Vietnamese

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Context statement

The place of the Vietnamese language and culture in Australia and in the world
Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. It is spoken by approximately 90 million people in Vietnam and approximately four million Vietnamese people living in other countries around the world, with the majority residing in the United States, Cambodia, France, Taiwan and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Vietnamese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of content
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Vietnamese: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Learners increasingly communicate in Vietnamese in everyday interactions and in domains that are beyond the home. They continue to be immersed in Vietnamese language and culture, making connections and comparisons with other languages and cultures. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They begin to consider their role as bilingual, intercultural communicators in the Australian context. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Vietnamese may feature in these.

Vietnamese language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication. Learners use Vietnamese to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, and to participate in imaginative and creative experiences. There is a balance between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that moving between Vietnamese and English involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Students discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the concept of being bilingual and bicultural.

Contexts of interaction

Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts beyond the home. Contexts of interaction in Vietnamese move beyond the immediate world of teenage experience to more active participation in events or celebrations at home (Sinh nhật con ba mẹ làm BBQ ở vườn sau đi. Con sẽ giúp mẹ nấu nướng và dọn dẹp) or transactions with people in the local community (Cô có thể giảm giá cho học sinh không? Làm ơn cho tôi đổi lại số lớn hơn). Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and about life experiences in different contexts and cultures. They view and/or listen to advertisements, announcements, conversations, television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Vietnamese language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Vietnamese in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Vietnamese-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners apply appropriate pronunciation of sounds and tones, as well as rhythm and intonation, to a range of spoken texts. They use vocabulary with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain greater control of grammatical elements such as word order, sentence structures and punctuation. They use cohesive devices such as conjunctions (và, hay/hoặc, tuy…nhưng, nếu…thì, vì…cho nên), verbs to express modality (nên, cần, phải), direct and indirect speech (Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’. Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học), abstract vocabulary (tình thương, sở thích, nỗi buồn, niềm vui, hạnh phúc) and common idioms (xa mặt cách lòng, tiền rừng bạc biển, có chí thì nên) to communicate, link and extend ideas and information. They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, popular culture, migration and globalisation influence forms of communication. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between Vietnamese and English affects their ways of thinking and behaving, and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They consider their own cultural practices from a bilingual perspective and communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online journalling, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention to grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.

The role of English

The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Vietnamese being the principal language of communication. Vietnamese and English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection, although learners at this level are able to discuss some abstract and complex views and ideas about language, culture and intercultural experience in Vietnamese. Learners explore the influence of both Vietnamese and English on their way of communicating, and examine how living and moving between cultures has impacted on their own bilingual identity.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate and sustain face-to-face and online interactions with peers and adults to share personal opinions, and compare ideas and experiences on familiar topics such as friendship, leisure activities, teenage life and special events

[Key concepts: experience, relationships; Key processes: interacting, expressing, sharing] (ACLVIC018 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • asking and responding to questions to share and discuss opinions on familiar topics such as friendship, leisure activities, teenage life and special events, for example, Bạn thấy ngày hội thể thao ở trường mình năm nay thế nào? Tốt lắm, năm nay các bạn thi đấu tốt hơn năm rồi. Bạn thích nghe loại nhạc nào? Tôi thích nghe nhạc trẻ
  • using strategies to sustain actual and virtual conversations by further exploring peers’ perspectives on topics of discussion, for example, Bạn thấy phim này hay như thế nào? Tại sao bạn thích ca sĩ Đức Tuấn? Còn có lý do nào khác không?, developing a shared view to enhance understanding or to confirm own opinions, for example, Có bạn thì thích đi ra ngoài chơi, có bạn thì thích ở nhà coi phim. Các bạn khác thì thích phim hành động, còn tôi thì thích phim tình cảm, and elaborating on own ideas, for example, Tôi thích phim này vì nội dung thú vị, cảnh đẹp, diễn viên đẹp và đóng hay
  • describing and comparing personal experiences, for example, Đường phố ở Singapore rất sạch sẽ và đẹp. Tôi thích đi Mỹ vì ở đó có nhiều hàng hóa đẹp và rẻ. Cuối năm rồi gia đình tôi đi Nhật chơi nhưng mà lạnh quá, không đi ra ngoài nhiều được. or, của, hoa đào nở khắp nơi đẹp lắ
  • comparing and discussing with others their future plans and aspirations, and their personality, including strengths and weaknesses, for example, Tôi muốn học đại học, còn bạn thì sao? Tôi muốn trở thành giáo viên. Bạn thấy tôi có thích hợp với nghề dạy học không? Còn bạn thích làm nghề gì? Tính tình tôi vui vẻ nhưng hay nói thẳng nên cũng dễ làm bạn bè giận. Ước gì tôi cũng thông minh và siêng năng như bạn
Participate in planning and decision making for social and cultural events, negotiating options, explaining, justifying, solving problems and completing transactions

