Vietnamese

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Context statement

The place of the Vietnamese language and culture in Australia and in the world
Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. It is spoken by approximately 90 million people in Vietnam and approximately four million Vietnamese people living in other countries around the world, with the majority residing in the United States, Cambodia, France, Taiwan and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Vietnamese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of content
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence …

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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with varying degrees of early literacy capability in Vietnamese and/or English. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate world of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people in settings outside the home, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Vietnamese is learnt in parallel with English language and literacy, with each supporting and enriching the other. Vietnamese is used at home and in familiar Vietnamese-speaking settings, and in classroom interactions, routines and activities, supported by the use of materials and resources, gestures and body language. At this stage, there is a focus on play, imaginative activities, games, music, dance and familiar routines, which provide scaffolding for language development. Repetition and consolidation help learners to identify familiar and new words and simple phrases, and to recognise the purpose of simple texts. Learners use Vietnamese for functions such as greeting, asking and answering questions (for example, Em chào thầy/cô. Chào bạn. Bạn tên là gì? Tôi tên là Mai), responding to instructions (for example, Các em ngồi xuống. Mở vở ra đọc với cô), and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks. There is a natural transition from spoken to written language. Learners use a variety of cues, including images, context and frequently used word patterns, to comprehend texts and to communicate.

Contexts of interaction

The primary contexts for interaction in Vietnamese are the immediate environments of home and the classroom. Learners use Vietnamese to interact with each other and the teacher within the learning environment at school and with immediate family members at home. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) enriches the learning of Vietnamese language and culture by providing alternative experiences, a range of resources, and opportunities to access authentic language in different contexts.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, written and visual texts such as children’s songs and nursery rhymes, stories from Big Books, plays and interactive resources. Writing skills progress from identifying the alphabet and tone markers to tracing, labelling and copying letters, and then to constructing simple, short texts using familiar vocabulary.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners become familiar with how the sounds and tones of the Vietnamese language are represented in words and symbols. They practise pronunciation through activities such as singing Vietnamese folk songs (đồng dao, ca dao), and experiment with sounds, single vowels, consonants, syllables, simple phrases and sentences relating to pictures, objects and actions, for example, M cho mẹ, má, mèo, mua and H cho hoa hồng, hát, học. Đây là cái nhà. Em bé đang ngủ. They learn to recognise the letters of the Vietnamese alphabet and tone markers, making comparisons with the English alphabet, and write letters, words and simple sentences, for example, Con thích ăn cơm. They share similarities and differences between the ways they communicate in Vietnamese and English, and begin to recognise how language use changes according to speakers and context.

Level of support

The classroom is a new context for communication, where learners rely on the teacher to assist their learning. The teacher uses scaffolding, modelling, cueing, monitoring, feedback and encouragement to support learning experiences. Multiple and varied sources of input and stimulus are provided, for example, bilingual Big Books and picture books, subtitled cartoons and video programs, realia, objects, maps, charts and gestures.

The role of English

Vietnamese is used as the medium for class interaction and to demonstrate and model new language acquisition. English may be used to explain features of language and aspects of culture. Both English and Vietnamese may be used when learners communicate about similarities and differences between Vietnamese and other languages and cultures and reflecting on how they communicate and behave in Vietnamese- and English-speaking contexts.


Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers and the teacher by introducing themselves and expressing needs, wishes, likes and dislikes

[Key concepts: belonging, preferences; Key processes: greeting, expressing preferences] (ACLVIC106 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • greeting and farewelling peers and the teacher using appropriate terms of address, gestures and body language, for example, Em chào thầy/cô. Chào bạn. Tạm biệt
  • introducing themselves and asking questions to initiate interactions, for example, Chào bạn, tôi tên là Lan. Còn bạn? Bạn tên (là) gì? Tôi bảy tuổi. Còn bạn, bạn mấy tuổi? Bạn có khỏe không?
  • using simple statements to describe themselves and express likes and dislikes, for example, Tôi tên là Lan. Tôi sáu tuổi. Tôi thích ăn phở, and needs, for example, Tôi muốn uống nước
  • expressing thanks, for example, Cảm ơn bạn, offering wishes, for example, Chúc bạn sinh nhật vui vẻ, and apologising (Xin lỗi)
Participate in guided group activities such as songs, rhymes, games and transactions, using modelled repetitive language

