Turkish (Version 8.4)

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Context statement

The place of the Turkish language and culture in Australia and the world
Turkish is the official language of the Republic of Turkey and one of the official languages of Cyprus.
It originated many centuries ago in the Northern Siberian Altay Mountain Range.


PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Turkish are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Turkish: Sequence of content
Languages - Turkish: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Turkish: Sequence …


Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

This stage of learning coincides with social, physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescence. Increased cognitive maturity enables learners to work more deductively with language and culture systems, to apply more intentional learning strategies and to reflect productively on their learning. Motivation and engagement with language learning and use are influenced by peer–group dynamics, personal interests and values, and issues related to self-concept. This is particularly the case for bilingual learners for whom the duality of living between languages and cultural communities continuously impacts on the process of identity construction. The role of language is central to this process. It is reflected in the degree to which learners self-define as members of language communities, how they position themselves in relation to peer groups and the choices they make in relation to linguistic and social practices. These processes are fluid and context-responsive, and they impact on learners’ engagement with both Turkish and English language learning and use.

Turkish language learning and use

This is a stage of language exploration and vocabulary expansion. Learners experiment with different modes of communication, for example, digital and hypermedia, performance and discussion. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in wider contexts. Learners use Turkish to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to design, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They use language in different contexts more fluently, with a developing degree of self-correction and repair. They reference the accuracy of their written language use against a stronger frame of grammatical and systems knowledge. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence language use and forms of communication.

Contexts of interaction

The language classroom is the main context of interaction in Turkish, involving interactions with peers, teachers and a wide range of texts and resources. Learners continue to interact with peers, family members and other Turkish speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider Turkish-speaking communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They also encounter Turkish in wider contexts such as media, cultural or film festivals, community events or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, media texts and online resources, including those developed for computer-supported collaborative learning. They engage with selected abridged versions of classic and contemporary Turkish literature and their film and TV adaptations. Learners may also access authentic materials designed for or generated by young Turkish speakers in a range of contexts, such as blogs, video clips, discussion forums, television programs or newspaper features. Learners are encouraged to source additional materials to support their learning, share them with others and pursue personal interests in aspects of Turkish language and associated cultures.

Features of Turkish language use

Learners understand and use more elaborated grammatical structures, such as verb moods, auxiliary verbs and particles. They recognise and use different types of formal and informal honorific forms, such as Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, Ağabey (Abi)/Abla, Hoca/Öğretmen, Bay/Bayan, and learn the conditions that apply to the use of familiar and formal second person singular forms -n and -n(ı)z, for example, Yemeğin hazır, Yemeğininz hazır, and second person pronouns, sen and siz. They understand and use verb moods, recognising relevant suffixes used to create each mood. They learn how to use different auxiliary verbs by adding the verbs etmek, kılmak and olmak to nouns, for example, yardım etmek, namaz kılmak, ayıp olmak and attaching them onto single-syllable words, for example, reddetmek, affetmek, kaybolmak. They understand and use the three types of reduplication for emphasis. They use metalanguage to identify or explain language structures, forms and conventions. Learners’ vocabulary knowledge expands to include more abstract words and specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of wider personal interest. Textual knowledge and capability are strengthened through maintaining a balance between learning experiences which focus on language forms and structures and communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different purposes and audiences. Task characteristics and conditions become more complex and challenging, involving collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance. Elements involve interpreting, creating, evaluating and performing. Genres such as media resources, fiction and nonfiction texts, performances and research projects allow for exploration of themes of personal and contemporary relevance, for example, global and environmental issues, identity and relationship issues, questions of diversity and inclusivity. Learners investigate texts through more critical analysis, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning, and how they in turn are shaped by context and intention.

Learners at this level understand and discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity. They explore in more depth and detail the processes involved in learning and using different languages, recognising them as involving cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic resources. They identify how meaning-making and representation in different languages involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on their ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop a capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider their own cultural ways through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

At this level learners become less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions and learning experiences, but provision of rich language input and modelled language is needed to continue to support and sustain their language learning. The teacher provides both implicit and explicit modelling and scaffolding in relation to meaningful language use in context, and explicit instruction and explanation in relation to language structures, grammatical functions and abstract concepts and vocabulary knowledge. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, rehearse and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating knowledge and skills and in developing autonomy. Learners are encouraged to self-monitor, for example, by keeping records of feedback, through and contributing to peer support and through self-review.