[Key concepts: collaboration, decisions; Key processes: transacting, negotiating, explaining, justifying] (ACLVIC019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • participating in collaborative planning and decision making to organise actions and events such as group research, class excursions, school performances or social events, and negotiating options to reach agreement, for example, Lớp mình muốn đi tham quan viện bảo tàng hay sở thú? Chúng mình nên tham gia biểu diễn văn nghệ cho trường bằng cách hát hay múa? múa quạt hay múa nón? mặc áo dài hay áo bà ba? Bài hát này chậm quá, mình nên đổi qua bài hát ‘Mừng Xuân’ nghe vui hơn
  • raising an issue relating to the organisation of an event, such as not having enough space or doing too much cooking for parties at home, and negotiating a solution such as having a barbecue in the backyard, for example, Sao mẹ không làm sinh nhật cho ba ở nhà? Mẹ sợ nhà mình chật chội và mẹ không có thời gian nấu nướng. Vậy thì mẹ làm BBQ ở vườn sau đi, vừa có chỗ rộng rãi, vừa đỡ mất công nấu nhiều món
  • making transactions in authentic, simulated or online situations, such as purchasing clothing items or electronic devices or selecting electrical appliances with regard to energy efficiency, using rehearsed language for persuading, negotiating, bargaining, exchanging or returning goods, for example, Có thể giảm giá không? Tôi lỡ làm mất biên nhận rồi, có thể trả lại đồ được không? Tôi không thích màu đen, cô làm ơn đổi lại cái Ipad màu trắng cho tôi
    • Sustainability
  • participating in virtual scenarios related to travelling to Vietnam, such as booking, changing or confirming a flight, booking tours or accommodation, or exchanging currency, for example, Mỗi tuần có mấy chuyến bay đi Việt Nam? Tôi muốn đặt vé đi Việt Nam ngày 20 tháng 12. Xin hỏi tôi cần đặt cọc trước bao nhiêu tiền? Khi nào thì cần trả hết tiền? Khách sạn Quê Hương đây, xin hỏi quý khách cần gì ạ? Gia đình tôi muốn đặt hai phòng đôi cho bốn người, từ ngày 20 đến 27 tháng 12. Một trăm đô Úc đổi được bao nhiêu tiền Việt Nam?
Contribute to shared learning experiences and structured discussions relating to the learning of Vietnamese language and culture, clarifying understanding, elaborating on opinions, and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concepts: task, performance; Key processes: discussing, commenting, sharing] (ACLVIC020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • asking and responding to open-ended questions about learning activities or strategies, for example, Bài làm về nhà cho môn tiếng Việt là gì vậy? Cô giáo dặn mình phải đọc và trả lời câu hỏi cho bài Tết Trung Thu. Mình phải làm sao để phân biệt được các dấu trong tiếng Việt? Thì bạn phải ráng tập nghe, tập đọc và tập viết cho nhiều
  • using appropriate discussion protocols such as inviting others to contribute to discussions or provide feedback on own ideas, respecting others’ opinions, and providing evidence to contradict, challenge or rebut alternative views in a polite manner if necessary, for example, Bạn nghĩ sao? Các bạn có đồng ý với mình không? Bạn thấy mình trả lời như vậy được chưa? Cảm ơn bạn đã góp ý cho mình. Bạn nói đúng lắm. Bạn giải thích rõ ràng và hợp lý lắm. Bạn nói có lý nhưng tôi nghĩ rằng… Hay là mình thử làm thế này/cách khác xem sao?
  • corresponding with peers via an educational social network, using reflective and evaluative language to reflect on aspects of the Vietnamese culture and their Vietnamese language learning, for example, Người Việt coi trọng gia đình và giáo dục, nhờ vậy mà trẻ em Việt Nam rất ngoan ngoãn và chăm học. Tôi thấy học tiếng Việt khó nhất là làm sao phân biệt các dấu. Nhờ ba mẹ bắt tôi phải nói tiếng Việt với gia đình từ nhỏ nên bây giờ tôi mới giỏi tiếng Việt

Informing

Compare, evaluate and use information and ideas from diverse print, visual, digital and online sources representing different perspectives related to common areas of interest and study

