination, experience; Key processes: entertaining, creating] (ACLVIC163 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating texts such as a diary entry to reflect on an event in a story or film, or an interview with an imaginary character in a story or film
  • performing scenes that illustrate aspects of the personality and attitudes of characters from a variety of written and visual imaginative texts
  • creating the next scene, a new character or an alternative ending for Vietnamese imaginative texts such as a folk tale, short story, drama or film
  • performing a dramatisation of a creative text, for example, imagining themselves as characters in a poem, song or painting and creating a scenario and dialogue
  • adapting stories or films to new settings and contexts, imagining how characters might behave and react differently in different contexts and times
  • creating performances that reflect on significant Vietnamese or Australian events or histories, for example, Thánh Gióng, Hưng Đạo Vương, Bánh Dày Bánh Chưng, tết Nguyên đán, tết Trung thu, Australia Day, Anzac Day, Harmony Day
  • creating and performing simple raps, songs, skits or poems, using own imagination or relating own and others’ experiences

Translating

Translate and interpret texts, compare own translation of a range of texts with others’, and explore differences and strategies to overcome challenges in translation

[Key concepts: meaning, difference; Key processes: interpreting, explaining, considering the validity of different meanings] (ACLVIC164 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interpreting and translating a range of texts from English to Vietnamese and vice versa, using and evaluating translation resources such as web-based translation tools and print and digital dictionaries
  • comparing and discussing various translations (including print and electronic translations, own and peers’ translation work) of common words, phrases, expressions and texts, explaining the possible reasons for differences and similarities, selecting the most appropriate translation and negotiating adjustment if necessary
  • discussing and amending inaccurate translations of public signs or notices in Vietnam and in Australia
  • identifying and discussing strategies for translating difficult words and concepts or instances of non-equivalence, such as expanding descriptions or explanations, providing examples to assist meaning, or connecting to context to identify the meaning of a word, for example, ‘a strong person’ (một người mạnh khỏe) versus ‘strong tea’ (trà đậm); ‘hot weather’ (thời tiết nóng nực) versus ‘a hot issue’ (vấn đề gây tranh cãi) or ‘a hot zone’ (khu vực nguy hiểm)
  • recognising changes required to sentence structure or word use in English–Vietnamese translation, for example, ‘This lesson is too hard to understand’ = Bài học này khó quá, tôi không hiểu được; ‘I can’t help laughing’ = Tôi không thể nhịn cười được
  • observing peers working as interpreters in the classroom in different contexts, identifying challenges in language mediation and exploring strategies to overcome these challenges
Produce bilingual texts in multimodal and digital forms for the school and wider community, and provide subtitles, commentaries or glossaries of cultural terms in either language to assist meaning

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: selecting, connecting interculturally] (ACLVIC165 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating Vietnamese glossaries to accompany English texts such as dự báo thời tiết (weather forecasts), phim tài liệu về thiên nhiên (nature documentary), phim hoạt họa (cartoons) or truyện cổ tích (folk tales)
  • participating in projects to facilitate the learning of Vietnamese, for example, creating crosswords, picture dictionaries or glossaries to assist with vocabulary acquisition or revision, and simple short texts with various questions and activities to assist reading comprehension and writing development
  • composing bilingual texts for non-Vietnamese and non-English speakers, for example, subtitled animation of home energy saving suggestions, menus for Vietnamese restaurants with footnotes in English, and public signs and notices for Australian and Vietnamese contexts, paying attention to aspects of culture
  • creating captions and commentaries for short video clips or slideshow presentations of intercultural experiences such as going on a holiday, attending a wedding ceremony, giving or accepting a gift, or informing Vietnamese peers and community of school or cultural events
  • creating tourist brochures or itineraries for young Australian travellers to Vietnam, supplying key words, phrases, and information about cultural behaviours, for example, Bao nhiêu tiền? Phòng vệ sinh ở đâu? Làm ơn chở tôi đến nhà hàng/khách sạn/phi trường, xin lỗi, cám ơn
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Reflecting

Reflect on cultural differences between Vietnamese and English communicative styles, discussing how and why they modify language for different cultural perspectives