[Key concepts: play, performance, action learning; Key processes: giving and following instructions, active listening, speaking] (ACLVIC107 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making simple requests using Làm ơn and expressing thanks with Cảm ơn
  • participating in songs, rhymes and chants by using repetitive language and actions, for example, Kìa con bướm vàng, Tết đến rồi, Rước đèn tháng Tám
  • participating in traditional and contemporary games (for example, Tập tầm vông) or activities that involve taking turns, making choices or swapping items, for example, forming groups using numbers or colours for activities such as telling the time or counting or memory games (for example, Mấy giờ rồi ông sói ơi?)
Interact in classroom routines and activities by responding to questions, following instructions and asking for permission

[Key concepts: roles, routines; Key processes: following instructions, listening, observing] (ACLVIC108 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using Vietnamese for everyday classroom routines such as roll call (Dạ, Dạ có or Em chào thầy/cô)
  • responding with appropriate actions to the teacher’s simple instructions, such as Các em ngồi xuống. Em hãy mở vở ra. Đọc chung với thầy/cô nhé, or following instructions to locate items, for example, trên, dưới, trong, ngoài, ở giữa
  • asking for permission, for example, Thưa cô cho em đi vệ sinh. Bạn làm ơn cho tôi đi qua
  • responding to the teacher’s instructions and questions in class activities, using modelled language such as Em có hiểu không? Dạ, em hiểu
  • using context-appropriate language to show politeness when interacting with the teacher, for example, Thưa cô, Thưa thầy, Dạ, có. Vâng ạ. Xin lỗi cô em tới trễ. Xin phép cô cho em vào lớp

Informing

Identify key words and specific information related to their personal world in simple spoken, written,digital and visual texts

[Key concept: personal world; Key processes: listening, viewing, identifying, locating] (ACLVIC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying familiar words or concepts related to familiar people, for example, Ðây là ba. Ðây là mẹ và chị, or everyday objects, for example, Đây là cái nhà. Đây là cái cổng. Đây là chiếc xe
  • viewing and/or listening to familiar texts such as posters, songs and short films to locate key words, for example, bìa tranh minh họa, truyện tranh, từ điển bằng hình, trò chơi xếp hình, học vần tiếng Việt
  • demonstrating comprehension of words and short sentences in familiar texts by pointing, labelling, matching, clicking and dragging, drawing and miming
  • using contextual and visual cues to identify main points when participating in shared reading of print and digital texts
Share information about self, family, school and friends, using modelled sentence structures and illustrations to support meaning

[Key concepts: self, family, school, friends; Key processes: describing, presenting] (ACLVIC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • labelling or naming classroom items and resources or personal possessions
  • describing self and the immediate environment, such as by writing or reading aloud captions to own photos, using simple sentences, familiar vocabulary and visual, concreate and digital supports, for example, Đây là tôi. Tôi là con trai. Đây là gia đình tôi. Đây là bạn thân của tôi
  • annotating pictures or photos using digital technologies and modelled language to describe people and objects, for example, Cái nhà cũ. Cái áo mới
  • conveying aspects of their knowledge of their Vietnamese heritage, for example, by sharing a family story, photo or object from Vietnam

Creating

Participate in shared reading, viewing of or listening to imaginative texts and respond through miming, acting, matching pictures with text or answering questions

