Turkish (Version 8.4)

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Context statement

The place of the Turkish language and culture in Australia and the world
Turkish is the official language of the Republic of Turkey and one of the official languages of Cyprus.
It originated many centuries ago in the Northern Siberian Altay Mountain Range.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Turkish are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Turkish: Sequence of content
Languages - Turkish: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Turkish: Sequence …


Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

This is a key transitional phase of learning. Learners communicate more confidently, are more self-directed, and self-reference in relation to wider contexts. Response to experience is more analytical and critical, allowing for a reflective dimension to language learning and to referencing cultural frameworks. Language and literacy capabilities in Turkish and English are developing in parallel trajectories within the curriculum. For some learners, there will be greater discrepancy between proficiency in the two languages than for others. The curriculum ensures that learning experiences and activities are flexible enough to cater for learner variables while being appropriate for learners' cognitive and social levels.

Turkish language learning and use

Learners use Turkish in the classroom for a widening range of purposes: exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, competing and cooperating, performing, and responding to resources and experiences. Their communicative capabilities are stronger and more elaborated. They control and access wider vocabulary resources and use an increasingly sophisticated range of non-verbal strategies to support communication. Shared tasks develop social, cognitive and language skills and provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. At this level, focused attention to language structures and systems, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted primarily in Turkish. Learners use ICT to support their learning in increasingly independent and intentional ways, exchanging resources and information with each other and with young people of the same age in other Turkish-speaking communities, accessing music and media resources, maintaining blogs and other web pages, and participating in social networks.

Oracy development at this level includes listening to a range of varied input from different sources and building more elaborated conversational and interactional skills. This includes initiating and sustaining conversations, using turn-taking protocols, ‘reading’ language for cultural and contextual meaning, building on others’ contributions, making appropriate responses and adjustments, and engaging in debate and discussion. Individual and group oral presentation and performance skills are developed through researching and organising information; structuring, rehearsing and resourcing the content of the presentation; and selecting appropriate language to engage a particular audience.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact in Turkish with each other, the teacher and members of their families and communities. They have some access to Turkish speakers and cultural resources in wiser contexts and communities through the use of ICT and through the media. Language development and use are incorporated into collaborative and interactive learning experiences, games and activities.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of published texts in print and digital forms, such as stories, videos, readers, songs and computer-generated learning materials. They also engage with resources prepared by their teacher, including games, performances, presentations and language exercises. They may have additional access to Turkish language and cultural resources created for Turkish-speaking communities, such as children’s television programs, websites, music or video clips.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners draw on more established grammatical and lexical resources to compose and comprehend more complex language. They recognise and use verb conjugations and common noun and adjective forming suffixes, such as (-lı, -li, -lu, -lü) as in kar-lı, kir-li, toz-lu..; (-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük) as in yaz-lık, göz-lük…; (-cı, -ci, -cu, -cü/-çı, -çi, -çu, -çü) as in gemi-ci, kira-cı, su-cu, çiçek-çi..; (-gı, -gi, -gu, -gü) as in sar-gı, sil-gi,..; (-sız, -siz, -suz, -süz) as in ev-siz… They apply the rule of great vowel harmony when adding nominal case endings, -(e), -(i), -d(e), -d(e)n to different nouns, such as ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, ev-in. They use the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound sentences, for example, yağmur yağarsa gitmeyeceğiz, and appropriate endings for subject–verb agreements in simple and compound sentences.

They use a range of cues and decoding strategies to assist comprehension and to make connections between ideas, contexts and language within and between texts. They write more accurately and fluently for a wider range of purposes and audiences. With support, they build increasing cohesion and complexity into their written work in terms of both content and expression. While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into task activity, and systematic feedback and review support the interactive process of learning. They build metalanguage to talk about aspects of language such as grammar, for example, bağlaçlar, özne ile yüklem uyumu, -de/-da ekler, ilgi zamiri –ki, edatlar, and the use of both Turkish and English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and metalinguistic and intercultural capabilities.

Understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity is developed through guided investigation of how language features and expressions carry specific cultural meaning; through critical analysis of cultural stereotypes, attitudes and perspectives; and through exploration of issues related to personal and community identities. Learners take account of the variability of language use and textual practice in relation to factors such as gender, generation, status, and geographical, cultural and ethnic diversity. They reference themselves in relation to similar variables, and reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity and how these affect communication and intercultural experience through the lens of their own bicultural experiences.