[Key concepts: communication, cultural perspectives; Key processes: reflecting, discussing, connecting] (ACLVIC166 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing cultural cues in communication that suggest differences in traditions, ideas or values, for example, the importance of seeking agreement and compromise as reflected in the way Vietnamese people express disagreement (Tôi e rằng… Bạn nói cũng có lý nhưng mà …), or the importance of respect as seen in the way Vietnamese people greet each other or address the elderly (dạ/thưa/kính thưa)
  • reflecting on the influence of Vietnamese culture on own communication style, for example, using gestures, words or expressions with particular cultural significance in Vietnamese, and discussing whether they modify their communication style when interacting in English-speaking contexts
  • reflecting on and explaining which words, expressions or gestures should or should not be incorporated when interacting with Vietnamese speakers or speakers of other languages, for example, using expressions of praise or admiration, beckoning downwards or upwards, hugging someone in greeting, making eye contact during conversation
  • comparing choices of language and behaviours when communicating in Vietnamese and English, explaining the modifications they make and why, for example, being indirect when making refusals in Vietnamese-speaking contexts (Dạ con không dám hứa chắc. Để con xem hôm đó có bận gì không. Con cũng thích món quà này nhưng mà ...) or using both hands when giving something to elderly people
Reflect on how and why being a speaker of Vietnamese contributes to their sense of identity and is important to their Vietnamese cultural heritage

[Key concepts: cultural heritage, identity; Key processes: reflecting, explaining] (ACLVIC167 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing how being bilingual allows them to present ‘self’ to others in particular ways, for example, as being ‘Vietnamese’, and recognising that identity includes culture as well as language
  • reflecting on the role of language in expressing identity, considering when, with whom and why different languages are used and reflecting on whether their own identity changes when they use different languages
  • explaining to others how the Vietnamese language is part of their identity, and reflecting on when, how and why they use Vietnamese
  • sharing views of what their understanding of Vietnamese culture ‘is’, and how it relates to language, identity and experience, using statements such as ‘My culture is …’, ‘Culture can …’

Systems of language

Apply Vietnamese pronunciation, spelling and intonation patterns in a range of sentences such as statements, questions and exclamations

[Key concepts: sound systems, writing systems; Key process: applying] (ACLVIU168 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • distinguishing and making nuances in pronunciation and spelling between some similar diphthongs and triphthongs, for example, chiều cao and cây cau, lổ mũi and con muỗi, chúi nhủi and trái chuối
  • applying Vietnamese pronunciation and spelling rules to own speech and writing to pronounce and spell new words encountered in interactions and texts, for example, if the spelling of the word mười is known, then the spelling of the word người can be determined without knowing its meaning
  • experimenting with intonation patterns to distinguish different types of sentences, for example, a statement (Con không đi chơi đâu.), a question (Con không đi chơi đâu?) and an exclamation (Con không đi chơi đâu!)
  • comparing own Vietnamese speech patterns with standard Vietnamese pronunciation, and making adjustments to their pronunciation of certain sounds or tone markers as necessary, for example, g and r, s and x, ch and tr, or d and gi and v
  • developing strategies to understand meaning when listening to diverse regional Vietnamese accents, for example, inferring meaning from the context of communication
Understand and use elements of Vietnamese grammar to organise and elaborate on ideas and opinions, such as direct/indirect speech and verbs to express modality