The role of English

Learners and teachers use Turkish as the primary medium of interaction in both language-oriented and content-oriented learning activities. English is used when appropriate for discussion, explanation and analysis that involves comparative analysis or conceptual demands which may be better articulated in English. Learners are supported to reflect on the different roles English and Turkish play in their academic work, their conceptual development and their social and community lives.

Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions


Exchange views and information on local and global issues, including aspects of their own lives, such as family relationships and responsibilities, education and community

[Key concepts: relationship, education, family, community; Key processes: discussing, debating, responding, comparing] (ACLTUC103 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing issues that are relevant to this stage of their lives, such as school, peer pressure, the use and impact of social media or the nature of parental expectations, identifying points of agreement or disagreement, for example, Ailem gece dışarı çıkmama izin vermiyor
  • participating in discussions on local issues that they see impacting on their current or future lives, such as environmental change, for example by focusing on questions such as Çevremizi korumak için neler yapmalıyız? Arkadaşlarınla sosyal medyayı nasıl kullanıyorsun?
  • engaging in online discussions with Turkish-speaking students in different contexts on topics of shared interest, such as music, sports, fashion, travel, and comparing their aspirations in terms of personal and professional opportunities, for example, liseyi bitirince Türkiye’de üniversiteye gitmek istiyorum, okulu bitirdikten sonra seyahat etmek istiyorum
  • discussing their responsibilities at home and at school, comparing with those of young people living in Turkey or other Turkish-speaking communities around the world, noting the relative importance of concepts such as Derslerde başarılı olmak, küçük kardeşlere bakmak,Türkçe öğrenmek büyük sorumluluk, aile işyerinde çalışmak
  • developing narrative skills by exchanging accounts of personally significant people, events, influences or milestones in their lives, for example, Türkiye’ye ilk ziyaret, Avustralya’ya geliş, sünnet düğünü, ilk iş görüşmesi, Türk konserine gitmek
Participate in individual and collaborative projects and learning experiences that involve brainstorming, negotiating, transacting, problem-solving and action

[Key concepts: discussion, action, responsibility, collaboration; Key processes: problem-solving, planning, negotiating, collaborating] (ACLTUC104 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • reaching negotiated decisions by making suggestions, discussing ideas, justifying opinions and reaching agreement, for example, Nasıl bir yöntem izleyelim? Bence bu yöntemi izlersek daha uygun, Sen nasıl uygun görürsen
  • designing resources such as web posts, information leaflets or segments for a local radio station to promote community action on a social or environmental issue, for example, zorbalık, kadın-erkek eşitliği, teknoloji bağımlılığı, Avustralya’da Türkçe’yi yaşatmak
  • sharing responsibilities for filming and editing a short documentary that presents aspects of shared cultural experiences, for example, family migration stories, shopping at Turkish markets, participating in a henna ceremony
  • setting up and maintaining a shared blog to support contact and information exchange between themselves and young Turkish speakers in different contexts
  • participating in transactions that involve negotiation, for example, bidding in a class auction or voting on the allocation of learning resources, using language associated with exchange and evaluation, such as Var mı artıran? Satıyorum, satıyorum sattım! Biraz indirim yapar mısınız? Bence bu kadar etmez
  • participating in virtual excursions to famous cultural sites or exhibitions, such as Gelibolu, Anıtkabir, Topkapı Sarayı, sharing responsibility for individual elements of a multimodal report on the experience
Contribute to structured discussions and shared learning experiences by asking and responding to questions, clarifying statements, demonstrating understanding, expressing agreement or disagreement and reflecting on their learning

[Key concepts: debate, response, dialogue; Key processes: questioning, responding, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLTUC105 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • asking and responding to questions, expressing opinions and clarifying statements in structured discussions or debates, for example, bana göre, şöyle ki, seninle aynı fikirde değilim
  • using evaluative language to acknowledge strengths in others’ arguments or challenge views in a courteous manner, for example, İnanıyorum ki …, Görüşünü destekleyecek kanıtın var mı? Haklısın ama bence …, Seninle tamamen aynı fikirdeyim, hemfikiriz
  • using metalanguage to discuss language, culture and language-learning and to engage in peer- and self-reflection, for example, şimdi daha rahat Türkçe konuşabiliyorum, Türkçe TV programlarını daha iyi anlayabiliyorum, Evde Türkçeyi daha rahat konuşuyorum ama okulda zorlanıyorum
  • comparing their reflections on the experience of learning Turkish in school, identifying personal learning strategies and preferred learning modes, using statements such as Ben çok sık tekrar yapıyorum, Yeni öğrendiğim kelimeleri cümle içinde kullanıyorum, Ben görerek daha iyi öğreniyorum, Benim ezberim çok iyi, Benim ezberim iyi değil