Level of support

While learners are becoming more autonomous and independent, ongoing support is still needed, including explicit instruction, structured modelling and scaffolding, provision of appropriate stimulus materials and timely feedback. Task activities incorporate implicit form-focused language learning activities and examples of texts and tasks. Learners are supported to use electronic and print reference resources, such as word banks, dictionaries and translating tools, and are encouraged to adopt a critical approach to resource selection.

The role of English

Turkish is the primary language for classroom routines, interactions and language learning experiences, with English used more in a supporting role. The use of Turkish for discussion, reflection and explanation of content drawn from other learning areas is encouraged as much as possible, and English is used for comparative analysis between languages and for the continued development of metalanguage in both languages.

Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions


Participate in spoken, written and digital interactions to share ideas and experiences, showing interest and respect for others

[Key concepts: discussion, correspondence, interests, experiences; Key processes: composing, describing, discussing, responding] (ACLTUC035 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • expressing own views and preferences and asking about those of others, for example, Ne tercih edersiniz? Ne içersiniz?, using appropriate language to agree or disagree, for example, Bence Atilla çok iyi bir sporcu. Bence de. Haklısın aynı fikirdeyim. Bence öyle değil. Ben sana katılmıyorum. Ben senin gibi düşünmüyorum.
  • composing written or digital texts such as cards, emails or letters to invite, congratulate or thank someone, for example, Lütfen buyurun! Davetlisiniz. Gözün aydın! Güle güle oturun! Hayırlı ve uğurlu olsun! Tebrikler! Teşekkür ederim
  • describing and comparing experiences of social activities, special community celebrations or events, for example, 29 Ekim Cumhuriyet Bayramında ben şiir okudum. Ramazan bayramında dedem bana harçlık verdi
  • participating in online exchanges such as video blogs with sister schools in Turkey or other Turkish-speaking contexts, comparing interests, routines and social activities
  • sustaining interactions with others by asking questions, using active listening skills and providing feedback, for example, Siz ne düşünüyorsunuz? Evet! Tabii ki. İlginç! Sen ne dersin?
Plan shared activities or events, such as a display or presentation, an interview, awareness campaign or virtual shopping expedition

[Key concepts: collaboration, action, plan; Key processes: planning, designing, budgeting] (ACLTUC036 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • preparing performance texts such as Hacıvat ve Karagöz oyunları, skeçler, piyesler, marşlar, Ramazan manileri, to present to younger students at a community event or school assembly
  • planning and creating displays or resources such as timelines, schedules, posters or appeals for a fundraiser
  • planning for a Turkish-speaking guest by developing an interview schedule using questions such as Kendinizi tanıtır mısınız? Ne tür müzikten hoşlanırsınız?
  • creating interactive learning experiences to encourage children in a buddy class to learn Turkish or to use their existing Turkish language in different domains
  • budgeting for hypothetical shopping expeditions, for example, by consulting online catalogues and websites, comparing prices and values and discussing intended purchases, for example, Bu çok pahalı, İndirimli satışlar varmış, Ay, bu en son çıkan, Bu kelepir!
  • planning a campaign, for example, to introduce healthy Turkish food at the school canteen, raise awareness about pollution or prevent bullying, for example, by creating posters, pamphlets and flyers or by making presentations to school council/board
Participate in classroom interactions that involve asking and responding to questions, seeking clarification, indicating understanding, reflecting and providing feedback

[Key concepts: classroom interaction, debate, responsibility; Key processes: questioning, responding, evaluating] (ACLTUC037 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interacting during group learning experiences by asking each other questions, making suggestions or checking on progress, for example, Ben ne yapabilirim? Sen not alır mısın? Bu sayfayı mı okuyacaktık? Cevapları maddeler halinde yazsak daha iyi olur. Ne dersiniz?
  • participating in discussions and debates on issues and experiences that affect their school, home or community lives, for example, Zorbalık, evde iş bölümü, Türk festivalinde çocuklar için neler yapılmalı, and clarifying their own statements, for example, Bence, bana göre
  • evaluating each other’s comments or suggestions when working together, indicating agreement or disagreement and negotiating changes, for example, Anladım, Anlayamadım, Yardım eder misin? Cevabım doğru mu? Emin değilim, şöyle yaparsak… daha iyi olur, peki öyle olsun … Bence … daha güzel olur
  • reflecting on their learning experiences and providing each other with feedback, advice or reminders, for example, Süper, harika, mükemmel, unutma, çok zor