[Key concepts: imagination, response; Key processes: participating, listening, matching] (ACLVIC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, reading or viewing familiar Vietnamese imaginative texts such as stories (Mười hai con giáp), rhymes (Thằng Bờm), and cartoons in digital form, participating in a collaborative retelling of the text using prompts such as objects, pictures or cut-outs, and sequencing pictures to show the correct order of events
  • responding to spoken, or print and imaginative texts in digital modes through play-acting, illustrating and movement
  • drawing their favourite character or scene from rhymes, songs or stories, such as Thỏ và rùa, Cô bé quàng khăn đỏ, and describing their favourite character, for example, Con thích con (rùa/ thỏ) vì nó (chăm chỉ/lười biếng). Con không thích con (chó sói) vì nó (dữ tợn)
  • responding to questions about imaginative texts, for example, Câu chuyện này xảy ra ở đâu/nói về điều gì? Trong truyện này gồm có những ai/các con vật nào? Chuyện gì xảy ra? Kết thúc ra sao?
Create and perform simple imaginative texts such as chants, songs and stories, using familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression

[Key concepts: performance, expression; Key processes: experimenting, labelling, captioning] (ACLVIC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • composing and performing rhymes, songs or stories, illustrating meaning through the use of non-verbal forms of expression such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions
  • creating a narrative through a photo story or animation by sequencing a series of pictures with captions or by creating a storyboard with labels, using modelled language, for example, Ngày xửa ngày xưa, trong một khu rừng/ngôi làng… có một gia đình/em bé
  • creating and presenting own Big Books or digital texts based on imagined scenarios in familiar contexts
  • expressing an experience through a puppet play or dramatic performance

Translating

Translate and interpret familiar Vietnamese words, phrases and expressions

[Key concepts: language, meaning; Key process: translating] (ACLVIC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interpreting/translating greetings and other learnt words and phrases from Vietnamese into English, for example, cảm ơn (thanks), tạm biệt (goodbye), chào (hello), xin lỗi (sorry)
  • sharing familiar Vietnamese phrases and expressions with friends and interpreting their meaning, for example, Ngày mai gặp lại. Em tên gì? Em tên (là) Nam. Em bao nhiêu tuổi? Em bảy tuổi. Không có chi/gì
  • using Vietnamese and English to name familiar objects and conduct simple conversations, translating when necessary to help others understand
  • playing matching games with Vietnamese and English words from Big Books and picture books in print or digital form
Create bilingual texts in both Vietnamese and English for the immediate learning environment such as labels, captions, wall charts and other resources

[Key concepts: representation, equivalence; Key processes: labelling, captioning] (ACLVIC114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual identity cards that contain personal information, for example, Đây là tôi. Tôi có mắt màu đen. Tôi có tóc ngắn/‘This is me. I have brown eyes. I have short hair’
  • creating parallel cards (in English and Vietnamese) and playing matching games such as Memory or Snap
  • creating bilingual resources such as illustrated Vietnamese–English and English–Vietnamese wall charts or online flashcards for classroom use
  • creating bilingual captions in Vietnamese and English for a photographic display for the classroom about a class event or experience such as a sports day, multicultural day or school camp
  • making and displaying labels in Vietnamese and English for classroom objects

Reflecting

Share opinions and ways of behaving when using Vietnamese in home and school contexts

[Key concepts: identity, membership; Key processes: identifying, comparing] (ACLVIC115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying the significance of particular gestures in Vietnamese-speaking contexts, noticing own level of comfort with these, for example, making or not making eye contact when talking to older people
  • discussing one another’s ways of communicating and their appropriateness in Vietnamese contexts, such as different ways of showing politeness, for example, when making requests (giùm, làm ơn), thanking someone (cảm ơn nhiều, cảm ơn), bending when passing people, folding arms and/or nodding while greeting people
  • sharing with peers what it is like to use Vietnamese, for example, when singing a song in class, speaking Vietnamese with friends or family members, and using gestures, such as bowing when they say Con chào ba mẹ. Cháu chào ông bà
Identify themselves as members of different groups, including the Vietnamese class, the school, their family and the community, describing their roles within these groups

