Years 9 and 10 Band Description
The nature of the learners
This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning and use are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural frames impacts continually on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process and is reflected in the degree to which learners define themselves as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups, choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive and impact on learners’ engagement with both Turkish and English language learning.
Turkish language learning and use
This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion and experimentation with different modes of communication, for example, digital and hypermedia, collaborative performance and group discussions. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use Turkish to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.
Contexts of interaction
Learners interact with peers, teachers and other Turkish speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Turkish-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They may participate in community events, such as film or cultural festivals, intercultural forums or exchange travel opportunities.
Texts and resources
Learners use an extensive range of texts and materials designed for in-class learning of Turkish, such as textbooks, literary texts, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to authentic materials designed for or generated by young Turkish speakers, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper features. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their own learning, share them with peers, and pursue personal interests in aspects of Turkish language and associated cultures.
Features of Turkish language use
Learners extend their grammatical knowledge to a range of forms and functions that give them control of more complex elements of text construction and word formation. They analyse functions of affixation through the identification of adverbial, adjectival and noun phrases, for example, by recognising how some adverbs derived from verbs and adverbial phrases modify time and manner of action, for example, the adverb -erek/-arak, as in Koşarak geldi, gülerek gitti; adding the suffix –ce/-ca to the adjective as in dikkatlice and hızlıca. They analyse the use of optative endings, -(y)eyim, -(y)elim, -(y)in and -sin in first person, for example, alayım, alalım, alın;and alsın in different tenses and in sentences to express a request; and distinguish between the use of the progressive form -(i)yor and the simple present -(i)r and past tense -d(i) of verbs that describe actions and the evidential past perfect tense -miş, as in, gelmiş and gitmiş and uyuyormuş. Their vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures, and communicative learning experiences and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Elements of learning experiences involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Text types such as media resources, fiction and nonfiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance, for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity. Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they in turn are shaped by context and intention.
Learners at this level understand the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on their ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop a capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.
Level of support
While learners are increasingly less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions, continued support, such as provision of rich language input and modelled language, is needed to consolidate and sustain language development. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in a range of contexts, situations and learning experiences, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to complex structures, grammatical functions and abstract concepts and vocabulary. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback, through peer support and self-review.
The role of English
Learners and teachers use Turkish as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and content-oriented tasks. English is sometimes used for comparative analysis and for discussion or explanation that involve concepts more easily articulated in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Turkish play in their academic work and in their conceptual development