Gather, classify and compare information from print, digital and multimodal resources relating to their physical environment and social and cultural worlds

[Key concepts: environment, values, experience, heritage; Key processes: investigating, comparing, classifying] (ACLTUC038 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • gathering information from a range of digital and print resources about social and cultural activities in their community, making a list of terms, expressions or behaviours, such as Bayramınız kutlu olsun!, Başınız sağ olsun!, Hayırlara vesile olsun, Allah izin verirse, Hayırlı olsun
  • conducting interviews with family members or friends to collect stories of migration to Australia, identifying words and expressions that reflect important values and feelings, such as gurbet, özlem, heyecan, güvenlik, dostluk, komşuluk
  • gathering and comparing information on topics such as significant elements of family life, community or schooling in Australian and Turkish contexts
  • surveying friends and family members to report on cultural trends or changing social behaviours, such as preferred modes of communication
  • researching their own bicultural biographies, for example, by talking with relatives in Australia and elsewhere to know more about their family’s heritage, history or circumstances, comparing their details with those of their friends
  • collecting and presenting information from a range of print and digital resources about features of their local environment, for example, su, orman yangınları, ekosistem, yabani yaşam
  • viewing documentaries that reflect lifestyles of Turkish-speaking communities in different regions of the world, such as Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti,Türkmenistan, recording key facts and unfamiliar vocabulary or expressions
  • gathering information about well-known people in fields such as sport, entertainment, pop culture, the arts or history, to create a profile to present to their peers
Convey information about aspects of their own language(s), culture(s) and communities in suitable formats for different audiences and contexts

[Key concepts: culture, interests, transition; Key processes: creating, resourcing, explaining] (ACLTUC039 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • presenting information related to elements of Turkish lifestyles and culture, for example, kırsal ve kentsel yaşam, hamam, Türk kahvesi, el sanatları, halk dansları to present to students in the school who are not learning Turkish
  • creating a multimodal profile of their local community for newly arriving migrants from Turkish-speaking regions of the world
  • creating a website for a contact group of Turkish-speaking students, posting information on their interests and experiences and using sound, visual or graphic resources to feature elements which may be unfamiliar to the intended audience
  • writing a post on a website for young people that flags upcoming events in their community, for example, mezuniyet balosu, eğlence gecesi, 19 Mayıs ve Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı
  • assembling an information pack to support new students arriving at their school, including a glossary of key terms that may need explaining, for example, sınıf, müdür odası, öğretmenler odası, nöbetçi öğretmen, revir, kantin, ofis, lavabo, kütüphane, spor salonu, konferans salonu
  • creating an interactive presentation for younger children, friends or members of their extended families to showcase their bilingual/multilingual experience and identify the advantages of being able to communicate in more than one language


Respond to imaginative texts such as TV programs, folktales, performances or cartoons by sharing opinions on elements such as storylines, messages, characters and themes

[Key concepts: characterisation, response, storytelling; Key processes: comparing, describing, identifying; Key text types: folktales, comic books, songs, stories] (ACLTUC040 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, reading or viewing traditional folktales, contemporary stories and cartoons, responding by retelling or re-enacting the story in their own words or by creating a timeline to track sequences of events
  • creating digital profiles of characters they enjoy in different stories, plays or poems, providing physical and character descriptions and examples of the ways they speak and behave
  • composing a personal response or commentary, such as a letter or journal entry, to a message conveyed by a character in a folktale, legend or fable relating to a concept such as truthfulness, courage or honesty
  • presenting a critical review of a song, story or television program, using evaluative language such as Ben … çok beğendim çünkü …, … hiç sevmedim. Çok üzücüydü
  • sharing responses to recorded performances of Türk Halk Oyunları by making expressive and descriptive statements to interpret the meaning and impact of the music and movements
  • describing their reactions to imaginative texts that evoke responses such as sadness, fear or excitement, relating them to their own experiences by using stem statements such as Bir defa benim de başıma gelmişti, Ben de benzer bir olay yaşadım
  • recognising that there are different ways of telling a story, as in the case of Türk halıları ve kilimleri, discussing the uniqueness of symbols, colours, stories and feelings represented in carpets and rugs from different regions
Create and perform expressive and imaginative texts such as stories, dance, skits or video clips based on a stimulus concept, theme or resource