[Key concepts: self, roles, belonging; Key processes: recognising, connecting, describing] (ACLVIC116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listing various groups that they belong to, for example, family, school, class or clubs, and reflecting on themselves as a member of these groups and the role they play in each one
  • identifying themselves as belonging to a particular cultural and/or language group, for example, ‘my Vietnamese class’, ‘my Vietnamese school’ and ‘my community’, or ‘I speak Vietnamese’ (Tôi biết tiếng Việt)
  • reflecting on how their own identity as a person who knows more than one language influences the role they play in various groups
  • eliciting and giving information that signals identity in different contexts such as home and school, including age and appearance, class and school, for example, compiling a personal profile consisting of their Vietnamese name, age and animal sign, using simple words and modelled statements, such as Em tên (là) Nguyễn Hoàng Nam. Em bảy tuổi. Em học lớp hai. Em tuổi con heo

Systems of language

Recognise the sounds and tones of spoken Vietnamese, and notice how they are represented in words and symbols

[Key concepts: sound systems, writing systems; Key process: recognising] (ACLVIU117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • identifying the 29 letters of the Vietnamese alphabet by their names and sounds as well as the five tone markers
  • building phonic awareness by recognising and experimenting with sounds and rhythms, focusing on letters that are similar in the English alphabet but produce different sounds in Vietnamese, for example, e and i, d and đ
  • developing pronunciation, phrasing and intonation skills by singing, reciting and repeating words and phrases
  • noticing that Vietnamese is a tonal language, and that pitch changes affect the meaning of words
  • understanding that although Vietnamese and English use the same alphabet there are additional symbols/markers that create more letters in Vietnamese
  • developing familiarity with similarities and differences in Vietnamese sound–letter correspondence, such as a, ă, â; e, ê; o, ô, ơ; u, ư; as well as c and k, i and y, s and x, and ch and tr
  • noticing that the same word with different tone markers has different meanings, for example, ma, mà, má, mả, mã and mạ
  • exploring Vietnamese spelling strategies such as grouping words according to initial letters that represent particular sounds, for example, h (hoa hồng, hát, học) or m (mẹ, má, mèo)
  • using single and consonant clusters, vowels and vowel clusters with tone markers to form and spell words, for example, ta, la, tha, nga
  • recognising and using lower and upper case letters
Understand some first elements of Vietnamese grammar, such as personal pronouns, frequently used nouns, adjectives, verbs and prepositions, and basic rules of word order in simple sentences

[Key concepts: syntax, vocabulary; Key process: recognising] (ACLVIU118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • noticing that there are multiple forms of personal pronouns in Vietnamese compared to English, for example, con, cháu, em, tôi, mình, anh, chị versus ‘I’ and ‘you’
  • using common adjectives such as to, nhỏ, cũ, mới, ngắn and dài to describe people, animals and objects, noticing that nouns come before adjectives, for example, áo xanh
  • using common verb forms, for example, ăn, uống, chơi, ngủ, đọc, nghe, viết, hỏi, trả lời, nói, thích
  • recognising common prepositions relating to location, for example, trong, ngoài, trên, dưới, ở giữa
  • using vocabulary relating to time, such as days of the week (thứ Hai, thứ Ba, thứ Tư), months of the year (tháng Giêng/tháng Một, tháng Hai, tháng Tư, tháng Chạp/Mười hai) and ‘o’clock time’ (một giờ, hai giờ)
  • developing vocabulary knowledge relating to the school context, for example, cái bảng, lớp học, giờ ra chơi, ăn trưa, sân chơi, cổng trường, thư viện
  • recognising basic structures of closed and open-ended questions, for example, Em thích nghe truyện cổ tích không? Tại sao em thích truyện ‘Cô bé quàng khăn đỏ’?
  • using some question words in familiar contexts, for example, ai, cái gì, ở đâu, bao nhiêu
  • recognising word order in simple sentences, noticing that the subject is placed before the predicate, for example, Em + đi học
Explore different types of familiar texts, such as captions, labels, songs, rhymes and fairy tales, noticing similarities and differences between text types

[Key concept: familiar texts; Key process: recognising] (ACLVIU119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining different types of texts, such as signs, songs, captions, stories and dialogues, noticing that they can be short or long, spoken, written, digital, visual or multimodal
  • sharing ideas about the purpose of different texts, such as a class timetable (to show the sequence of lessons) or a story (to describe past events)
  • exploring similar text types in Vietnamese and English, for example, songs, street signs or labels on goods at a market, and noticing ways in which they are similar or different
  • naming different types of familiar texts (story, poem, song) and discussing how they work, for example, using the story starter Ngày xưa, hồi đó, lâu lắm rồi; or rhyming or repeating words in songs, such as quác quác quác, quạc quạc quạc in the song ‘Một con vịt