[Key concepts: diverse perspectives, representation; Key processes: analysing, evaluating, comparing] (ACLVIC021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • summarising, comparing and evaluating information obtained from a range of sources for a research project, for example, information about Vietnam from a cookbook, a tourism website and a documentary such as Anh Do in Vietnam, Luke Nguyen in Vietnam or Hành Trình Xuyên Việt, discussing similarities and differences in the information obtained and justifying the choice of information based on accuracy and validity
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • researching young people’s lifestyles across Vietnamese-speaking communities, comparing information from different cultural contexts to identify the impact of such factors as climate, customs, transport, economy or globalisation, for example, the influence of Korean pop culture on Vietnamese teenagers’ fashion and hairstyles, and their tastes in food, music and movies
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • differentiating between facts and opinions in texts such as reports and articles or letters to the editor, recognising how certain expressions provide clues to writers’ attitudes, for example, thảo nào, tôi không thể tin rằng, không ai lại làm thế, thật vậy sao
  • compiling (through class surveys and other research) and comparing a range of perspectives on teenage interests and social or cultural issues, such as attitudes to sport, tutoring, technology advance, cultural practices such as tết Trung thu, or traditional values such as lòng hiếu thảo, comparing perspectives and explaining possible reasons for differences
  • discussing similarities and differences in attitudes/views of speakers or writers, and comparing and connecting them to own and others’ experiences to form personal perspectives on the issues discussed
  • collecting common Vietnamese idioms, proverbs and ca dao and grouping them according to themes or topics, such as customs, morality, family, friendship or relationships
Convey information and opinions on a variety of selected topics using diverse modes of presentation to suit specific audiences and purposes, and applying conventions of text types

[Key concepts: representation, audience, purpose; Key processes: informing, selecting] (ACLVIC022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability
  • expressing opinions on an event or performance, such as a cultural celebration (lễ Vu lan, tết Trung thu, hội chợ Tết) or a Vietnamese concert, using different forms to record own views, for example, a diary entry or a letter to the editor
  • constructing texts in multimodal and digital forms to present information for particular audiences, aligning language choice and text structure to purpose and topics, for example, announcing an event, promoting a product or service, explaining a recycling system, reporting on a favourite band or song, or creating a virtual tour to introduce the school to Year 7 parents and students
  • conveying information and different perspectives on topics of interest such as peer pressure, the impact of technology, or a health or sustainability issue
    • Sustainability
  • conveying information to a Vietnamese audience to describe aspects of Australian environment and culture such as famous scenery and landmarks, celebrations, cuisine, or Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ histories and cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • developing a glossary of key vocabulary and expressions used in informative and persuasive texts, for example, đặc điểm, chất lượng cao, nội dung phong phú, hình thức trình bày, tiện lợi, giá rẻ không ngờ!, Hãy nhanh chân lên!, Bạn có phải là người năng động, thích thể thao/yêu thiên nhiên/say mê khoa học kỹ thuật không?

Creating

Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary forms of art and entertainment, and imaginative and creative texts, including digital texts, describing and discussing themes, values, plot and representations of characters and events, and expressing preferences

[Key concepts: morality, characterisation, themes; Key processes: responding, expressing preference, discussing] (ACLVIC023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising and discussing different forms of Vietnamese art and entertainment, such as painting, photography, (water) puppetry, dance, music, theatre, television and cinema
  • comparing traditional and contemporary Vietnamese art and entertainment, for example, comparing tranh dân gian Đông Hồ with tranh sơn dầu, dân ca with nhạc trẻ, kịch with phim, or trò chơi dân gianwith trò chơi điện tử, to identify how social and cultural practices may have changed or been maintained over time, for example, wedding ceremonies or birthday/New Year celebrations
  • listening to, viewing or reading texts such as novels, memoirs, songs, films and performances, discussing the main characters and events, and the key messages and beliefs, and examining how language is used to help reveal the characters’ attitudes or views
  • responding to events and characters in imaginative texts by, for example, writing a diary entry or blog reflecting on an event in a story or film, or conducting an imaginary interview with a character in a story or film
  • describing key messages, values and beliefs in traditional texts in Vietnamese, such as legends, fables, folk tales or humorous stories, and comparing these with similar texts in English, for example, comparing the Vietnamese folk tale Tấm Cám with the English version Cinderella, and discussing the reasons behind similar and different moral values, practices and beliefs
  • discussing with peers how social context and cultural values influence a writer’s representation of issues and topics, for example, how the author’s background or concept of filial piety shapes the characters’ reactions and decisions in regard to their relationships, making connections with personal experiences
Create imaginative texts in multimodal and digital forms that draw on past experiences or future possibilities, for a range of purposes, such as self-expression or engagement, and for a range of audiences