[Key concepts: adaptation, genre, audience, effect; Key processes: creating, adapting, performing, experimenting; Key text types: stories, poems, cartoons, songs, fables] (ACLTUC041 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating and performing texts to entertain others which incorporate elements such as dance, mime, singing and narration and reference values and traditions associated with Turkish communities
  • creating a video clip to launch an imagined product designed to appeal to their peer group
  • creating their own music and lyrics modelled on a traditional Turkish song such as Tren Gelir Hoş Gelir, Tin Tin Tini Mini Hanım
  • adopting the role of parent or older sibling to tell a bedtime story or sing a lullaby, using props, gestures and appropriate language
  • creating their own presentations adapted from performances they have enjoyed to perform at a school or community event, combining language, music and movements to communicate key messages and cultural expression
  • creating stories based on a theme such as values associated with Turkish communities to share with younger learners, for example, by creating Big Books, comics or digital texts


Translate simple texts from Turkish to English and vice versa, identifying elements that require interpretation rather than translation and noticing words that are similar but pronounced differently

[Key concepts: meaning, interpretation, culture; Key processes: identifying, translating, classifying] (ACLTUC042 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining in English the meaning of Turkish expressions that do not translate literally, comparing with expressions in English for which there are no easy Turkish translations
  • finding expressions in English that convey similar meanings to those expressed in phrases used in advertisements, shop signs or folktales, such as ateş pahası, darısı başına, küplere binmek, kulakları çınlamak, pabucu dama atılmak, güme gitmek, demli çay and ocakbaşı
  • identifying words that are similar in Turkish and English, comparing their spelling, pronunciation, intonation and stress in the two languages, for example, ağustos, alfabe, ansiklopedi, çikolata, doktor, elektrik, fotoğraf, laboratuvar, paraşüt, tren, veteriner, yoğurt
  • creating and cross-referencing banks of Turkish words and phrases that do or do not have direct equivalents in English
  • working out the meaning of unfamiliar English words and expressions used in other curriculum areas, such as ‘drought’, ‘starvation’, ‘flood’, ‘snowstorm’, and considering how they would convey their meaning in Turkish, for example, kuraklık, açlık, kıtlık, sel, kar fırtınası
  • collecting examples of proverbs used in their families, such as Damlaya damlaya göl olur, Ak akçe kara gün içindir, Denize düşen yılana sarılır, and discussing how to explain their meaning to non-Turkish speaking friends
  • learning to use bilingual print and digital dictionaries, identifying issues such as multiple meanings for words and the fact that meaning is not always literal
Create bilingual texts such as websites, posters, class journals and menus to support their own learning and to assist interactions with non-Turkish speakers

[Key concepts: equivalence, alternatives; Key processes: considering, selecting, translating] (ACLTUC043 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual texts such as invitations to performances, newsletters, cartoons or menus, reflecting on how different meanings are communicated in different languages
  • designing a menu for a Turkish meal which includes footnotes in English to explain characteristics and ingredients of unfamiliar dishes such as imambayıldı, Alinazik, mücver, hünkarbeğendi
  • creating bilingual brochures, digital presentations or posters to promote community events, providing English translations for key words, expressions and items of information
  • designing and co-maintaining a bilingual website with a sister school or contact group of young English learners in a Turkish-speaking community elsewhere
  • contributing to a shared class journal that records significant learning experiences and events in both Turkish and English


Discuss the experience of switching between languages, noticing when they choose to use either Turkish or English and how each culture influences ways of communicating

[Key concepts: code-switching, intercultural communication, language domains; Key processes: monitoring, adjusting, reflecting, describing] (ACLTUC044 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying and comparing instances when they switch between Turkish and English, considering why they do this in particular situations or interactions
  • comparing experiences of using Turkish and English with a particular person, such as a parent or older relative, noticing which topics or interactions fit more easily into one language than the other and considering reasons for this
  • reflecting on experiences of feeling either uncomfortable or comfortable when switching between languages, explaining why this might have been the case, for example, when translating for parents or other family members or interpreting for visitors
  • identifying adjustments they make when moving between Turkish and English at school and at home, such as using different forms of address and showing respect or affection in particular ways, discussing why these adjustments are necessary
  • reflecting on instances when their use of Turkish, English or other languages has been misinterpreted and discussing possible reasons for this
Compare their experiences of moving between Turkish and English, identifying advantages and challenges in respect to being bilingual or multilingual