[Key concepts: grammatical knowledge, elaboration; Key processes: understanding, applying] (ACLVIU169 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • differentiating interrogative forms with tag questions and using them according to context, for example, Em thích ăn cơm chiên không? (a yes/no question to discover whether the other person likes fried rice) and Em thích ăn cơm chiên phải không? (a tag question to confirm that the other person likes fried rice)
  • recognising differences in Vietnamese and English responses to negative tag questions to avoid misinterpretation, for example, in Vietnamese the response to the question Em chưa làm bài tập về nhà phải không? (‘You haven’t done your homework, have you?’) would be Dạ phải. Em chưa làm (‘YES, I haven’t’), while in English it would be ‘NO, I haven’t’
  • recognising the purpose and effect of exclamatory sentences as opposed to statements, for example, the statement Hôm nay Lan đi học sớm simply states that Lan came to school early today, while the exclamatory sentence Hôm nay Lan đi học sớm thế/vậy! may suggest surprise or irony
  • constructing a range of sentences in affirmative, negative, interrogative and imperative forms for different purposes
  • understanding the use of được and bị for positive and negative meaning, for example, Em được điểm tốt. Em được thầy cô khen. Em bị bệnh. Em bị ba mẹ la
  • understanding and using verbs to express modality such as nên (‘should’), cần (‘need to’) and phải (‘must’), for example, Các em nên chăm học. Chúng ta cần không khí để thở, thức ăn để ăn và nhà để ở. Học sinh phải mặc đồng phục khi đi học
  • using direct speech, for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’, and indirect speech, for example, Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học, to relate ideas, opinions, actions and events
  • using a range of expressions for indefinite quantities, for example, hàng ngàn, triệu triệu, vô số, hàng hà sa số, biết bao nhiêu là …
  • exploring homonyms encountered in texts, for example, (‘cow’ or ‘to crawl’), ăn (‘eat’ or ‘win’), đỗ/đậu (‘pass the exam’ or ‘bean’), bàn (‘table’ or ‘discuss’), lợi (‘benefit’ or ‘gum’), đen (‘black’ or ‘unlucky’)
  • recognising the features of alliteration in Vietnamese, for example, vui vẻ, mát mẻ, lanh lợi, and using them in own spoken and written texts
  • explaining to peers the meaning of common idioms and proverbs, for example, tiền rừng bạc biển, mò kim đáy biển<; đói cho sạch, rách cho thơm
Expand understanding of how different types of texts are structured and employ particular language features to suit different audiences, contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: text structure, language features; Key process: applying] (ACLVIU170 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • analysing different types of texts, such as recipes, profiles, songs, poems, stories, recounts, reports, advertisements or conversations, to identify audience, purpose, structure and language techniques
  • examining structural features of informal text types, for example, dates on letters, postcards and diary entries
  • exploring the way content is developed in different types of texts, and how ideas and information are structured, for example, headings, paragraphs, topic sentences, elaborations, topic/idea shifts
  • identifying and comparing language features of different types of texts, for example, use of first person point of view and descriptive and emotive language in personal recounts and diary entries
  • recognising linguistic choices made to vary texts according to their intended audience and degree of formality, for example, changing personal pronouns or tone to indicate changes in relationship between participants or degree of (in)formality

Language variation and change

Understand how language use differs between spoken and written texts, and depends on participants, relationships and the purpose and mode of delivery

[Key concepts: language use, context; Key processes: understanding, explaining] (ACLVIU171 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing spoken and written texts, for example, a spoken advertisement and a print advertisement, or an oral conversation and an email, and explaining how mode relates to linguistic structures and features and how this affects meaning
  • reflecting on ways in which tone varies according to setting and context, for example, the same sentence may be spoken in different tones (friendly/unfriendly, respectful/ironical)
  • recognising and analysing differences between language use in formal interviews and speeches and that in everyday conversations, such as Bạn có thể vui lòng cho biết ý kiến của bạn về vấn đề này? versus Bạn nghĩ sao về chuyện này? or Xin chào cô và các bạn versus Lan nè/Ê Lan, khỏe không?, and comparing informal classroom interactions on a current event or issue with discussions on the same topic on news and current-affairs programs
  • understanding how to convert informal spoken language (ai cũng biết hết) into formal register to suit particular purposes and audiences, and experimenting with formal expressions such as mọi người đều biết, như các bạn đã biết
  • recognising how language use, such as the level of politeness, reflects the relationship of the participants and the purpose of the speaker or writer, for example, close friends tend to use informal language (tao, mày), while new acquaintances interact more formally (tôi, bạn)
Explore the impact on language of social, cultural and intercultural influences such as globalisation and new technologies

[Key concepts: globalisation, technology; Key processes: exploring, researching, explaining] (ACLVIU172 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising Vietnamese words, phrases and concepts that have emerged as a result of technological advances, for example, máy vi tính xách tay, nhấp chuột, điện thoại thông minh, thư điện tử, nhật ký điện tử, mạng lưới toàn cầu, trò chơi trực tuyến, tivi màn hình cong, phim ba chiều
  • reflecting on changes in own language use and identifying new terms and communicative modes that have been adopted as a result of the development of technology, for example, using abbreviations such as ‘u’, ‘LOL’, ‘YOLO’, ‘2u’ or ‘4u’ or emoticons instead of whole words or phrases
  • recognising and understanding new words (including Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese), phrases and concepts that have been developed as a result of globalisation and changing lifestyles, for example, toàn cầu hóa, kimono, koala, sushi, pizza, mì Ý (pasta), bánh mì kẹp thịt (hamburger), thức ăn nhanh (fast food)

