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Context statement

The place of the Korean culture and language in Australia and the world
Korean is the language of one of Australia’s important neighbours in the Asian region and is spoken by around 80 million people in the Korean Peninsula and worldwide.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Korean are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Korean: Sequence of content
Languages - Korean: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Korean: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring existing knowledge of Korean language and culture and a range of learning strategies to their learning. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They need continued guidance and mentoring, but are increasingly independent in terms of analysis, reflection and monitoring of their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including how Korean could be part of these.

Korean language learning and use

Learners engage with more complex language with greater control of language. They use a range of forms and structures, and richer and more sophisticated vocabulary to perform tasks individually and collaboratively, to access and exchange information on broader topics and abstract concepts, and to create, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts. They express feelings, emotions and opinions more precisely using a variety of expressive and descriptive language in imaginative and creative experiences. They are more confident in communicating in Korean in familiar and some unfamiliar contexts with a greater understanding of the variability of language use, making appropriate language choices and adjustments. With an increasing command of Hangeul, learners interact with members of the virtual community of Korean speakers and learners worldwide, sharing their understanding of Korean culture and language as well as of their own. They understand that language varies and changes, and engage in and reflect on intercultural experiences.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with the teacher and peers, and may have access to members of Korean-speaking communities via online technologies including some computer-mediated communication tools. They may also encounter Korean in the wider community, such as in the media, film or cultural festivals, community events, guest speakers, exchange teachers/assistants or in-country travel.

Texts and resources

Learners use an extensive range of texts designed for Korean language learning such as textbooks, teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to authentic materials designed for or generated by young Korean speakers, such as video clips, songs, stories, articles, magazine features, television programs or advertisements. Authentic Korean community resources provide opportunities to extend learners’ experience of learning the language and culture. Texts may include additional materials that students have sourced on their own to support their learning or to pursue personal interests in Korean language and culture.

Features of Korean language use

Learners extend their grammatical knowledge to a range of particles, conjunctive suffixes (clausal connectives) and complex phrasal and sentential structures. Their vocabulary range expands to abstract words and some specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or areas of interest in the wider context. With an increasing knowledge and control of language structures and features and vocabulary, including those with honorific elements, students recognise, analyse and construct different types of texts for different audiences and purposes. They interpret, create, evaluate and perform in individual and collaborative tasks that involve planning, problem-solving, decision-making, or informing or entertaining others. They make inferences from their knowledge of the Korean language and culture to understand unfamiliar content and consolidate their awareness of language variation and its connection with identity. They move between Korean and English, translating, discussing, analysing and comparing the languages using a metalanguage, applying metalinguistic knowledge and taking intercultural perspectives as a user of two (or more) languages. Learners have an increasing understanding of language learning as a cultural, social and linguistic process. They examine their own and others’ communicative practices and understand the concept of mutual responsibility for intercultural exchanges.

Level of support

While learners are increasingly less reliant on the teacher for support during communicative interactions, continued support and provision of rich language input from the teacher is needed for their sustained learning of Korean. The teacher provides implicit and sometimes explicit modelling and scaffolding in meaningful contexts. Learners need explicit instruction and explanation to understand highly complex structures and functions of grammatical items and meanings of highly abstract and/or culture-specific vocabulary. Provision of opportunities to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge is critical in consolidating their acquired knowledge and skills and in enhancing learner autonomy. Students may self-monitor their learning by keeping record of critical and constructive teacher feedback, peer support and self-review (for example, through portfolios, peer reviews, e–journaling, online discussion forums). They continue to access word lists, graphic organisers and modelled texts, and the teacher gives precise guidance for using dictionaries, particularly with dictionary forms of verbs.

The role of English

Learners and teachers use Korean as the primary medium of interaction in language-oriented and most content-oriented tasks. English is used for substantive discussion, explanation and analysis requiring students to deal with a conceptual demand which is too far beyond their level of competence in Korean, for example, analysing highly abstract and complex concepts embedded in linguistic structures/cultural practices.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate, sustain and extend interactions with each other and with other familiar and less familiar people, for example, by seeking and giving advice, discussing aspirations, relationships and social and cultural issues, exchanging and reflecting on different ideas

[Key concepts: youth, diversity, perspectives; Key processes: developing relationships, proposing, discussing] (ACLKOC191 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • asking for and providing specific information in sustained interactions, for example, 언제 한국에 가 봤어요? 작년 여름에 갔다 왔어요, 그 때한국은 여름이 아니고 겨울이었어요, …; 크리스만 안 보이는데요? 아마 크리켓을 하고 있을 거예요

  • following up own and others’ responses by elaborating on and extending the topic, for example, 누구하고 같이 갔어요? 가족하고 함께 갔어요; 거기에서 뭐 했어요?; 왜 저 가수를좋아해요? 노래도 잘 하고 멋있잖아요

  • sharing ideas and making suggestions relating to own and others’ experiences, for example, 한강에서 축제를 한다고 해요. 여러분도 한번 축제에 가 보세요

  • participating in exchanges, using communication strategies such as showing empathy, down-toning or indirectly expressing disagreement, for example, 그렇지요?; 좋았겠어요; 아마;글쎄요; 그런가요?; 아닌 것 같은데요

  • corresponding with peers by using telephone/video calls, text messages or computer-mediated communication tools to build relationships and share views on aspects of teenage life, such as friends, responsibilities, interests, aspirations and topical issues, for example, 함께 한국에 가면 재미있을 것 같아요; 왜 숙제를 못 했어요?; 축구를 하느라고숙제를 못 했어요; 공부하느라고 바쁜 척했어요; 주말에 음악을 들으면서 책을 읽었어요; 비행기를 기다리는 동안에 인터넷을 했어요

Arrange and manage shared activities such as problem-solving and different types of transactions, adopting different roles to present diverse views and perspectives

[Key concepts: roles, perspectives, shared responsibility; Key processes: persuading, commenting, evaluating] (ACLKOC192 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • solving problems by explaining discoveries and results, discussing ideas, suggesting a range of options with specific information such as roles of participants, locations, time, methods and reasons, for example, 한국에 갔더니 아름다운 산이 아주 많았어요. 다음에 갈 때 같이 갑시다; 언제 …–겠어요?; 누가 …–(으)ㄹ래요?; 어떻게 …–(으)ㄹ계획이에요?; 왜 그렇게생각해요? 어디에서 …–(으)면 좋을까요?; 선생님께 여쭤 봅시다

  • planning and negotiating collaboratively in scenarios or events related to travelling or living in Korea, such as living with a host family, seeking medical treatment, or using transport, for example, 안녕히 주무세요/잘 자; 팔을 다쳤는데 병원에 가야 할까요?; 지하철을 타면 5시까지 도착할수 있을 거예요

  • comparing the quality of goods and taking action, for example, 이것이 저것보다 훨씬 더 신선해요. 그러니까 이것을 사요; 기차가 버스보다 더 편리하니까 기차로 가요

  • making complaints and recommendations, for example, 그 식당은 서비스가 친절하지 않으니까 가지 맙시다

  • sharing experiences and transactions, for example, 주말에 영화를 같이 보러 갈래요?; 무슨 영화가 좋아요?; 영화가 몇 시에 시작해요?; 입장권이 얼마 정도 해요?;비행기표를 겨우 샀어요; 하마터면 부산에 가지 못할 뻔했어요

  • planning shared events or activities, using online and digital forms of communication such as emails, chat forums and community websites, for example, intercultural components of 호주 한국 국제 영화제, 한국 문화원, 관광명소, 자매학교

  • presenting views and perspectives at real or simulated forums, protests or rallies to raise awareness of environmental, social or ethical issues such as쓰레기 분리수거, 청소년 실업 문제, 환경보호 캠페인, 절약, 낭비, 지구 온난화, using language, for example, 쓰레기 분리수거에 대해서 …; 청소년실업 문제가 심각하다고 합니다 …; 호주에는 여름에 비가 자주 오지 않기 때문에 물을 아껴야 해요; 물을 절약하는 방법은…; 에너지를 낭비하면…; 깨끗한 환경

  • transacting for goods and services, considering concepts such as value, availability, competition and ethics, forexample, 세 시 전에 출발하는 버스가 있어요?; 환경보호 캠페인에 참가하고 싶은데 누구한테 연락해야 해요?