[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication, bilingualism; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, comparing] (ACLTUC045 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on the experience of being bilingual or multilingual, discussing the benefits of knowing more than one language and considering whether moving between languages affects their sense of identity
  • comparing family cultures, considering how their own upbringing has shaped their sense of identity, for example, how Turkish and Australian cultural influences are differently reflected in their daily lives, interests and social activities
  • reflecting on how interacting in Turkish feels different to interacting in English and identifying elements that feel culturally specific
  • considering how identity is expressed across languages and cultures, discussing the idea of belonging as expressed in different languages

Systems of language

Understand the relationships between intonation and stress in Turkish, and apply this understanding to their own written and spoken language and meaning-making

[Key concepts: accent, emphasis, vowel harmony, discrimination; Key processes: understanding, recognising, applying conventions] (ACLTUU046 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising differences in the pronunciation of long and short vowels with and without accent, and understanding that the length of a vowel and accent can change meaning, as in hala-hâlâ, and palatalise the previous consonant, as in kar-kâr
  • understanding sound assimilation, for example, how in words ending in k, the k softens to become yumuşak g (soft g), ğ before suffixes starting with a vowel, for example, kulak – kulağıma, küçük-küçüğüm
  • understanding how to use emphasis to enhance meaning, for example, using high-pitch tone and primary stress at the end of words, as in gel′dim ya!
  • understanding how stress is usually placed on the last syllable in Turkish, except in the case of some question words, compounds and place names, such as ′Ankara, ′Türkiye but Bulgaris′tan, Gürcis′tan, ′hangi, ′niçin
  • applying the principles of vowel harmony and sound assimilation of consonants and grammatical knowledge to the spelling and writing of unfamiliar words, for example, suffixes such as -, kapkaççı, bankacı, yolcu, oduncu, examples of sound assimilation, sokak+-da = sokakta, süt+-de = sütte, kebap+-cı = kebapçı, simit+-ci = simitçi
  • noticing the pronunciation of loan words, including vowels and consonant clusters, for example, plaj, spor, tren
  • recognising the effect of non-verbal language and tone in reinforcing meaning in spoken Turkish, for example, Buyrun! Vay be! Mahvoldum ya!, İnanmıyorum! Git yaa! Eeee, başka? Hadi be! Öf ya!
Recognise and apply grammatical features of spoken and written language, such as verbal conjugations and nominal declensions and modifications, negative and interrogative sentence structures and subject–verb agreements

[Key concepts: word order, conjugation, marker, word endings; Key processes: discriminating, classifying, applying rules] (ACLTUU047 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising and using verb conjugations for example, ‘oku-mak’: oku-r-um, oku-r-sun, oku-r oku-r-uz, oku-r-sunuz, oku-r-lar; And oku-yor-um, oku-yor-sun, oku-yor, oku-yor-uz, oku-yor-sunuz, oku-yor-lar
  • recognising and using nominal conjugations through adjective- and noun-making suffixes such as (-lı, -li, -lu, -lü) as in kar-lı, kir-li, toz-lu..; (-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük) as in yaz-lık, göz-lük…; (-cı, -ci, -cu, -cü/-çı, -çi, -çu, -çü) as in gemi-ci, kira-cı, su-cu, çiçek-çi..; (-gı, -gi, -gu, -gü) as in sar-gı, sil-gi,..; (-sız, -siz, -suz, -süz) as in ev-siz…
  • applying the rule of great vowel harmony when adding nominal case endings -(e), -(i), -d(e), -d(e)n to different nouns, such as ev-e, ev-i, ev-de, ev-den, ev-in
  • learning the correct written form of suffixes, for example, instead of using spoken/colloquial predicates such as gelcem or alcan, using the written form, geleceğim and alacaksın; instead of using geliyom, using the correct spelling geliyorum
  • using the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound sentences, for example, (Eğer) yağmur yağarsa geziye gitmeyeceğiz, comparing this with conditional verb forms in English
  • using interrogative word endings in different tenses and personal prounouns, for example, Geliyor musun? Gelecek misiniz?
  • using the negative marker -m(a), as in Ramazan Bayramı’nda tüm okullar tatile girmeyecek, and the adverb for negation -değil to negate any sentences without a verb, and using appropriate suffixes as in değil-im, değil-sinRamazan Bayramı’nda tüm okullar tatile girmeyecek değil mi?
  • using appropriate endings for subject–verb agreements in simple and compound sentences
  • recognising different types of formal and informal honorific forms such as Efendi, Sayın, Bey/Hanım, Amca,Teyze
  • using conjunctions and comparatives to evaluate and express opinion, for example, -a göre, sence, hiç/çok uzun değil
  • recognising and using compound and some complex sentences
  • learning basıc metaphors, similes such as aslan gibi and common idiomatic expressions and proverbs, for example, Damlaya damlaya göl olur, ateş pahası, nazar değmesin
  • building metalanguage to talk about grammar, using terms such as bağlaçlar, Özne ile yüklem uyumu, -de/-da ekler, ilgi zamiri –ki, edatlar
Understand how different types of text in Turkish, including prose and verse, create effects to suit different audiences

