Years 9 and 10 Band Description
The nature of the learners
Learners increasingly communicate in Vietnamese in everyday interactions and in domains that are beyond the home. They continue to be immersed in Vietnamese language and culture, making connections and comparisons with other languages and cultures. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They begin to consider their role as bilingual, intercultural communicators in the Australian context. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Vietnamese may feature in these.
Vietnamese language learning and use
This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication. Learners use Vietnamese to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, and to participate in imaginative and creative experiences. There is a balance between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that moving between Vietnamese and English involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Students discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the concept of being bilingual and bicultural.
Contexts of interaction
Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts beyond the home. Contexts of interaction in Vietnamese move beyond the immediate world of teenage experience to more active participation in events or celebrations at home (Sinh nhật con ba mẹ làm BBQ ở vườn sau đi. Con sẽ giúp mẹ nấu nướng và dọn dẹp) or transactions with people in the local community (Cô có thể giảm giá cho học sinh không? Làm ơn cho tôi đổi lại số lớn hơn). Learners participate in discussions and presentations on topics of interest and about life experiences in different contexts and cultures. They view and/or listen to advertisements, announcements, conversations, television programs, documentaries, music performances and films to further explore Vietnamese language and culture. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided by purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and e-learning.
Texts and resources
Learners read, view and interact with a broad range of texts and resources specifically designed for learning Vietnamese in school contexts, such as textbooks, readers, videos and online materials, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They also access authentic materials created for Vietnamese-speaking communities, such as films, literature, websites and magazines. They use a range of dictionaries and translation methods to support comprehension, build vocabulary and elaborate on ideas.
Features of Vietnamese language use
Learners apply appropriate pronunciation of sounds and tones, as well as rhythm and intonation, to a range of spoken texts. They use vocabulary with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain greater control of grammatical elements such as word order, sentence structures and punctuation. They use cohesive devices such as conjunctions (và, hay/hoặc, tuy…nhưng, nếu…thì, vì…cho nên), verbs to express modality (nên, cần, phải), direct and indirect speech (Ba mẹ nói với tôi: ‘Con nên chăm học’. Ba mẹ bảo tôi nên chăm học), abstract vocabulary (tình thương, sở thích, nỗi buồn, niềm vui, hạnh phúc) and common idioms (xa mặt cách lòng, tiền rừng bạc biển, có chí thì nên) to communicate, link and extend ideas and information. They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, popular culture, migration and globalisation influence forms of communication. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between Vietnamese and English affects their ways of thinking and behaving, and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They consider their own cultural practices from a bilingual perspective and communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.
Level of support
This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are required to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as online journalling, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention to grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.
The role of English
The classroom is increasingly characterised by bilinguality, with Vietnamese being the principal language of communication. Vietnamese and English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection, although learners at this level are able to discuss some abstract and complex views and ideas about language, culture and intercultural experience in Vietnamese. Learners explore the influence of both Vietnamese and English on their way of communicating, and examine how living and moving between cultures has impacted on their own bilingual identity.