Use interactional language to elicit, offer, negotiate, report, and reflect and elaborate on opinions and ideas

[Key concepts: opinions, reflection, metalanguage; Key processes: justifying, elaborating, reflecting] (ACLKOC193 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating in class discussion by:

    • expressing own opinion such as agreement or disagreement with others, for example, 저는 민수가 맞다고 생각해요; 저는 정답이4번이라고 생각했어요
    • eliciting and reflecting on others’ opinions, for example, 왜 그렇게 생각해요?; 어떻게 그렇게 되었어요?; 정말 그럴까요?; 아,그렇군요
  • interacting in class activities such as games or events, by taking turns, expressing agreement/disagreement, giving encouragement/praise or critique, for example, 내차례예요; 누가 먼저 하는 거예요?; 그건 아닌 것 같아요; 잘 할 수 있을 거예요

  • discussing language and language learning using metalanguage, for example, 단어, 명사, 동사, 줄임말, 높임말/경어, 문장

Informing

Analyse, interpret and integrate information gathered from diverse sources relating to areas of interest to adolescents or young adults, making connections with own and each other's experience and with other learning areas

[Key concepts: representation, cultural literacy; Key processes: analysing, synthesising, evaluating] (ACLKOC194 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding gist and identifying keywords to extract specific information, by scanning through texts from various sources in conventional, digital or multimodal formats such as articles, reports or podcasts on topics such as pop culture, youth employment, the environment and world sports, or those related to other learning areas

  • distinguishing between fact and opinion in texts such as articles and reports, using critical literacy skills to recognise bias, for example, identifying the author, audience and purpose of the text

  • analysing and interpreting collected information by summarising, sequencing and prioritising, considering audience, purposes and context, for example, 한국에는 태풍이 오고, 호주에는 사이클론이 와요/옵니다. 태풍은 …, 사이클론은

  • obtaining information in order to debate issues of interest such as the environment, expectations of teenagers, and the generation gap, using persuasive or evaluative language, for example, 나는 ... 믿어요/확신해요; 이것은 분명히…–이에요/예요; 그렇지만 …; 정말 …–(으)ㄹ까요?

  • investigating aspects of Korean culture to determine a particular course of action, for example, providing a Korean exchange student with a suitable placement, or a group of Korean visitors with a suitable menu, or selecting an appropriate time of the year for a visit to Korea

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Construct and present texts in different formats for different audiences, taking into account own perspectives and intended purpose

[Key concepts: society, environment, media; Key processes: constructing, persuading, interconnecting, using computer-mediated communication tools] (ACLKOC195 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • producing texts for different types of audience (for example, classmates, parents, peers on social-networking websites, possible future employers) and for different purposes and in different contexts (for example, school, community, social clubs, part-time jobs) to convey own ideas and interpretation of particular texts, using oral, print, multimodal and digital media such as blogs, letters, instructions, articles, podcasts and speeches

  • creating informative texts such as posters, brochures and web pages, for example, a brochure promoting a holiday destination, a poster for a doctor’s surgery encouraging healthy eating, a web page reviewing new music releases

  • writing persuasive texts such as blogs, tweets and posts to persuade or convince others,for example, on global warming (지구온난화), attending to the audience and context, for example, 우리 모두 생각해 봅시다. 지구온난화를 막지 못하면지구가 죽습니다. 북극과 남극의 빙하가 녹고, 자연이 파괴됩니다. 그러므로 … 우리가 먼저 지구 온난화를 막아야 합니다

  • combining modes of presentation such as displays, videos or music to explore social and cultural themes, for example, 다문화사회

Creating

Review and respond to different types of creative texts in different modes, identifying aspects of the language and culture that help to create effects such as emotion

[Key concepts: emotions, moral, values; Key processes: interpreting, reflecting, discussing] (ACLKOC196 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening to,reading and viewing imaginative texts such as short stories, films, poetry, raps and songs, and:

    • identifying emotional aspects of the texts that are specific to Korean language and culture, for example, the use of expressive language and the description of animals
    • critically reflecting on and sharing own responses with others
  • reading texts including those in digital and online modes such as extracts from a biography or diary for enjoyment and to gain insights into other people’s experiences and perspectives

  • modifying existing texts, for example, creating an alternative ending, introducing a new character, changing the setting or adding a major event, or providing a video clip to accompany and reinforce the meaning expressed in lyrics

  • creating texts to parody existing texts and to explore a range of genres, for example, re-creating a music clip or advertisement

  • identifying and responding to key messages and values in traditional texts such as 민요, (for example,아리랑, 강강술래), 설화 (for example, 심청전, 흥부전) or dialogues in 탈춤, and considering their relevance in modern times

  • discussing how texts such as films, plays and songs portray social issues (such as conflict in relationships or poverty) and values (such as honesty and humility)

Create and present imaginative texts that express ideas through characters, events or settings, making connections between past, present and future, and between reality and imagination

[Key concepts: creativity, entertainment; Key processes: expressing, projecting, entertaining] (ACLKOC197 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating various types of texts including those in digital and online forms such as stories, songs, chants, or scripts for role- plays or skits, considering main characters, themes, settings and/or plots, for different types of audience, for example, young learners of Korean or parents of peers

  • creating and presenting texts in various forms, such as digital stories or performances that reflect significant Korean or Australian events or histories(for example, 한글날, 개천절, Australia Day, Anzac Day, National Sorry Day)

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating and acting out imaginary characters in contexts that involve possible intercultural circumstances, drawing on resources such as news reports or feature articles

  • critiquing own and others’ presentations, taking the perspectives of authors and performers (for example, 내가 애나라면 더 큰 소리로 말하겠어요)

Translating

Translate texts for different audiences and contexts, and reflect on how cultural values, attitudes, assumptions and world views are differently encoded in languages

[Key concepts: equivalence, values, representation; Key processes: reflecting, interpreting, comparing] (ACLKOC198 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • translating short texts and excerpts from a range of informative and literary texts, identifying cultural elements and reflecting on how they are encoded in common words or expressions, for example, the use of family terms, titles and terms of address, and the way of answering negative questions and of using 가다/오다 from a perspective different from that involved in using ‘go/come’ (나하고 같이 갈래요? 샘하고 같이올래요? 지금 가요! 제니가 지금 와요!), and providing additional explanation, information or exemplification

  • translating texts that contain cultural elements, for example, old sayings or proverbs, considering how differently cultural values or culture-specific concepts are embedded in texts in different languages to represent same/similar ideas or practices, for example, 호랑이도 제 말하면 온다 (‘speak of the devil’), 소 잃고 외양간 고친다 (‘to shut the barn door after the horse has bolted’)

  • translating texts such as advertisements, songs or film extracts, including those in online or digital form, examining the appropriateness of translation for specified audiences and contexts

  • comparing own translation with others, noticing similarities and differences, and reflecting on why interpretations may vary

Create bilingual texts that reflect aspects of Australian culture (for example, Christmas celebrations) for Korean-speaking audiences in the school and wider community including virtual communities, reflecting on how meaning can be conveyed effectively

[Key concepts: representation, critical and cultural literacy; Key processes: adjusting, referencing, reflecting] (ACLKOC199 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • creating captions or commentaries using Korean or English to accompany texts produced in English or Korean such as lyrics, video clips and film extracts, exchanging and comparing own bilingual texts with peers, discussing which version better fits the original version and why

  • producing public texts for different contexts in both Korean and English such as brochures, advertisements or leaflets, for example, for Korean exchange students to Australia or for student visitors to Korea on a study tour, and reflecting on the process of working in both languages

  • creating bilingual texts such as video clips with subtitles explaining Australian cultural practices, for example, bushwalking, New Year’s Eve celebrations, the Melbourne Cup

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Reflecting

Examine and modify own cultural assumptions and practices, taking responsibility for language use and choices, and recognising the significance of shared responsibility and mutual effort in intercultural communication

[Key concepts: reciprocity, reflective literacy; Key processes: reflecting, adapting, taking responsibility] (ACLKOC200 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on own engagement in communication with Koreans and how their language use was perceived by self, and making adjustments to own Korean language use, for example, to feel comfortable with some silence during conversation; to be indirect when making refusals (saying 잘 모르겠는데요, 글쎄요); to speak in a rather monotone without being negative; to use address terms infrequently during conversation

  • reflecting on aspects of own experiences of intercultural communication, such as possible causes of breakdowns or breakthroughs in communication, repair and recovery strategies, and responses to and insights gained through interactions

  • considering ways to improve intercultural understanding and acting on them, for example, by keeping a record (for example, journal, log, posting on forum) of memorable incidents involving intercultural interactions