[Key concepts: genre, text features, imagery, register; Key processes: noticing, comparing, analysing] (ACLTUU048 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • analysing and comparing language used in particular types of texts, for example, descriptive language in recounts or narratives, persuasive language in advertisements, humorous language in comic verse or puppet theatre plays, instructional language in recipes and manuals, expository language and factual statements in news reports
  • analysing characteristic features of texts that they use and interact with in their everyday lives, for example, the use of abbreviations and emoticons in texting, rhetorical questions in advertisements, numerical terms in recipes and receipts, emotive and rhyming words in song lyrics, headings in blogs and on websites
  • discussing the use of imagery in different kinds of creative or performative texts, identifying how this helps to convey meaning and engage/entertain the audience
  • understanding the cultural significance of features of particular types of texts, such as forms of address and language associated with rituals or celebrations, anonymous or Anatolian stories in the lyrics of türkü songs, the use of dialogue and oaths in Andımız, characterisation in Turkish Nasrettin Hoca ve diğer fıkralar, kukla oyunu and masal, the use of deyimler ve atasözleri in Turkish legends and short stories
  • discussing how poems or song lyrics, such as Arkadaşım Eşşek and Çanakkale Türküsü, create particular moods (özlem ve acıma) and tap into particular emotions by using techniques such as repetition, rhyme and direct forms of address

Language variation and change

Understand that spoken and written forms of Turkish both vary in terms of formality according to context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: mode, register, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, identifying] (ACLTUU049 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding how language is adapted to control levels of politeness and formality and to reflect relationship, age and intention, for example, the use of the pronoun siz and the second plural indicator -iz indicates more politeness in requests such as gelir misiniz lütfen? compared with gelin lütfen
  • recognising that written forms of Turkish vary depending on levels of formality and informality, for example, formal letters adopt the use of -iz and of titles such as Hanım/Bey sayın instead of sevgili, canım, compared to the use of first names to address family and friends in informal letters
  • understanding that the use of honorifics such as Ali Ağabey (Abi), Fatma Abla, Mehmet Amca, Mustafa Dayı, Ahmet Bey, Nazmiye Hanım can be varied when speaking to older people who are less familiar, depending on their age and degree of closeness
  • recognising characteristic differences between spoken and written forms of Turkish, for example, by identifying colloquialisms and expressions used mainly in spoken conversation, for example, the non-standard abi in place of the more formal ağabey or the use of ya at the beginning of spoken utterances
  • knowing that meaning is shaped not only by words but also by expression, gestures and use of voice, and that these elements also vary in formal and informal language
  • recognising how variations in language use reflect different feelings, moods or attitudes, for example, the respectful tone of devotional texts compared to the liveliness, humour and colour of Nasrettin Hoca fıkraları, Temel fıkraları, Çizgi filmler, fabllar
Understand that the Turkish language has evolved and developed through different periods of influence from other languages, cultures and changes

[Key concepts: language contact, language change, globalisation; Key processes: observing, analysing, discussing, reflecting] (ACLTUU050 - Scootle )

  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying loan words and phrases used in particular domains, such as food, music or social media, discussing how the Turkish language and associated behaviours reflect contemporary and global influences, for example, the use of web sitesi, rap yapmak, fast food, part time, single
  • understanding causes and effects of historical developments and reforms to the Turkish language, such as changes implemented under the leadership of Atatürk and changing the script from Arabic to Latin in 1928
  • understanding that languages constantly expand to include new words and expressions, due to influences such as changing technologies, digital media and intercultural exchange, for example, e-posta, yazıcı, tarayıcı, çevrimiçi; and that they sometimes lose terms or expressions which have no relevance to current contexts, such as karatahta, telgraf, arzuhalci
  • identifying how loan words are incorporated into Turkish by changing the spelling to fit Turkish pronunciation and the principles of great vowel harmony, for example, mektup, kalem, sandalye, polis