Role of language and culture

Analyse the ways in which choices in language use reflect cultural ideas and perspectives, and reflect on how what is considered acceptable in communication varies across cultures

[Key concepts: perspectives, beliefs; Key processes: exploring, describing, comparing] (ACLVIU173 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing cultural elements reflected in language use and social norms such as body language, volume of voice, or the use of personal space and silence in different cultural contexts and exchanges
  • recognising that some Vietnamese social behaviours, for example, not saying ‘thanks’ or ‘sorry’, and not opening gifts straight away in front of guests, may be misinterpreted by Australians as a lack of courtesy
  • identifying Vietnamese and Australian cultural practices, concepts, values and beliefs presented in diverse situations and contexts, for example, everyday conversations, television programs, films, documentaries, musical performances, folk tales and short stories
  • comparing details from a range of texts about special occasions and ceremonies, and discussing culture-specific terms and representations
  • explaining cultural references in Vietnamese folk and contemporary literature, for example, mừng tuổi, xông đất, trầu cau
  • exploring the various ways Vietnamese and Australian cultures are representated such as in depictions of scenery or icons, costumes, foods, social behaviours, gestures and language, for example, tô phở/chai nước mắm, nón lá/áo dài, folding hands/bowing head and use of dạ/thưa may represent Vietnam while the Sydney Opera House, a boomerang, shaking hands, and terms like ‘fair dinkum’ may be used to represent Australia
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students use spoken and written Vietnamese to initiate and sustain interactions with peers, teachers, family members and other known adults, and to engage in transactions and exchange ideas and experiences. They ask and respond to open-ended questions such as Bạn nghĩ sao về vấn đề này? Tại sao bạn nghĩ như vậy?, and offer and justify their own opinions. They make enquiries (for example, Mẹ định tổ chức sinh nhật con như thế nào?) and suggestions (for example, Chúng mình tham gia biểu diễn văn nghệ trong trường đi!), to solve problems, make decisions and organise events and services. They use verbs such as nên, cần and phải to give advice or express their attitudes on topics of discussion. They make comparisons and state preferences using bằng, hơn and nhất. They rephrase statements or provide examples to clarify meaning, and elaborate on or justify ideas. When interacting, they use appropriate Vietnamese pronunciation and intonation patterns in a range of sentence structures. Students locate, analyse and compare information on topics of shared interest from a variety of texts, and convey information and ideas using modes of presentation selected to suit their audience and purpose. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing opinions about the ways characters and events are represented and by explaining themes, messages and the storyline. They create texts with imaginary places, events, people and experiences in a range of forms, using direct speech (for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’), and indirect speech (for example, Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học). They manipulate a range of structures to express their own perspectives on experiences, events and issues. They use a variety of sentence types (affirmative, negative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory) to express attitudes, opinions or emotions. They translate texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, using simple strategies to overcome challenges, and compare their versions with others’. They produce multimodal bilingual resources for the school and the wider community, providing annotations and commentaries to assist meaning. They reflect on the importance of language and behaviour in intercultural communication and how being a speaker of Vietnamese contributes to their own sense of identity.

Students analyse the use of punctuation and tone markers in different sentence types, including affirmative (for example, Em ăn cơm), negative (for example, Em không ăn cơm), interrogative (for example, Em ăn cơm không?), imperative (for example, Ăn cơm đi!) and exclamatory, for example, Em ăn nhiều cơm quá! They identify the meaning of Vietnamese homonyms (for example, hay may mean ‘usually’ or ‘interesting’) depending on the context. They analyse the structure and linguistic features of different types of texts and explain how these features are influenced by each text’s context, audience and purpose. They identify variations in language use between written and spoken texts and explain how language choices depend on the participants, relationships and purpose of the exchange. They identify the impact of social, cultural and intercultural influences on language, and use and explain Vietnamese words that have emerged through contact with other languages (for example, cà rốt, cà phê, căn-tin), and from globalisation and technological advances, such as toàn cầu hóa, công nghệ thông tin, nhật ký điện tử, nói chuyện qua mạng. They explain how cultural ideas and perspectives are embedded in language use and communication styles, for example, the importance of politeness and respect in Vietnamese language and culture.