[Key concepts: journey, adventure, emotion; Key processes: imagining, sequencing, entertaining] (ACLVIC024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • illustrating and captioning imaginative stories in different formats, such as cartoons, photo stories, or video clips of own role-plays or acting, and using descriptive and emotive language to engage the audience, for example, tuyệt vời, nhân từ, hiền lành, duyên dáng; buồn, vui, thú vị, nhàm chán
  • creating new aspects of a text, such as a new character or setting or an alternative ending, or adapting characters, events and endings to new settings and contexts
  • creating and performing a short play or recording a video clip to reflect on a situation at home or school or while on holidays, such as good/bad days at home, embarrassing/interesting holiday experiences, or achievements/activities/discipline cases at school
  • composing and presenting a range of texts, such as stories, role-plays or video clips, about future possibilities, for example, a new species, space travel, a superhero in 2030, or a future scenario for a sustainable community, locating them in time, place and circumstances
    • Sustainability
  • creating a range of texts to entertain particular audiences, for example, songs, skits, cartoons, video clips, graphic stories and children’s books for young Vietnamese learners

Translating

Translate and interpret texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, compare different versions of translations, explore differences and identify strategies to overcome challenges in translation

[Key concepts: culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: analysing, considering, comparing] (ACLVIC025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining the terms used to describe common features of schooling in Vietnam, for example, terms related to the curriculum or to assessment and reporting, such as chương trình, sách giáo khoa, bài kiểm tra, học bạ, bằng cấp, and comparing these with similar terms used for Australian schooling
  • translating simple school documents into Vietnamese, considering language choices and cultural expressions to suit a particular audience, such as Vietnamese parents
  • translating and interpreting short texts, such as announcements, advertisements, articles, reports, or extracts from stories or films, considering audience and context, and reflecting on how cultural elements are encoded in common words and expressions, for example, use of family terms, titles, and terms of address such as anh, chị, cô, chú, tôi and em
  • interpreting and translating a range of texts from English into Vietnamese and vice versa, using and evaluating translation resources such as web-based translation tools and print and digital dictionaries
  • comparing and discussing various translations (including print and electronic translations, own and peers’ translation work) of common words, phrases, expressions and texts, explaining the reasons for possible differences and similarities, selecting the most appropriate version and negotiating any necessary adjustment
  • identifying and applying translation strategies used in bilingual texts to manage the translation of difficult words and concepts or instances of non-equivalence, for example, expanding descriptions or explanations, providing examples to assist meaning, or connecting to context to identify the appropriate meaning if a word can have different meanings or interpretations, for example, cà phê đậm (‘strong coffee’) but người khỏe mạnh (‘a strong person’); thời tiết nóng nực (‘hot weather’), vấn đề gây tranh cãi (‘a hot issue’) and khu vực nguy hiểm (‘a hot zone’)
  • examining and interpreting idiomatic expressions, for example, đẻ bọc điều, có chí thì nên, dạy con từ thuở còn thơ, including expressions that cannot be translated literally and culturally specific terms such as chữ hiếu, tôn sư trọng đạo, and discussing possible equivalent terms in English
Produce bilingual resources in multimodal and digital forms for the school and local community, such as travel brochures, comics, blogs or video clips, considering the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another

[Key concepts: bilingualism, culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: comparing, explaining] (ACLVIC026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating tourist brochures or itineraries for young Australian travellers to Vietnam, supplying key words, phrases and information about cultural behaviours, for example, Bao nhiêu tiền? Xin cho biết phòng vệ sinh ở đâu. Làm ơn chở tôi đến nhà hàng/khách sạn/phi trường, xin lỗi, cám ơn, đừng ôm hôn khi chào
  • creating a glossary that includes culture-specific terms or expressions in Vietnamese and explanations in English, for example, tết Nguyên đán, tết Trung thu, lễ Vu lan, rằm tháng Giêng, chúc mừng năm mới, trăm năm hạnh phúc
  • producing a booklet of Vietnamese idioms and proverbs with equivalent expressions in English, for example, xa mặt cách lòng (‘Out of sight, out of mind’), có chí thì nên (‘Where there’s a will there’s a way’), Một giọt máu đào hơn ao nước lã (‘Blood is thicker than water’)
  • composing bilingual texts for specific audiences and purposes, for example, a Big Book or game for young Vietnamese learners, invitations to a class/social event or posters for a performance, a program for a cultural event, or a brochure about the school for a visiting group of exchange students, recognising that meanings need to be tailored to audience, purpose and cultural perspectives

Reflecting

Reflect on own ways of communicating in Vietnamese and English, recognising that intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for meaning-making