Language variation and change

Recognise that there are variations in the way Vietnamese speakers greet and address different people

[Key concept: register; Key process: recognising] (ACLVIU120 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising that greetings and terms of address in Vietnamese vary according to participants, for example, bowing the head or saying dạ/thưa/kính thưa when interacting with elderly people
  • noticing how language varies according to the relationship between the speakers and the context of communication, for example, the influence of relationships on the choice of personal pronouns (con chào mẹ, cháu chào ông bà, em chào cô, em chào anh)
  • recognising that there can be different terms of address for the same person depending on their age and relationship with the speaker, for example ông, bà, bác, cô, chú, anh, chị, em…
Recognise that Australia is a multilingual society and that Vietnamese is one of the major community languages in Australia

[Key concept: language power; Key processes: understanding, recognising, comparing] (ACLVIU121 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring and naming different languages that they have encountered in everyday life, for example, languages of their parents, grandparents, neighbours or classmates
  • exploring the range of languages spoken in Australia, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Understand that the ways in which people use language reflect their cultures, and relate to where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: language, culture, identity; Key processes: understanding, noticing] (ACLVIU122 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • identifying gestures, words and phrases that reflect aspects of Vietnamese culture, for example, folding arms, using both hands to offer something, and saying dạ, thưa, vâng ạ to show respect
  • identifying elements of Vietnamese cultural representation, such as flags, sporting emblems or cultural items (for example, áo dài, nón lá and xích-lô) in paintings or pictures of landscapes, folk tales or movies, and making comparisons with those of other cultures
  • exploring the meaning of ‘culture’, recognising that it involves visible elements such as ways of eating, for example, how and why Vietnamese people use chopsticks and spoons instead of knives and forks (Ở nhà em ăn bằng đũa), and invisible elements such as how people live, what they value, and how they think about themselves and others
  • discussing how and why gestures can be interpreted differently in different cultures, for example, using the fingers to beckon to others is considered appropriate in some cultures but impolite in Vietnamese culture

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through action-related talk and play. They introduce themselves and others, and express thanks, likes and dislikes, needs and wishes, for example, Tôi tên là Lan. Cảm ơn bạn. Tôi thích/ không thích Tôi muốn ăn cơm. Chúc bạn sinh nhật vui vẻ. They use modelled repetitive language when participating in games and shared activities, and interact in classroom routines by responding to questions, following instructions and asking for permission, for example, Dạ, em xong rồi. Các em hãy đọc theo cô. Thưa cô cho em đi uống nước. When interacting, they use the sounds and tones of Vietnamese and distinguish between questions, such as Ai? Ở đâu? Khi nào? không?, and commands, for example, Đứng lên. They identify information and key words, such as names of people, for example, cô An, bạn Hải; places, for example, trường, lớp; or objects, for example, cái bàn; and convey information about themselves and their family, friends and school using modelled sentences and illustrations. They respond to imaginative experiences through miming, acting, and answering questions, and create and perform simple imaginative texts using familiar language and non-verbal forms of expression. Students use familiar vocabulary related to the classroom and home environment. They use simple sentences with appropriate word order to communicate information about themselves, for example, Tôi bảy tuổi, their family and the classroom, for example, Đây là gia đình tôi/ lớp tôi. Students translate frequently used words and simple phrases and create simple bilingual texts for the immediate learning environment. They describe the experience of using Vietnamese and identify their roles as members of different groups, including the Vietnamese class and their family and community.

Students identify the sounds and tones of the Vietnamese language in words and symbols. They identify similarities and differences between different types of familiar texts. They provide examples of the different titles and greetings that are used to address people in different situations. Students name some of the many languages used in Australia, identifying Vietnamese as one of the major community languages. They identify how the ways in which people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them.


Foundation to Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios