Modern Greek

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Context statement

The place of the Modern Greek language and culture in Australia and the world
Modern Greek is the official language of Greece and Cyprus. It is spoken throughout the world – wherever there are Greek-speaking communities.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Modern Greek are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Modern Greek: Sequence of content
Languages - Modern Greek: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Modern …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Modern Greek and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts in which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Modern Greek may feature in these.

Modern Greek language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion and experimentation with different modes of communication. Greater control of language structures and systems increases confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Learners use Modern Greek to communicate and interact, access and exchange information, express feelings and opinions, and participate in imaginative and creative experiences. There is a balance between activities which focus on language forms and structures and those which emphasise communicative tasks and performance. Learners recognise that deriving meaning from a different language involves interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. Task characteristics and conditions at this level are more complex and challenging, providing opportunities for collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication. They discuss the relationship between language, culture and identity, exploring in more depth the processes involved in learning and using a different language. They recognise the value of learning a second language and have a growing awareness of the interconnection between Australia and Greek-speaking communities in Australia and overseas.

Contexts of interaction

The language class remains the principal context for learning and using Modern Greek. Learners use spoken and written Modern Greek to interact with peers and the teacher in the classroom, and extend their interactions beyond the school setting through communication with Greek speakers in local contexts and online environments. They participate in wider experiences relating to Greek language and culture, such as film festivals and competitions, drama and art programs, Greek festivals, interacting with Greek-speaking guests, artists and musicians, and in-country study trips. These authentic experiences give learners a sense of connectedness and purpose, and make use of and extend their language capability beyond the school context.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of texts and resources, such as textbooks, videos, apps and online materials, media resources, fiction and non-fiction texts, and performances

Features of Modern Greek language use

Learners recognise and approximate the pronunciation, rhythms and intonation patterns of extended phrases and compound sentences. They use vocabulary with more complex syllable combinations and become more fluent and accurate in spoken and written language production. They gain greater control of grammatical elements, using a range of verb tenses to describe past (έπαιξα/έπαιζα), present (παίζω), future events (θα παίξω/θα παίζω), and experiences (ήταν καλά, πέρασα ωραία), a range of adverbs (χτες, μεθαύριο), adjectives to elaborate on meaning (πιο μεγάλος, μεγαλύτερος, ο πιο μεγάλος, Η Άννα είναι μεγαλύτερη από όλους μας), and cohesive devices to link and sequence actions, events and ideas (μετά, τότε, Θέλω να πάω στην Κύπρο και μετά να πάω στην Ελλάδα). They analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and meaning in a range of texts, and developing their understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication, how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on learners’ ways of thinking and behaving and how successful communication needs flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They consider their own cultural practices from the perspective of others and communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners need opportunities for new challenges and more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring are needed to support these challenges. A range of resources is provided and processes are modelled for the development of more autonomous self-monitoring and reflecting strategies, such as e-journals, video documenting and discussion forums. Continued focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners in the production of texts.

The role of English

Learners at this level increasingly use Modern Greek for classroom interactions and routines, and are able to express some complex concepts and reactions in Modern Greek, in structured discussions. English continues to be used as the medium for substantive discussion, comparison, analysis and reflection. This allows learners to express abstract and complex views and ideas about language, culture, intercultural experience and identity that may be beyond their existing ability in Modern Greek.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions by sharing personal opinions and experiences, face-to-face or online, with peers, and comparing aspects of young people’s lives, such as relationships, events and aspirations

[Key concepts: youth, relationships, future; Key processes: interacting, comparing, sharing] (ACLMGC018 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • initiating conversations, for example, with peers and sister-school friends, using expressions appropriate to context and audience, such as Tί έκανες χτες; Πάμε στο γλέντι;
  • sustaining face-to-face or online conversations on topics of mutual interest, for example, το πάρτυ, η μουσική, η φιλία, η μόδα, parties, music, friendship, fashion, through active listening strategies, turn-taking and verbal and non-verbal responses, for example, shrugging shoulders, head shaking
  • extending and elaborating on modelled language to elicit others’ and express own experiences and opinions, for example,Τι νομίζεις; Πιστεύω ότι, Μ’ αρέσει καλύτερα η θάλασσα, Συμφωνείς;
  • using formulaic language to share and compare aspects of teenage life, for example, Το κινητό μου είναι μαύρο, Το δικό μου είναι μεγαλύτερο, and aspirations, for example, Θέλω να γίνω ...
Participate in collaborative planning and decision-making for events and shared experiences, and engage in different transactions