[Key concepts: intercultural awareness, values; Key processes: reflecting, adjusting] (ACLVIC027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing appropriate ways of communicating in Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese contexts, for example, using different forms of address such as addressing a teacher by their first name in Vietnamese but by their family name in English (Thầy Tùng/Mr Nguyen), or different ways of showing politeness, and discussing why each way is appropriate in the right context, and how they enhance intercultural communication
  • reflecting on own language choices and communicative gestures in different cultural contexts, considering how ways of behaving and communicating might be perceived by people from different backgrounds, and making necessary adjustments to establish, maintain and improve relationships with immediate contacts such as family, teacher and peers, for example, addressing extended family members by their order within the family rather than by their name (chú ba, cô hai, bác tư versus ‘Uncle John’, ‘Aunty Lucy’)
  • discussing reasons for different interpretations of meaning in intercultural exchanges, for example, knowing that to avoid offence Vietnamese people may give an indirect answer to a question or request whereas Australians prefer to say what they really think or mean
  • exploring the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication, the two-way process of noticing and responding to differences in perceptions, understandings and behaviours, for example, degrees of formality and politeness, and use of personal space and physical contact
  • identifying moments of embarrassment or communication breakdown in own intercultural interactions, exploring reasons for these and suggesting adjustments to language and/or behaviours that could be made to enhance mutual understanding
  • discussing elements of successful intercultural communication, for example, flexibility, attitudes to privacy or different levels of directness in discussions, and awareness of differences in cultural values and religious practices (such as filial piety, respect for elderly people and education)
Reflect on own sense of identity as a Vietnamese and English speaker, and discuss ways in which identity is expressed in intercultural communication

[Key concepts: identity, culture, intercultural interaction; Key processes: recognising, explaining, evaluating] (ACLVIC028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing how being bilingual allows them to present ‘self’ to others in particular ways, for example, as ‘Vietnamese’ or ‘Vietnamese Australian’
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • reflecting on the role of language in expressing identity, considering when, with whom and why they use different languages and whether their own identity changes when they use different languages
  • observing how they communicate with one another, their teachers and families, noticing if there are any changes in the way they see themselves in different contexts, for example, Khi nói chuyện với gia đình tôi cảm thấy mình là người Việt nhưng khi nói chuyện với bạn bè tôi lại cảm thấy mình là người Úc
  • reflecting on choices made to present self to others in particular ways when interacting across cultures, noticing differences in the way they communicate, think and behave in different contexts

Systems of language

Apply knowledge of sounds, tones and spelling to spoken and written Vietnamese, inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in a range of contexts, and explore intonation patterns and pauses in a range of sentences

[Key concepts: inference, connections; Key processes: applying, inferring] (ACLVIU029 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • applying Vietnamese phonic and spelling knowledge to pronounce and infer spelling of unfamiliar words, for example, words containing consonant clusters kh, ng, ngh, nh, diphthongs and triphthongs such as ôi, ơi, oe, oai, ươi, ương, uyên, or new words encountered in interactions and texts in Vietnamese, for example, determining the spelling of the unfamiliar word người from that of the known word mười
  • understanding and applying Vietnamese spelling and pronunciation with increasing accuracy in own speech and writing
  • recognising the differences in intonation between statements (Con không đi chơi đâu.), questions (Con không đi chơi đâu à?) and exclamations (Con không đi chơi đâu!)
  • recognising and using appropriate rhythm in complex sentences, using pauses and intonation to signal clause boundaries and emphasis, for example, Con thích cái áo mà mẹ tặng cho con hôm sinh nhật vừa rồi
  • comparing own Vietnamese speech with standard Vietnamese pronunciation and making adjustments to their pronunciation of certain sounds or tones as necessary
  • recognising regional variations in pronunciation (from different regions such as the North, the Central and the South), for example, different ways of pronouncing dấu hỏi and dấu ngã, s and x, ch as tr, v/gi and d, and final consonants such as -t and -c (khuôn mặt and mặc áo), and developing strategies to understand meaning when listening to diverse regional Vietnamese accents, for example, inferring meaning from the context of communication
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that spelling follows standardised rules even though there are variations in Vietnamese pronunciation across different regions of Vietnam
Expand grammatical and vocabulary knowledge to communicate, link and extend ideas, for example, using cohesive devices such as conjunctions, verbs to express modality, direct/indirect speech, abstract vocabulary and common Vietnamese idioms