Organise and classify information compiled from different sources in different modes of presentation, re-presenting chosen elements in formats suitable for particular audiences

[Key concepts: information, data, perspective, representation, media; Key processes: summarising, surveying, comparing, analysing] (ACLTUC106 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • viewing, reading, listening to texts such as documentaries or travel brochures, which depict aspects of Turkish culture, art, history or geography, summarising the information to share with others, for example, by preparing a digital display or photo montage with recorded commentary for younger students
  • comparing information on a particular news event or topical issue as reported in newspapers or online discussions forums, identifying differences in perspectives reflected in choice of language and style of representation
  • conducting surveys and reporting on attitudes among peers and family members towards issues such as the impact of social media and technology on communication or environmental concerns, reporting back to the class on perceived differences in perspective
  • examining information obtained from different sources to analyse how young people are represented in the media, for example, by comparing letters to the editor about young people with postings on forums by young people
  • researching aspects of young people’s lifestyles across Turkish-speaking cultures and contexts, identifying the influence of factors such as geography, belief systems, climate, social and community environments on lifestyles and practices
  • creating and presenting critical analyses in oral or digital mode of media texts such as advertisements, promotional websites or documentarieswhich involve different representations of Turkish culture and experience
  • collecting examples of good news/success stories related to their school, homes or local communities, for example, sporting achievements or successful fundraising, sharing their findings in formats such as digital displays or newsletter contributions
Present information collected from different sources that represents different perspectives on selected issues or activities, using appropriate modes of presentation to suit different contexts and purposes

[Key concepts: argument, opinion, action; Key processes: selecting, composing, presenting] (ACLTUC107 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • preparing and presenting an oral or multimodal report on an issue that invites different viewpoints, such as kız-erkek çocukların evdeki rolü, yaşlıların huzurevine gönderilmesi, identifying alternative perspectives and inviting discussion and debate
  • writing an article for a print or online magazine/newspaper with a specified audience in mind, for example, a film review for young learners of Turkish or a travel guide for young Turkish visitors planning a trip to Australia
  • creating texts to inform or promote events or community action, for example, a poster or web post to advertise a multicultural evening or a letter to a community newspaper to highlight a school fundraiser
  • creating an interactive presentation for younger students, friends or members of extended families to highlight the advantages of being bilingual/multilingual in today’s world and of maintaining and strengthening a home/first language
  • explaining a procedure to a specified audience such as older or younger people, using supporting images, actions and gestures to highlight key elements and explain key terms, for example, rules of a sport or board game, elements of a video game, instructions on the care of a sick pet, procedure for a henna night


Respond to a range of traditional and contemporary creative and imaginative texts, describing settings, identifying key themes and values and discussing the representation of characters and events

[Key concepts: expression, themes, representation, values; Key processes: comparing, analysing, explaining, narrating; Key text types: stories, song lyrics, films, poetry, dance, diaries] (ACLTUC108 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • comparing themes, representation of characters, moral messages and social commentary in contemporary texts such as TV programs and popular song lyrics with those embodied in traditional texts such as fables or epic poems by Karacaoğlan and Köroğlu
  • viewing and listening to television series or songs, such as Türk dizileri, Türkçe pop şarkılar ve türküler, describing settings, identifying key events and themes and noticing elements that reflect cultural views or contexts
  • comparing their own life experiences with those depicted in traditional texts such as Nasreddin Hoca, Hababam Sınıfı filmleri, Aşık Veysel türküleri, identifying elements of human experience that apply across time, such as family, love, truth
  • discussing concepts such as courage, loyalty and social justice embodied in characters such as Karaoğlan, Köroğlu, Kara Murat, considering the relevance of such concepts and portrayals to their own lives
  • providing a live commentary of dance performances such as Silifkenin Yoğurdu, Harmandalı, Horon, Kıbrıs Çiftetellisi, interpreting movements, commenting on the significance of costume and adornments and interpreting messages conveyed through the performance
  • telling the story of Türk halıları ve kilimleri in their own words, comparing their individual interpretations of the design, symbols and colours in the rug
  • viewing performances of Mevlevi Dervişleri, using descriptive and expressive language to describe the rhythms and movements, commenting on the significance of costumes and interpreting key ‘messages’ of the performance
  • comparing responses to authentic texts related to Gelibolu and Çanakkale, such as songs, movies, photos, stories, diaries or letters, which reflect soldiers’ experiences from either Australian or Turkish perspectives
  • identifying how cultural traditions and beliefs are communicated through visual and creative arts, including traditions of oral storytelling, for example, by comparing representations of animals or landscapes in Indigenous Dreaming stories with Turkish mythologies, art and dance
  • responding to different genres of verse, drama and song lyrics, discussing how imagery, rhythm and rhyme create mood and effect, and experimenting with imaginative and expressive language to create their own texts in these genres
Create imaginative texts in different modes and formats to entertain, convey ideas and express emotions for particular audiences

[Key concepts: adaptation, audience, characterisation, context; Key processes: creating, adapting, performing; Key text types: poems, stories, songs, skits] (ACLTUC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • working together to create imagined scenarios that involve contemporary versions of characters or events encountered in traditional Turkish literature or songs, such as Keloğlan Avustralya’da
  • creating stories about a fantasy character or context, using descriptive and expressive language suitable to engage younger learners
  • selecting an imaginative text that they enjoy, for example, an excerpt from a novel such as Çalıkuşu or a poem such as İstanbul’u Düşünüyorum, and adapting it to a different text genre, such as a rap or children’s story
  • creating and performing skits that respond to stimulus themes and involve characterisation, context and dramatic tension, for example, kuşak çatışması, zeka oyunları, aile problemleri, bağımlılık
  • using digital resources such as Cartoon Story Maker to create imaginary characters in familiar situations associated with school or home contexts to entertain young learners
  • creating riddles to compete with and entertain each other, imitating the use of rhythm, rhyme and metaphor exemplified in riddles from traditional folktales


Translate and interpret a range of texts, including conversational exchanges, proverbs, media and literary texts, considering the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to the other

[Key concepts: bilingualism, translation, interpretation, equivalence; Key processes: composing, interpreting, explaining] (ACLTUC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recording, transcribing and translating short conversations between friends or family members from English into Turkish and vice versa, identifying words or expressions that either do not translate meaningfully, such as yuvarlanıp gidiyoruz, canıma tak dedi, yetti artık, or require no translation, for example, yoğurt, kebap
  • translating and glossing words, symbols or expressions commonly used in emails and text messages, such as slm (Selam), mrb (merhaba), kib (kendine iyi bak), inş (inşallah)
  • interpreting elements of spoken texts for non-Turkish speakers, for example, by providing a commentary on an item presented at a class, school or community event, including explanations in English of culturally significant allusions, expressions and gestures
  • creating an English language commentary to a Turkish language sitcom, discussing how to transfer or explain the humour or dramatic effects of the original text for non-Turkish speaking Australians
  • comparing their translated versions of news headlines or popular advertisements, discussing perceived differences in focus or emphasis between the two language versions
  • interpreting the significance of Turkish terms or phrases used on formal occasions, such as weddings, school speech days or religious occasions, for example, Saygıdeğer misafirler ve sevgili çocuklar, Allah bir yastıkta kocatsın, darısı başına, Allah kabul etsin, explaining cultural connotations that are unfamiliar when translated directly into English
  • translating proverbs such as ağaç yaşken eğilir, ayağını yorganına göre uzat, explaining cultural allusions that do not translate meaningfully into English, and finding English language proverbs that express similar ideas or concepts
  • critically evaluating the accuracy and effectiveness of subtitles used in movies, video clips and documentaries, identifying examples of ‘meaning lost in translation’
  • identifying the need to sometimes recast language, considering why one language may use more words than another to communicate a particular meaning
Produce bilingual texts for the school or wider community, such as instructions, presentations, commentaries or contributions to newsletters that capture the experience of ‘living between languages’

[Key concepts: interculturality, multiculturalism, identity, fluidity; Key processes: reflecting, analysing, describing, comparing] (ACLTUC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating bilingual texts such as community information leaflets, menus, timetables or instructions which cater to the needs of members of both language communities
  • creating bilingual texts for specific audiences, for example, songs or games for younger learners of Turkish, or a schedule for a multicultural event, noticing how information and representation is differently shaped in each language
  • creating bilingual texts to inform the local community of events such as a lunchtime concert, fundraising food stall or a display at a local library or gallery
  • composing and presenting a cultural exhibition or performance for members of the school community, providing English language support in the form of captions or recorded/live commentaries
  • providing bilingual commentaries to events such as a sports carnival or talent show
  • combining excerpts of interviews in Turkish and English with older community members about life stories and migration experiences with elements such asmusic, images or timelines to build a multimodal presentation for a community festival or multicultural event
  • writing/recording bilingual directions for a virtual tour of the school campus, discussing how to convey particular elements in the two languages


Reflect on their own and others’ language choices when interacting in bilingual/bicultural situations, identifying adjustments they make and strategies they adopt to assist in intercultural communication

[Key concepts: interculturality, response, reflection, reciprocity; Key processes: reflecting, monitoring, comparing, discussing] (ACLTUC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • drawing on their own bilingual/multilingual experience to identify elements of successful intercultural communication, for example, noticing differences in expectations, recognising and responding to signals of misunderstanding, switching strategically between Turkish and English
  • providing examples of interactions that ‘work’ better in Turkish than they do in English, for example, talking to their grandparents, participating in cultural events, joking between themselves, and discussing why this might be the case
  • keeping a journal of memorable experiences associated with learning and using Turkish in and out of school, noting personal reactions and reflections over time and insights gained into themselves as language users, for example, how they choose to use either English or Turkish in different contexts and situations
  • considering the idea of shared responsibility in relation to intercultural communication, considering how effective interaction involves elements of noticing, analysing, reflecting, responding and adjusting
  • comparing ‘repair and recovery strategies’ they use to respond to miscommunication between speakers from different language and cultural backgrounds, for example, self-correction, rephrasing, apology, requests for repetition or clarification
  • reflecting on choices they make when interacting with friends who also speak both Turkish and English, identifying instances when they move between languages for practical or cultural reasons
Reflect on the relationship between language, culture and identity, and how this shapes and reflects ways of communicating and thinking

[Key concepts: affiliation, identity, community, representation; Key processes: representing, discussing, reflecting] (ACLTUC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing the inter-relationship of language, culture and identity, referencing their own relationship with different languages and with elements of Turkish and Australian cultural experience
  • considering the dynamic nature of both identity and culture, and reflecting on how identification with different communities and languages affects their sense of individual or group identity
  • comparing choices they consciously make in relation to values or practices typically associated with either Turkish or Australian traditions and priorities, such as social interactions with friends, relationships, educational experience, and considering how these choices both reflect and contribute to their sense of identity
  • exploring how ways of thinking, communicating and behaving reflect cultural identity, considering, for example, in what respects they identify as Turkish or Australian, and whether these ways shift over time and according to context and situation
  • analysing the relationship between culture, identity and representation, for example, by comparing responses to media representations of cultural difference or diversity
  • reflecting on the experience of learning and using their home language in school, considering whether it impacts on their relationship with the language in out-of-school contexts or on their degree of identification with language communities
  • identifying elements of their personal worlds that contribute to their sense of community and identity, including their use of different languages and involvement in different cultural practices, for example, aile yaşamı, düğünler, futbol maçları

Systems of language

Understand and apply features of the Turkish sound and writing systems, including pronunciation and spelling patterns, to produce different types of texts and to participate in extended interactions

[Key concepts: word building, pronunciation, stress, cohesion; Key processes: recognising, applying, glossing] (ACLTUU114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • recognising and applying the vowel elision rule to suffixes of multisyllabic words, understanding how this is related to the spelling and pronunciation of words, for example, oğul-oğlu, burun-burnu, beyin-beyni, göğüs- göğsü and karın-karnı
  • using homophones such as gül, yüz, dolu, yaz, kır, ekmek, Pazar, ben, aç and çay in spoken and written texts, and learning how homophones affect meaning in sentences and in familiar idioms, for example, Gülü seven dikenine katlanır, Güle güle gidin and Gülmekten kırılıyordum
  • developing understanding of and applying the principles of word stress when pronouncing unfamiliar words and phrases, for example, stressing the first syllable of each word in the sentence Atatürk, cumhuriyeti kurdu
  • developing a glossary of ICT terms and meanings, and using these in their own sentences and texts, for example, bilgisayar, fare, yükleme/indirme, ağ, e-posta, biligisayar korsanı, yazıcı and aktarma
  • varying the use of tone for emphasis during extended interactions and to contribute to the cohesion of longer spoken texts
Understand and use grammatical forms such as verb moods, auxiliary verbs, particles and honorific forms, and use metalanguage to identify or explain language forms, structures and conventions

[Key concepts: grammatical systems, tenses, verb moods, sentence structure, cohesion; Key processes: understanding, classifying, applying] (ACLTUU115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • understanding and using different types of formal and informal honorific forms, such as Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, Ağabey(Abi)/Abla, Hoca/Öğretmen, Bay/Bayan in a range of contexts
  • learning how to use different auxiliary verbs formed by adding the verbs etmek, kılmak and olmak to nouns, for example, yardım etmek, namaz kılmak, ayıp olmak and attaching them to single-syllable words, for example, reddetmek, affetmek, kaybolmak, as well as suffixes for modality such as -malı/-meli as in Neler yapmalıyız? Türkçe öğrenmeliyim, Büyüklerimizi saymalıyız ve sevmeliyiz
  • understanding verb moods, such as imperative, potential -(e)bilmek, reciprocal, causative and passive, and relevant suffixes used to create each mood, yazabilmek, koşabilmek (potential), okuyabilirim, Tayla giyindi ve süslendi (reflexive), Babası ile araba için tartıştı (reciprocal), Dün kuaförde saçını boyattı (causative), Pirinç ayıklandı ve pilav pişirildi (passive)
  • learning to use particles such as karşı, gibi, beri, dek, kadar, üzere and complex conjunctions such as hem...hem de, ne...ne, -k(i), ancak, yoksa, oysa, hatta, rağmen, yani
  • understanding and using more complex verb tenses, compound and complex sentence structures and parts of speech to describe, recount, reflect, inform and express opinions, as in İnanıyorum ki, Seninle tamamen aynı fikirdeyim
  • understanding and using the conditional marker -s(e) and/or the word eğer in compound and complex sentences to make suggestions, for example, Bence bu yöntemi izlersek daha uygun, Sen nasıl uygun görürsen öyle yapalım, Çevremizi kirletmeye devam edersek eğer gelecekte dünyamız yok olacak
  • using quotations, idiomatic expressions and proverbs, for example, Onlar, bu toprakta canlarını verdikten sonra, artık bizim evlâtlarımız olmuşlardır, Allah bir yastıkta kocatsın, darısı başına, ağaç yaşken eğilir, ayağını yorganına göre uzat
  • understanding how a range of noun, verb and adjective endings such as -daş, -lik and -cı can be used to form new words, for example, yazıcı, yoldaş, demlik
  • understanding and using the three types of reduplication for emphasis, for example, emphatic reduplication, kapkara, upuzun; -m reduplication, çirkin mirkin, Selma’yı Melma’yı görmedim; and doubling, as in yavaş yavaş, ikişer ikişer, koşa koşa, ağlaya ağlaya
  • understanding and developing metalanguage for talking about forms and functions of language, for example, by identifying and explaining different types of adverbs, adjectives and sentence structures relating to grammatical functions such as predicates, subjects and objects
Know how to construct different types of texts to suit different contexts, purposes and audiences, incorporating appropriate cultural elements

[Key concepts: genre, context, register, mode, audience; Key processes: analysing, comparing, composing] (ACLTUU116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying the intended purpose and audience of particular texts by analysing language features and text structures, such as colourful and persuasive language in advertisements compared to economical, factual language in product labelling or signage; and applying their understanding to the composition of their own texts
  • discussing the significance of particular types of texts that reflect cultural values or priorities, such as language and interactions associated with celebrations, for example, the use of dialogue and oath in Andımız and Gençliğin Atatürk’e Cevabı, or the adoption of terms from other languages in various expressions of popular culture such as artık trend topik olamayacağım
  • analysing persuasive texts such as advertisements, slogans or speeches, recognising the use of rhetorical devices and emotive language to engage the intended audience
  • composing spoken and written versions of a particular text type, such as an instruction or observation, to demonstrate how text mode determines selection of language features and text structure
  • identifying ways that texts achieve cohesion, for example, by explaining the effects of paragraphing or cohesive devices used to sequence and link ideas and maintain the flow of expression, for example, konu cümlesi, giriş, gelişme ve sonuç paragrafları, ‘İlk olarak, Bununla beraber, Bu nedenle’ gibi bağlaçlar
  • using knowledge of characteristic elements of particular types of texts to make meaning of unfamiliar content, for example, by recognising terms associated with time or place in airport announcements, or by ‘reading’ images as well as written text in advertisements

Language variation and change

Understand that variations in the use of spoken and written Turkish relate to roles, relationships and contexts, and consider how and why these differ from similar interactions in English

[Key concepts: register, values, non-verbal communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, comparing] (ACLTUU117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • demonstrating the use of different language styles, features and levels of formality that characterise different types of spoken and written texts, for example, futbol maçındaki tezahürat: En büyük Fener, başka büyük yok! compared to Okul karnesi: Murat ödevlerini hep zamanında tamamladı
  • identifying variations in the use of both Turkish and English according to context, purpose and intended audience, for example, considering differences in exchanges such as ‘apologies for any convenience caused’, ‘I am so sorry’; ‘sorry mate –no worries!’ and kusurumuza bakmayın lütfen, çok özür dilerim anneciğim, rica ederim, lafı mı olur!, ne olur affedin beni
  • identifying features of spoken and written language that reflect the purpose of the interaction and the nature of the relationship between the people involved, for example, tercih etmiyorum-hiç beğenmedim, bana göre değil- bana yaramaz, Daha iyi olabilirdi-Ay, çok iğrenç! Bunları niye yıkamadın oğlum? Şunu da alır mısın yavrucuğum?
  • recognising differences in the use of quotations, proverbs and idioms in different text genres or modes of delivery, for example, fıkralar, masallar, öyküler, resmi veya okul konuşmaları, mektuplar
  • analysing the use of appropriate language in different contexts and situations, for example, using rica ederim, başka bir arzunuz var mı at a shop or restaurant as opposed to başımızın üstünde yeriniz var, ne zahmeti canım!
  • recognising characteristic differences between spoken and written forms of Turkish, for example, by identifying colloquialisms and expressions used mainly in spoken conversation, for example, the non-standard abi in place of the more formal ağabey, or the use of ya at the beginning of spoken utterances
Investigate changes to Turkish over time and across contexts, reflecting on changes in their personal use of the language

[Key concepts: change, social media, history, culture; Key processes: tracking, reflecting, discussing] (ACLTUU118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying changes in their ways of communicating in Turkish due to the influence of factors such as technology, social media, peer influence and intercultural experience, for example, the use of acronyms, emoticons, ‘selfies’ and abbreviations in text messaging such as nbr (ne haber), tmm (tamam), slm (selam), kib (kendine iyi bak), bye (güle güle) and aeo (allaha emanet ol)
  • finding evidence of cross-cultural influences in Turkish and Australian English, for example, the use of words such as Anzaklar, bumerang, bay bay and Aborijini in Turkish and ‘Gallipoli’, ‘young Turks’, ‘doner’, ‘coffee’, ‘kebab’ and ‘kiosk’ in Australian English
  • analysing texts such as the Turkish national anthem, istiklal marşı, investigating the origins of loan words such as şafak, istiklal, çehre
  • investigating changes in communication styles due to influences from other languages and cultures in contemporary forms of Turkish expression, for example, the use of words such as, enteresan, genetik, avantaj, çare, and otoban, identifying existing equivalent terms such as ilginç, kalıtımsal, fayda/üstünlük, çözüm and otoyol
  • collecting examples of words, expressions or gestures used by their grandparents or parents but less frequently used among people in their age group, for example, nâfile, derya, zat-ı ali, sultanım, hazretleri, cihanda sulh, reflecting on reasons for such changes
  • investigating how Turkish uses word derivation tools to create new words that reflect social or cultural change or innovation, for example, the use of gün- in günce, the use of yaz- to create yazgı, yazılım, yazıcı, yazışma and yazdırım
  • comparing variations in language forms and modes of expression in different Turkish-speaking regions and countries, such as Azerbaijan or Cyprus
  • identifying how language change reflects social, political and historical influences and events, for example, the change of Turkish script firstly to Arabic during the Ottoman period under the leadership of the sultans and then to modern Turkish script under the leadership of Atatürk

Role of language and culture

Understand that the Turkish language and associated cultures shape and are shaped by each other in ways that change over time and across contexts, and that cultural experience, values and identities are reflected in language

[Key concepts: change, social practice, values, concepts, expression; Key processes: tracking, identifying, comparing, analysing] (ACLTUU119 - Scootle )