[Key concepts: roles, transactions, tasks; Key processes: negotiating, collaborating] (ACLMGC019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • planning a performance, event or presentation, making decisions collaboratively, for example, a class party, activities for languages week
  • making transactions in either authentic or simulated situations, such as purchasing goods, checking receipts to confirm the price and other information relating to a purchase, for example, currency conversion, change, το ευρώ, τα δολάρια, η έκπτωση
  • planning an orientation activity to guide younger students around the school, and collaboratively developing a map of the school with Greek names and symbols, for example, Πού είναι ...; δεξιά, αριστερά, πάνω, κάτω, μέσα, έξω, η καντίνα, το γραφείο
  • planning collaboratively for an event by participating in scenarios related to travelling in Greece or Cyprus, for example, planning an itinerary, Τη Δευτέρα θα πάμε στην Ακρόπολη, Την Τρίτη θα είμαστε στο Σούνιο
  • sharing opinions about the benefits of visiting various tourist sites in Greece or Cyprus, for example, Θέλω να πάω στα νησιά/στην Ακρόπολη/στο μουσείο ... γιατί/επειδή…
Participate in structured discussions and tasks by asking and responding to questions, clarifying understanding and expressing agreement or disagreement

[Key concepts: learning, contribution; Key processes: discussing, clarifying] (ACLMGC020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • interacting in class routines by requesting, advising and apologising, for example, Συγγνώμη δεν κατάλαβα, Μήπως θέλεις βοήθεια;
  • clarifying meaning or instructions Ορίστε, Συγγνώμη; Κοίτα/Κοιτάξτε, Τι είπατε;
  • participating in discussions using modelled language, expressing opinions, for example, πιστεύω, νομίζω, and agreeing/disagreeing, for example, Συμφωνώ, Δεν συμφωνώ, on topics such as wearing hats in summer, for example, Φοράμε καπέλα το καλοκαίρι
  • contributing to collaborative interactions such as creating a schedule for a visiting school group, setting up a school display, hosting an event

Informing

Obtain, analyse and use information from a range of spoken, written, digital and visual texts, identifying and comparing perspectives on social and cultural issues

[Key concepts: community, perspectives; Key processes: selecting, sharing, analysing] (ACLMGC021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to, reading or viewing a range of texts, for example, a recount of a name day celebration, and identifying cultural use of language, for example, Και του χρόνου, Καλή όρεξη
  • identifying how certain expressions give clues to a particular event, for example, Καλό ταξίδι, Στο καλό, Και στα δικά σου, Καλή αντάμωση!
  • compiling and comparing perspectives on social and cultural issues in Greek-speaking communities, such as comparing attitudes to sport, presenting information in graphs or charts
  • identifying different perspectives in a range of texts that relate to social and cultural issues such as special occasions, for example, 1st of January and gift giving, 1st of May, and associated greetings such as Καλή Χρονιά, Καλό μήνα, Καλή εβδομάδα, Καλό καλοκαίρι
  • exploring and gathering information on a range of cultural practices through a variety of sources, for example, excerpts from a Greek song
Adapt and present information and ideas on a variety of topics using presentation modes selected to suit different audiences and to achieve specific purposes

[Key concepts: content, audience, mode; Key processes: selecting, designing, presenting] (ACLMGC022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • expressing opinions on an event or performance, such as a contemporary Greek film or a Karagiozi theatre performance
  • presenting information in different formats, such as captioned photographs, digital presentation or emails, on cultural events, for example, an Antipodes festival/Glendi, traditional dance performances and costumes
  • explaining a Greek custom or practice to an Australian audience, for example, Απόκριες, using simple language and supporting graphics, materials and gestures
  • creating persuasive texts, such as brochures or video clips, for example, to encourage people from the wider community to attend a cultural event or to recycle waste containers and materials
    • Sustainability
  • conveying information in texts, such as brochures, notices, cartoons, video clips, to introduce and explain aspects of Greek art, history and culture and their influence, for example, the Hippocratic Oath, the snakes and staff symbol relating to medicine, and structures such as the Shrine of Remembrance

Creating

Respond to imaginative texts by expressing personal preferences, feelings and opinions about themes, mood and language choices

[Key concepts: themes, imagination, social awareness; Key processes: expressing, modifying, responding, expressing] (ACLMGC023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • discussing the themes and moods of an imaginative text and sharing with others their opinions and how the text made them feel
  • reading stories such as Greek folktales/myths or Aesop’s fables and discussing their opinion about the values portrayed in these, for example, ‘King Midas’, ‘The hare and the tortoise’
  • comparing themes in imaginative texts, such as contemporary stories, films, DVDs, interactive games and cartoons, expressing opinions and making connections with own experiences
  • analysing the language choices in an imaginative text and discussing feelings and opinions about the impact of these choices
Experiment with different techniques to create and present imaginative texts designed to engage different audiences

[Key concepts: fantasy, private and public world, preferences; Key processes: creating, experimenting, connecting, reflecting] (ACLMGC024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • accessing texts, such as songs, films and digital/online texts, and creating a new version or modifying key aspects, for example, introducing a new character or changing the ending
  • illustrating and captioning imaginative stories in different formats, such as cartoons, photo stories, using descriptive and expressive language, for example, Η παρέα μου, or using other devices such as alliteration or similes and metaphors
  • composing and presenting texts, using verbal and non-verbal expressions, for example, creating and presenting an imaginary character living during the period of the Greek Revolution
  • creating a range of texts to entertain particular audiences, for example, children’s digital books, songs, cartoons and video clips suitable for younger learners of Greek

Translating

Translate and interpret a range of community and social media texts such as posters, advertisements and blogs, identifying and explaining words or expressions of specific cultural significance

[Key concepts: cultural understanding, representation, meaning; Key processes: translating, interpreting, analysing] (ACLMGC025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining and interpreting idiomatic expressions, such as Πέρα βρέχει, including expressions which cannot be translated literally, for example, Tα έκανα θάλασσα
  • examining culturally specific terms, such as το παλικάρι, η λεβεντιά, το φιλότιμο, and developing appropriate explanations for them and discussing possible equivalent terms in English
  • discussing colloquial language use in Australia and comparing with Greek expressions, for example, Τα’κανα σαλάτα, and discussing what they say about Australian and Greek culture
  • translating public signs, notices and slogans, for example, «Απαγορεύεται το κάπνισμα» or «Μην πετάτε σκουπίδια», comparing each other’s versions and considering reasons for any similarities or differences
Create bilingual texts that draw on Greek and English for different purposes, such as menus or product instructions designed for both language contexts

[Key concepts: interpretation, equivalence, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, translating, interpreting] (ACLMGC026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating a range of bilingual texts to entertain and inform others, such as video clips, cartoons, posters and brochures
  • creating a shared website with a group of Greek-speaking students, posting items of interest, comments and questions in Greek and English
  • creating a storyboard outline which brings familiar English-speaking characters to Greek-speaking worlds and contexts, such as Harry Potter as your tour guide in Athens or Nicosia
  • creating a glossary of key vocabulary and expressions used in informative and persuasive texts, such as promotional material, Μη χάσετε, Τελευταία προσφορά
  • creating bilingual captions for tourist attractions in Greece, Cyprus or Australia to explain their significance and cultural references, for example, bush, beach, το Αιγαίο, Πέτρα του Ρωμιού, Άγιον Όρος
  • creating bilingual texts to give information and instructions to others, for example, a bilingual brochure about the school for a visiting group of exchange students
  • creating a menu in Greek with footnotes in English about the ingredients

Reflecting

Interact with Greek speakers and resources, recognising that intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for communication

[Key concepts: interaction, reciprocity, responsibility; Key processes: expressing, discussing, noticing, adjusting] (ACLMGC027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • interacting with Greek speakers, for example, with students from a sister-school, reflecting on how language choices might be interpreted by Greek speakers and making adjustments to convey intended meaning
  • sharing Greek language and cultural experiences with peers and others, for example, reporting on in-country experience, and exploring the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication
  • reflecting, such as in discussions, blogs and journals, on incidents and repair strategies in the course of learning and using Modern Greek, for example, when encountering misunderstandings in communication
  • examining reactions to different perceptions and expectations around similar and different cultural practices in the Australian and Greek contexts, for example, the concept of personal space, or head tilting to indicate ‘no’
Consider how cultural identity influences interactions in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts such as Australia

[Key concepts: identity, diversity; Key processes: analysing, discussing, reflecting] (ACLMGC028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • developing an understanding of contemporary life in diverse Greek-speaking communities, for example, through viewing excerpts from Greek films, and reflecting on similarities and differences to own lifestyle
  • preparing a family tree with information such as languages spoken by family members, significant places/countries, and reflecting on how background can shape identity, Μιλώ αγγλικά, Είμαι Καναδός, Η μαμά μου μιλά ελληνικά και γαλλικά, ο παππούς μου είναι Άγγλος
  • exploring how cultural identity is manifested in Australian and Greek-speaking communities, for example, through family occasions, community events and festivals, reflecting on the importance of shared understanding
  • reflecting on the experience of learning and using Greek, considering how it may add a further dimension to own sense of identity

Systems of language

Recognise and reproduce Greek sound–letter relationships and combinations in spoken and written forms and key features of pronunciation, rhythm and stress, including some irregularities

[Key concepts: liaisons, rhythm, intonation, pitch; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, imitating, producing] (ACLMGU029 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising the differences in tone and rhythm between questions, exclamations and commands, for example, Σοβαρά, Αμέσως, Ετοιμάσου Γρήγορα! Τι λες!
  • recognising and reproducing rhythms in more complex sentences, using pausing and intonation to signal emphasis
  • understanding the role of pronunciation, rhythm and pace in creating effects and relationships in oral texts, such as songs, stories, poems and conversations, for example, in the song ‘Καλημέρα, τι κάνεις;’
  • identifying differences in sounds, such as γγ, γκ, τζ, τσ, μπ, ντ, αϊ, άι, -ασμα (διάβασμα) and using them appropriately when writing
  • experimenting with pronunciation rules and intonation collaboratively with peers, for example, αυ, ευ, τσ, τζ, αι, ββ, λλ, ρρ, ττ, ιου, ιο/ιό, ειο/ειου
Develop knowledge of vocabulary and sentence structures to elaborate meaning, for example, by using a range of verbs and tenses, personal pronouns, adverbs, adjectives and time indicators to describe, situate and link people, objects and events

[Key concepts: grammatical systems, connections; Key processes: experimenting, applying] (ACLMGU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • extending understanding and use of present, past and future tenses, for example, είμαι, ήμουν, θα είμαι, έχω, είχα, θα έχω, έπαιζα, έπαιξα, παίζω, θα παίξω, θα παίζω
  • referring to the past, present and future using time indicators, for example, σήμερα, αύριο, χτες, μεθαύριο, προχτές, πριν λίγες μέρες
  • expanding use of adjectives such as μεγάλος-η-ο, ωραίος-α-ο, απίθανος-η-ο, φοβερός-η-ο
  • using possessive and object pronouns μου, σου, του, της, του, μας, σας, τους
  • extending meaning by using adverbs of place and time such as εδώ, εκεί, χτες, μεθαύριο,
  • understanding the use of πολύ
  • using expressions with the verb κάνω, κάνει κρύο/ζέστη, κάνω δουλειές, κάνω όνειρα, τι κάνεις;
  • understanding the function of comparative and superlative adjectives, for example, πιο μεγάλος, μεγαλύτερος, ο πιο μεγάλος
  • developing knowledge of vocabulary relating to, for example, immediate environments, relationships, leisure, hobbies, shopping, travel
Compare and contrast the structure and linguistic features of different types of text, developing understanding of the relationship between context, purpose and audience, and identifying culturally specific elements

[Key concepts: genre, textual conventions, register; Key processes: exploring, connecting, comparing] (ACLMGU031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • applying knowledge of the interrelationship between context, purpose and audience to identify text type and predict the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary and expressions
  • identifying how grammatical choices, words and images combine in a text to achieve particular intentions and effects, for example, the positioning of the reader through the use of personal pronouns, imperative verb forms and negative indicators, and emotive language and images
  • comparing Greek and English versions of familiar texts such as recipes and horoscopes, commenting on similarities and differences in text structure and cultural elements
  • interpreting and explaining textual conventions when using technology and social media

Language variation and change

Examine how Greek language and culture is variously expressed in different linguistic and cultural settings, identifying and explaining variations