[Key concept: grammatical systems; Key processes: experimenting, applying] (ACLVIU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • knowing how to use alternatives for negative (chưa, không, chẳng, đâu có) and imperative (chớ, đừng) sentences in Vietnamese, for example, Em không/chẳng ăn đâu. Chớ/đừng nói chuyện trong lớp!
  • differentiating interrogative forms with tag questions and knowing how to use them according to context, for example, Em thích ăn cơm chiên không? (a yes/no question to discover whether the other person likes fried rice) and Em thích ăn cơm chiên phải không? (a tag question to confirm that the other person likes fried rice)
  • recognising differences in Vietnamese and English responses to negative tag questions to avoid misinterpretation, for example, in Vietnamese the response to the question Em chưa làm bài tập về nhà phải không? (‘You haven’t done your homework, have you?’) would be Dạ phải. Em chưa làm (‘YES, I haven’t’), while in English it would be ‘NO, I haven’t’
  • recognising the purpose and effect of exclamatory sentences as opposed to statements, for example, the statement Hôm nay Lan đi học sớm simply states the fact that Lan came to school early today, while the exclamatory sentence Hôm nay Lan đi học sớm (thế)! may suggest surprise or irony
  • using a range of sentence types, such as interrogative, affirmative, negative and imperative forms, for different purposes, such as formulating questions, agreeing with or making statements, expressing dislikes, and making polite requests, for example, Bạn thích đọc sách hay xem phim hơn? Tôi thích xem phim hơn đọc sách. Tôi không thích trời mưa. Làm ơn nói nhỏ lại
  • understanding the use of được and bị in Vietnamese for positive and negative meaning, for example, Em được điểm tốt. Em được thầy cô khen. Em bị bệnh. Em bị ba mẹ la
  • understanding and using Vietnamese verbs such as nên, cần and phải to express modality, for example, Các em nên chăm học. Chúng ta cần bảo tồn văn hóa Việt Nam ở hải ngoại. Học sinh phải mặc đồng phục khi đi học
  • using direct and indirect speech to report on ideas, opinions, actions and events, for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học.’ and Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học
  • using a range of cohesive devices, such as thứ nhất, thứ nhì, trước hết, kế đến, rồi, sau cùng, ngoài ra, hơn nữa, tuy nhiên, bên cạnh đó, to sequence, add or connect ideas in texts
  • connecting and contrasting ideas, events and actions by using conjunctions to emphasise contrast or cause and effect, such as tuy … nhưng, nếu … thì and vì … (cho) nên, for example, Tuy không giàu có nhưng gia đình tôi rất hạnh phúc. Nếu chăm học thì chúng ta sẽ mau tiến bộ.
  • understanding conjunctions such as càng … càng, vừa … vừa …, chẳng những … mà còn and không … mà cũng không, and using them as appropriate to context and purpose, for example, Càng học em càng hiểu biết nhiều hơn. Học sinh Việt Nam vừa thông minh vừa chăm chỉ. Em chẳng những biết nói mà còn biết viết tiếng Việt nữa.
  • using a range of expressions for indefinite quantities, for example, hàng ngàn, triệu triệu, vô số, hàng hà sa số, biết bao nhiêu là …
  • expanding vocabulary knowledge to include a range of common nouns, adjectives and verbs for everyday interactions at home and school, on topics such as friendship (Bạn tốt thì luôn sẵn sàng giúp đỡ lẫn nhau), leisure activities (Tôi đã có dịp thưởng thức một buổi hòa nhạc rất thú vị), teenage life (Giới trẻ ngày nay giỏi khoa học kỹ thuật hơn thế hệ trước) and special events (Năm nào tôi cũng đi hội chợ Tết để tìm hiểu thêm về văn hóa Việt Nam)
  • recognising the features of alliteration in Vietnamese, for example, vui vẻ, mát mẻ, lanh lợi, thân thiện, lạnh lùng, tử tế, and using them in own spoken and written texts, for example, Mùa thu thời tiết mát mẻ, dễ chịu. Thầy/Cô giáo tiếng Việt của em rất thân thiện và vui vẻ với học sinh. Anh ta trông có vẻ lạnh lùng nhưng thật ra rất tử tế
  • understanding Vietnamese onomatopoeic words, such as ầm ầm, ào ào, rào rào, rì rào, róc rách, tí tách, đì đùng, and using them in own spoken and written texts, for example, thác đổ ầm ầm, mưa rơi tí tách, gió thổi rì rào, suối chảy róc rách, pháo nổ đì đùng
  • exploring the meaning of Sino-Vietnamese words and providing their equivalents in modern Vietnamese, for example, tổ quốc = đất nước, phụ nữ = đàn bà, huynh đệ = anh em, phi trường = sân bay
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using adjectives and verbs to express and convey emotions and attitudes, for example, vui mừng, hạnh phúc, tự hào, hãnh diện, hổ thẹn, thú vị, buồn chán; thích, thương, kính phục, ghét, coi thường, đồng ý, ủng hộ, tán thành, phản đối
  • using evaluative language to express perspectives, for example, hấp dẫn, thú vị, nhàm chán, tiện lợi, hữu ích, biện pháp thực tế/thiết thực
  • inferring the rules of forming abstract nouns from adjectives and verbs used to express attitudes, feelings and emotions by exploring various examples of abstract nouns such as tình thương, sở thích, niềm vui, hạnh phúc, nỗi buồn/khổ
Analyse the relationship between context, purpose and audience, language features and cultural elements associated with different types of texts in actual or online contexts