Role of language and culture

Reflect on how communities’ ways of using languages are shaped by values and belief systems, and how these may be differently interpreted by speakers of other languages

[Key concepts: culture, perspective, values, practice; Key processes: comparing, explaining, analysing, reflecting] (ACLTUU051 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding that people interpret and respond to intercultural experiences in different ways depending on their own cultural perspectives, recognising the validity of different perspectives and questioning notions of ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ ideas or behaviours
  • noticing ways in which the Turkish language reflects values and traditions of Turkish communities, such as Nazar değmesin
  • comparing superstitions across cultures, for example, Yerde uzanan çocukların üzerinden atlama, Geceleyin tırnak kesilmez, tahtaya vurmak, yıldız kayarken dilek tutmak compared to ‘breaking a mirror will bring you seven years of bad luck’, researching their origins and considering their relevance today
  • considering how Turkish interaction patterns around familiar routines such as meal times reflect cultural practices and values associated with family life, food and social relationships, for example, selamlaşma, yemek zamanı-öğünler, sofra adabı
  • identifying examples of Australian values and traditions reflected in ways of communicating that may not be familiar to members of other language communities, for example, ways of addressing people, behaviour and interactions around meal times

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 6, students use spoken and written Turkish to interact by sharing ideas and experiences, for example, 23 Nisan Ulusal Egemenlik ve Çocuk Bayramında ben şiir okudum. Ramazan Bayramında dedem bana harçlık verdi. When interacting, they show interest and respect for others by actively listening and providing feedback, for example, Siz ne düşünüyorsunuz? Evet! Tabii ki. İlginç! Sen ne dersin? They use action-oriented language to make shared arrangements, organise events and complete transactions. When participating in classroom and collaborative activities, they ask and respond to questions, for example, Ben ne yapabilirim? Sen not alır mısın? Cevapları maddeler halinde yazsak daha iyi olur. and seek clarification, for example, Bu sayfayı mı okuyacaktık? They use evaluative language to reflect on learning activities and to provide each other with feedback, for example, Süper, harika, mükemmel, unutma, çok zor. Students use specific features of pronunciation, intonation and stress when interacting. They locate, classify and compare information about their physical environment and social and cultural worlds from a range of sources in different modes. They present information about aspects of language and culture in different formats selected to suit audience and context. They respond to a range of imaginative texts by identifying and sharing opinions on key elements such as storylines, characters, messages and themes, for example, Ben … çok beğendim çünkü …, … hiç sevmedim, Çok üzücüydü, and create and perform short imaginative texts based on a stimulus, concept or theme. When constructing texts, students use grammatical features of spoken and written language, such as negative and interrogative sentence structures, for example, Ramazan Bayramı’nda tüm okullar tatile girmeyecek; conjugations of verbs, for example, ‘oku-mak’: oku-r-um, oku-r-sun, oku-r oku-r-uz, oku-r-sunuz, oku-r-lar; And oku-yor-um, oku-yor-sun, oku-yor, oku-yor-uz, oku-yor-sunuz, oku-yor-lar; and subject–verb agreements. When writing, they apply appropriate spelling and punctuation to a range of sentence types. Students translate simple texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, identifying words that are easy or difficult to translate, and create bilingual texts and resources for their own language learning and to support interactions with non-Turkish speakers. Students identify ways in which their bilingual and bicultural experiences impact on their identity and influence how they communicate in Turkish and English.

Students apply their knowledge of vowels, consonants and suffixes to form new words, for example, kapkaççı, bankacı, yolcu, oduncu; sokak+-da=sokakta, süt+-de= sütte, and identify how vowel length and accent affect the meaning of words, for example, hala-hâlâ and kar-kâr. They distinguish between the structure and features of different types of texts and identify ways that texts create effects to suit different audiences. They give examples of how language use and ways of communicating vary according to the degree of formality and context, purpose and audience, for example, gelir misiniz lütfen?/gelin lütfen. Students provide examples of influences on the Turkish language over time, including the influence from other languages and cultures, for example, e-posta, yazıcı, tarayıcı, çevrimiçi. They explain how language use is shaped by values and belief systems, and identify why these may be interpreted differently by speakers of other languages.