  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • tracking changes in Turkish language and ways of communicating over different times and contexts, identifying concepts and values that are differently expressed at different times
  • analysing Turkish language media texts such as notices or advertisements which use representations of culture in different ways, for example, by referencing either traditional or contemporary attitudes or values
  • comparing wordings of texts such as public signs or community announcements which reflect cultural expectations or priorities, for example, duyurular, ilanlar, Bu fırsat kaçmaz!, Son dakika haberi!
  • explaining the significance of single Turkish words that reflect complex cultural concepts that are difficult to translate, such as saygı, mecburiyet, sorumluluk, görev, comparing with expressions in Australian English that are similarly difficult to translate, such as mateship or the bush
  • developing metalanguage for thinking and talking about cultural expression and representation, for example, bakış açısı, değerler, görüntü, klişe, dahil etmek, dışında bırakmak
  • comparing superstitions in Turkish and English, for example, Ayakkabılarınızdan biri ters olarak durursa, hastalık gelir, Ocak ayının birinci günü evine gelen kişi ya da ilk gördüğün kişi sana uğur veya uğursuzluk getirebilir and ‘breaking a mirror brings seven years of bad luck’; considering possible origins, how they reflect cultural experience and whether they stay relevant across time and cultural change
  • examining how cultural values are reflected in Turkish song lyrics, poems, idioms and expressions, for example, tanrı misafiri, misafir odası, kırk fırın ekmek yemen lazım, gel kim olursan ol gel

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students interact in written and spoken Turkish to exchange and compare views and experiences on personal, local and global issues, for example, liseyi bitirince Türkiye’de üniversiteye gitmek istiyorum, okulu bitirdikten sonra seyahat etmek istiyorum. They use action-related and spontaneous language to engage in shared activities that involve brainstorming, transacting, negotiating, problem-solving and taking action, for example, Nasıl bir yöntem izleyelim? Bence bu yöntemi izlersek daha uygun, Sen nasıl uygun görürsen. They offer opinions, for example, bana göre, and justify them, for example, şöyle ki, Haklısın ama bence …. They engage in structured discussions by asking and responding to questions, for example, görüşünü destekleyecek kanıtın var mı? and expressing agreement or disagreement, for example, seninle aynı fikirde değilim. When speaking, they apply the vowel elision rule to suffixes of multisyllabic words, the principles of word stress to pronounce unfamiliar words and phrases and intonation patterns, stress and tone to contribute to the cohesion of longer spoken texts. Students organise and classify information and ideas obtained from different sources, re-presenting content in new formats for different audiences. They convey information and perspectives using different modes of presentation appropriate to a variety of contexts and to achieve different purposes. They share their responses to a range of traditional and contemporary imaginative texts by describing key elements, including settings, themes and values and discussing the representation of characters and events. They use expressive, descriptive and evocative language to produce imaginative texts in a range of modes and formats selected to suit particular audiences. When writing, they identify and use a variety of verb moods, such as potential, for example, yazabilmek, koşabilmek, reflexive, for example, Tayla giyindi ve süslendi, reciprocal, for example, Babası ile araba için tartıştı, causative, for example, Dün kuaförde saçını boyattı and passive, for example, Pirinç ayıklandı ve pilav pişirildi. They use grammatical forms such as auxiliary verbs, for example, yardım etmek, namaz kılmak, ayıp olmak; particles, for example, karşı, gibi, beri, dek, kadar, üzere; and honorific forms, for example, Bey/Hanım, Amca/Teyze, Efendi, Ağa/Hanımağa, Sayın, Ağabey(Abi)/Ablai, Hoca/Öğretmen, Bay/Bayan/. Students translate and interpret a range of texts from Turkish into English and vice versa, explaining how cultural elements affect meaning. They produce a range of multimodal resources in Turkish and English for the wider community which reflect the bilingual experience. They explain their language choices and communicative behaviours in different intercultural interactions and identify the adjustments they make according to context. They explain how language, culture and identity shape and reflect ways of communicating and thinking.

Students apply their understanding of the Turkish writing system, including spelling patterns, symbols, characters and punctuation, to express complex ideas and information and to engage in extended interactions. They use metalanguage to explain language forms, structures and conventions. They apply their understanding of texts to construct a range of written, spoken and multimodal texts, incorporating elements appropriate to culture and context. They explain how language use varies according to roles, relationships and contexts, and make comparisons with other languages, including English. They identify influences, such as technology and social media on Turkish and other languages, such as abbreviations in text messages, for example, nbr (ne haber), tmm (tamam), slm (selam), kib (kendine iyi bak), bye (güle güle) and aeo (allaha emanet ol). They explain variations in their own language use in different contexts, the reciprocal and evolving nature of the relationship between language and culture, and how cultural experiences, values and identities are reflected in language.