[Key concepts: register, text organisation, purpose, audience, culture; Key processes: analysing, explaining, applying] (ACLVIU031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring different samples of particular types of texts, such as recounts, reports and advertisements, and analysing the relationships between audience, purpose, context and language features to predict the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary
  • exploring the ways in which content is developed in different types of texts, and how ideas and information are sequenced, for example, headings, paragraphing, topic sentences, elaborations, and topic/idea shifts
  • identifying and comparing language features of different text types, for example, the use of first person (mình/tôi), descriptive (trẻ trung/xinh đẹp/thông minh/hiền lành/dịu dàng) and emotive language (buồn bã/hoang mang/vui mừng/hạnh phúc) in personal recounts and diary entries
  • recognising linguistic choices made according to the text’s intended audience and degree of formality, for example, changing personal pronouns or tone to indicate changes in relationship between participants or degree of (in)formality
  • analysing how language choices help achieve particular purposes and effects, for example, descriptive language to promote a product, evaluative language to reflect on an experience or to review a literary work, persuasive language to influence audience, or humorous techniques to entertain
  • understanding the use of text conventions such as culturally appropriate salutations and forms of address (depending on relationship or social status) in specific text types such as letters, speeches or interviews, for example, kính thưa/thưa/thân mến/thương mến/kính chào/chào
  • understanding that texts have different purposes (to persuade, to entertain), different audiences (children, adolescents, Vietnamese or Australian people) and different structures and formats (diary entry, blog post, formal letter, interview, report, speech)

Language variation and change

Identify and analyse linguistic features of Vietnamese that vary according to purpose and relationships

[Key concepts: variation, style, register; Key processes: analysing, comparing, explaining] (ACLVIU032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising how language use, such as level of politeness, reflects the relationship between participants and the purpose of the speaker or writer, for example, close friends tend to use informal language (tao, mày) while new acquaintances use more formal language (tôi, bạn)
  • identifying and analysing variations in language use, such as choice of vocabulary and structures, between diverse participants (for example, older people and teenagers, males and females, educated and uneducated people) in a range of different interactions
  • recognising and explaining changes in purpose, attitude or relationship that are revealed through variations in language use such as tone or communicative practices, for example, parents addressing children as con, con cưng, con yêu quý during harmonious times together but as mày during times of conflict
  • analysing how a writer or speaker may vary tone to create different effects on an audience, for example, Mẹ không được xem lén nhật ký của con! versus Mẹ không nên xem lén nhật ký của con như vậy, or Sao con dám nói chuyện với ba mẹ như vậy? versus Sao con có thể nói chuyện với ba mẹ như vậy?
  • comparing and discussing language use in a range of blogs, interviews or transcripts of speeches to determine the target age, gender, social status or educational level of the audience
  • recognising variations in language use in traditional and contemporary Vietnamese entertainment and texts (kịch, cải lương, truyện cổ tích versus phim, thơ, truyện ngắn), including vocabulary, structures, modes of expression and cultural elements
Understand how the Vietnamese language has evolved and how it continues to change over time and from place to place due to processes such as globalisation and migration, and the influence of technology and popular culture

[Key concepts: impact, power, globalisation; Key processes: analysing, evaluating] (ACLVIU033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding that languages and cultures change continuously in response to new ideas, social change and technological development
  • explaining Vietnamese words, phrases and concepts that have emerged as a result of technological development, for example, máy vi tính xách tay, nhấp chuột, điện thoại thông minh, nhật ký điện tử, đồ điều khiển từ xa, trò chơi trực tuyến
  • exploring how globalisation has resulted in the use of English words and expressions in Vietnamese, and discussing the advantages/disadvantages of this influence, for example, the use of English technological terms such as ‘CD’, ‘DVD’, ‘USB’, ‘video’, ‘TV’, ‘remote control’, ‘computer’, ‘laptop’, ‘internet’ and ‘website’ in spite of the existence of Vietnamese equivalents
  • examining how how new words and concepts have entered the Vietnamese language as a result of processes such as migration and international travel, for example, bảo lãnh, hộ chiếu, thị thực nhập cảnh, di dân, định cư, hội nhập, quốc tịch, thường trú nhân
  • analysing the influence of popular culture on Vietnamese language use in Vietnam and in Vietnamese-speaking communities outside Vietnam, including Australia, such as the development of new vocabulary, for example, phong cách/thời trang Hàn quốc, truyện tranh Nhật Bản, nhạc RIB/hiphop
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Explore how language and culture are interrelated and how they shape and are shaped by each other

