Years 5 and 6 Band Description
The nature of the learners
This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities in Turkish and English are developing in parallel trajectories within the curriculum. For some learners, there will be greater discrepancy between proficiency in the two languages than for others. The curriculum ensures that learning experiences and activities are flexible enough to cater for learner variables while being appropriate for learners' cognitive and social levels.
Turkish language learning and use
Learners use Turkish in the classroom for a widening range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, competing and cooperating, performing, and responding to resources and experiences. Their communicative capabilities are stronger and more elaborated. They control and access wider vocabulary resources and use an increasingly sophisticated range of non-verbal strategies to support communication. Shared tasks develop social, cognitive and language skills and provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. At this level, focused attention to language structures and systems, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted primarily in Turkish. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources and information with each other and with young people of the same age in other Turkish-speaking communities, accessing music and media resources, maintaining blogs and other web pages, and participating in social networks.
Oracy development at this level includes listening to a range of varied input from different sources and building more elaborated conversational and interactional skills. This includes initiating and sustaining conversations, using turn-taking protocols, ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning, building on others’ contributions, making appropriate responses and adjustments, and engaging in debate and discussion. Individual and group oral presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information; structuring, rehearsing and resourcing the content of the presentation; and selecting appropriate language to engage a particular audience.
Contexts of interaction
Learners interact in Turkish with each other, the teacher and members of their families and communities. They have some access to Turkish speakers and cultural resources in wiser contexts and communities through the use of ICT and through the media. Language development and use are incorporated into collaborative and interactive learning experiences, games and activities.
Texts and resources
Learners engage with a growing range of published texts in print and digital forms, such as stories, videos, readers, songs and computer-generated learning materials. They also engage with resources prepared by their teacher, including games, performances, presentations and language exercises. They may have additional access to Turkish language and cultural resources created for Turkish-speaking communities, such as children’s television programs, websites, music or video clips.
Features of Turkish language use
Learners draw on more established grammatical and lexical resources to compose and comprehend more complex language. They recognise and use verb conjugations and common noun and adjective forming suffixes, such as (-lı, -li, -lu, -lü) as in kar-lı, kir-li, toz-lu..; (-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük) as in yaz-lık, göz-lük…; (-cı, -ci, -cu, -cü/-çı, -çi, -çu, -çü) as in gemi-ci, kira-cı, su-cu, çiçek-çi..; (-gı, -gi, -gu, -gü) as in sar-gı, sil-gi,..; (-sız, -siz, -suz, -süz) as in ev-siz… They apply the rule of great vowel harmony when adding nominal case endings, -(e), -(i), -d(e), -d(e)n to different nouns, such as ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, ev-in. They use the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound sentences, for example, yağmur yağarsa gitmeyeceğiz, and appropriate endings for subject–verb agreements in simple and compound sentences.
They use a range of cues and decoding strategies to assist comprehension and to make connections between ideas, contexts and language within and between texts. They write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences. With support, they build increasing cohesion and complexity into their written work in terms of both content and expression. While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into task activity, and systematic feedback and review support the interactive process of learning. They build metalanguage to talk about aspects of language such as grammar, for example, bağlaçlar, özne ile yüklem uyumu, -de/-da ekler, ilgi zamiri –ki, edatlar, and the use of both Turkish and English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and metalinguistic and intercultural capabilities.
Understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity is developed through guided investigation of how language features and expressions carry specific cultural meaning; through critical analysis of cultural stereotypes, attitudes and perspectives; and through exploration of issues related to personal and community identities. Learners take account of the variability of language use and textual practice in relation to factors such as gender, generation, status, and geographical, cultural and ethnic diversity. They reference themselves in relation to similar variables, and reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity and how these affect communication and intercultural experience through the lens of their own bicultural experiences.
Level of support
While learners are becoming more autonomous and independent, ongoing support is still needed, including explicit instruction, structured modelling and scaffolding, provision of appropriate stimulus materials and timely feedback. Task activities incorporate implicit form-focused language learning activities and examples of texts and tasks. Learners are supported to use electronic and print reference resources, such as word banks, dictionaries and translating tools, and are encouraged to adopt a critical approach to resource selection.
The role of English
Turkish is the primary language for classroom routines, interactions and language learning experiences, with English used more in a supporting role. The use of Turkish for discussion, reflection and explanation of content drawn from other learning areas is encouraged as much as possible, and English is used for comparative analysis between languages and for the continued development of metalanguage in both languages.