[Key concepts: change, place, impact; Key processes: exploring, comparing, analysing] (ACLMGU032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining and explaining variations in language use in different Greek-speaking communities, and why the Greek language varies according to geographical location
  • discussing elements of Greek language and culture and how they have become part of Australian lifestyles, for example, celebrations such as το Γλέντι, το Πανηγύρι
  • identifying and comparing the function and power of cultural representations, such as symbols and stories, for example, flags, Greek myths and legends
Understand how the Greek language has evolved, and how it continues to change over time due to processes such as globalisation, migration, and the influence of technology and popular culture

[Key concepts: evolution, influence, dynamism; Key processes: researching, analysing, discussing] (ACLMGU033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring how the Greek language has been influenced by migration, for example, the use of non-Greek words such as τα μπίλια instead of οι λογαριασμοί as an Australian phenomenon
  • examining how technology has influenced the Greek language, for example, σκανάρω, το μπλογκ, σερφάρω
  • discussing how changes to the Greek language reflect changes in some cultural practices and attitudes, for example, το έτοιμο φαγητό
  • exploring the impact of globalisation on Greek language use, such as the increased use of English words, such as blog, computer, mobile/cell phone, parking

Role of language and culture

Explain how meanings may vary according to cultural assumptions and perspectives that people bring to interactions and experiences, recognising that such variations impact on intercultural communication

[Key concepts: stereotypes, social norms, values and attitudes; Key processes: analysing, explaining, reflecting] (ACLMGU034 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining existing generalisations relating to different cultures, such as in the classroom or local community, and discussing the variability of reality
  • reflecting on the impact of own values and cultural practices on intercultural experiences, and understanding the importance of mutual and self-respect, for example, understanding concepts such as το φιλότιμο, η τιμή
  • considering how the experience of learning a new language has impacted on awareness of own communicative behaviours and how these may be interpreted by others
  • appreciating that language use can reflect and express cultural identity, that many languages exist in Greece, Cyprus and Australia and that many people are multilingual and value this as part of their identity

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students initiate and sustain interactions with peers by sharing opinions and experiences and comparing aspects of teenage life (for example, Πού θα πας διακοπές; Θέλω να γίνω πιλότος γιατί ...). They interact with others to make decisions and plan events. They ask and respond to questions, clarify understanding and express agreement or disagreement in structured discussions and tasks, and spoken and written transactions (for example, Πάμε στο σινεμά αύριο; Συμφωνείς; Θέλω/Δε θέλω). When interacting, they use appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and stress (for example, σ’ αυτόν, κοντά στην πόλη, Πάω στο ταχυδρομείο, Πάμε στη λαϊκή αύριο;). Students locate and analyse information and perspectives from a range of texts and communicate information and ideas using different modes of presentation selected to suit audience and purpose (for example, Μου αρέσει αυτό το έργο γιατί ..., είναι ωραίο, πιστεύω, νομίζω, διαφωνώ). They share their responses to imaginative texts by expressing personal preferences, feelings and opinions about themes, mood and language choices (for example, Η μόδα είναι μονότονη, Αγόρασα καινούριο κινητό). They use different techniques to produce imaginative texts for different audiences. They use a range of grammatical structures and elements to describe, situate and link people, objects and events, and apply their knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structures such as Είναι καλό, πολύ καλό, πάρα πολύ καλό, to extend meaning. They translate, interpret and create texts in Greek and English for the wider community (for example, Απαγορεύεται, Περαστικά). When interacting, students share responsibility for making meaning. They give examples on how their identity influences their intercultural exchanges.

Students identify and reproduce regularities and irregularities of sound–letter relationships and combinations such as, αυ, ευ, ββ, λλ, ρρ, ττ, ιου, ιο/ιό (for example, τετράδιο-χωριό), ειο/ειου, αϊ, άι, -ασμα, (for example, διάβασμα). They analyse a range of text types in various modes to explain the relationship between context, purpose and audience and to identify structural, linguistic and culturally specific features. They compare Greek language and culture in various linguistic and cultural settings in Australia and overseas, and give reasons for variations that exist. They identify ways that Greek language has changed over time and propose reasons why it continues to change. They explain how cultural assumptions, attitudes and beliefs can affect interactions and appreciate the importance of mutual understanding to effective communication.


Years 9 and 10 Work Sample Portfolios