[Key concept: interrelationship; Key processes: exploring, critical thinking, evaluating] (ACLVIU035 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • exploring how cultural concepts such as respect for the elderly and for authority influence Vietnamese language use, for example, not directly expressing disagreement when interacting with elderly people (Bạn nói không sai nhưng mà …, Con cũng thích cái áo này nhưng mà …), and addressing important people by their positions rather than their first names (thưa hiệu trưởng/giám đốc)
  • examining Vietnamese idioms (thành ngữ) and proverbs (tục ngữ) and recognising words that reflect both literal and figurative cultural understandings, for example, Lá lành đùm lá rách<; Gần mực thì đen, gần đèn thì rạng/sáng
  • explaining cultural references in Vietnamese texts, including multimodal and digital texts, for example, mừng tuổi, xông đất, trầu cau
  • exploring how learning and using Vietnamese has impacted on own view of Vietnamese culture and other cultures, including the role of culture in respecting and sustaining environments
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Vietnamese to initiate and sustain interactions with teachers, peers and adults in familiar contexts, for example, Bạn thích nghe loại nhạc nào? Tôi thích nghe nhạc trẻ. Bạn thích ca sĩ và bài hát nào nhất? Tại sao? Tôi thích ca sĩ Lynda Miles vì cô ấy hát hay và nhảy đẹp. Bài hát tôi thích nhất là My Best Moments vì nó giúp tôi thấy vui vẻ và yêu đời. They use modelled and spontaneous language to engage in discussions, seek clarification, offer opinions, compare experiences related to familiar topics (for example, Học tiếng Việt có nhiều lợi ích lắm. Tôi thích đi du lịch ở ngoại quốc hơn là ở trong nước. Đồ ăn ở Việt Nam tươi và ngon nhưng không sạch sẽ bằng ở Úc), and express agreement or disagreement (for example, Bạn nói đúng lắm/Tôi cũng nghĩ vậy. Xin lỗi, tôi không nghĩ vậy/tôi có ý kiến khác với bạn). They interact with others to carry out transactions and to plan and organise social or cultural events by negotiating options, and explaining and justifying opinions, for example, Bạn muốn tổ chức sinh nhật ở nhà hay ở trường? Chúng mình nên tham gia gây quỹ để cứu trợ nạn nhân bão lụt. They apply appropriate pronunciation in spoken Vietnamese, including intonation patterns, tones and pauses. Students analyse information and ideas obtained from diverse sources, comparing and evaluating different perspectives related to common areas of interest and study. They present information and opinions using different text types and modes of presentation appropriate to a variety of audiences and to achieve different purposes. They share their responses to different imaginative texts by expressing preferences and describing key elements such as themes, values, plot, and representations of characters and events. They create imaginative texts for the purpose of self-expression and engagement, using cohesive devices such as conjunctions to communicate, link and extend ideas, and common Vietnamese idioms, proverbs or folk songs for illustration of cultural concepts or aspects. When writing, they use verbs to express modality (for example, nên, cần, phải), direct speech (for example, Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’) and indirect speech (for example, Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học), and apply Vietnamese spelling rules and tone markers to a range of words. They translate and interpret texts using strategies to overcome challenges in translation, such as considering cultural expressions or representations, and explain differences in interpretation. Students create a range of multimodal bilingual resources for the school and local community. They explain the relationship between language, culture and identity, and modify language and behaviours in intercultural interactions to enhance mutual understanding.

Students infer the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in a range of familiar contexts by applying knowledge of grammatical elements and vocabulary. They analyse the relationship between cultural representations, language choices, and the audience and purpose of different text types. They identify and analyse linguistic features of Vietnamese in a range of situations, explaining variations due to audience and purpose. They explain the impact of social, cultural and intercultural influences on language, identifying and using Vietnamese words that have emerged from globalisation, migration, popular culture and technology, such as toàn cầu hóa, di dân, định cư, hội nhập, nhạc trẻ, công nghệ thông tin, nhật ký điện tử, nói chuyện qua mạng. They explain ways in which language and culture are interrelated and influence each other.


Years 9 and 10 Work Sample Portfolios