  • recounting own experiences of intercultural language use in oral or written forms, for example, speeches or essays, reflecting on concepts such as ‘culture’, ‘attitudes’, ‘assumptions’ and ‘values’

  • comparing understandings of the relationship between language, culture and identity, using symbols, graphic representations, images and metaphors to represent how the relationship works

  • discussing how intercultural communication involves being flexible, responsive and open to alternative ways of communicating, for example, responding to different levels of emotionality or confrontation in debate, or different levels of respect in casual exchanges or service encounters

Investigate different aspects of their personal sense of identity, considering how learning and experiencing Korean language and culture have (or have not) changed own sense of identity, views or attitudes

[Key concepts: identity, values, attitudes; Key processes: analysing, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLKOC201 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • producing an autobiography in various formats such as articles, photo stories with captions, digital stories or short films, including important episodes related to the experience of learning Korean language and culture that have impacted on their identity and attitudes

  • composing a ‘cultural ID profile’ to exchange with Korean- speaking friends, making decisions about what information will be of most interest

  • sharing with others, views and opinions on the ongoing influence of Korean language learning, relating it to own aspirations and ambitions, for example, composing a self-portrait with reference to Korean language and culture after 10 years

  • reflecting on own cultural identity in terms of family background, community relationships and contact with languages (including contact with Korean and other languages and cultures), tracking changes over time or context

Systems of language

Apply features and rules of Korean pronunciation and Hangeul to understanding and producing a range of texts for different audiences and purposes

[Key concepts: phonological rules, fluency, accuracy; Key processes: applying, analysing, synthesising] (ACLKOU202 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • using Korean pronunciation and spelling rules for listening to and reading authentic texts and producing own written and oral texts

  • knowing when to pause in complex sentences with embedded clauses

  • understanding that there are variations in Korean pronunciation across people from different regions of Korea but that spelling follows standardised rules

  • writing in Hangeul independently, observing writing conventions and rules

Understand how grammatical elements, such as particles and suffixes, impact on higher levels of grammar, such as tense, mood, honorification, speech level and formality, and on meaning-making from the phrasal level to that of the entire text

[Key concepts: complex structures, modality, irregularity, topicality; Key processes: applying rules, analysing, manipulating] (ACLKOU203 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding and using the dictionary forms of action and descriptive verbs, for example, to identify the meaningful part or to look up unknown verbs in a dictionary (가다, 오다, 하다, 먹다, 들다, 듣다, 읽다, 덥다, 예쁘다, …)

  • using a range of case markers and particles, including honorific forms as applicable, for appropriate grammatical functions, for example, –한테/에게, –한테서/에게서, –께, –께서, –께서는,–(으)로, –보다, –만, –마다

  • understanding various functions/meanings of a topic marker –은/는,using it for functions other than marking the subject as the topic of the sentence (저는 마이클이에요) such as highlighting, emphasising or making contrast, for example, 저는 오렌지를 좋아하지 않아요. 그런데 사과는 좋아해요; 한국에는 태풍이 오고 호주에는 사이클론이 와요. 태풍은 …, 사이클론은

  • making a relative clause, that is, a noun-modifying clause, by replacing the verb ending of the clause- final verb with –(으)ㄴ, –는, or –(으)ㄹ appropriately, for example, 저기에서 노래하는 사람이 누구예요?; 제가 어제 본 영화는 정말 슬펐어요; 언제 갈계획이에요?; 날씨가 좋은 날에 바비큐를 해요; 재미있을 것 같아요

  • using long negative forms of verbs, such as –지 않다, –지 못하다

  • using negative questions and answering appropriately, for example, 그 영화를 안 봤어요/보지 않았어요? 아니요, 봤어요 / 네, 안 봤어요/보지 않았어요; 김치를 못먹어요/먹지 못해요? 아니요, 먹어요/ 네, 못 먹어요/먹지 못해요; 숙제가 없어요? 아니요, 있어요 / 네, 없어요)

  • understanding the concept of different speech levels and styles in Korean, and using sentence-final verb endings in three speech styles appropriately for the audience: –ㅂ/습니다, –ㅂ/습니까, –ㅂ/읍시다, –(으)십시오 (the formal polite style); –어/아요(the informal polite style); and –어/아 (the intimate style)

  • analysing the structure of complex verb phrases and expanding their use, understanding how meanings are added to the main verb, such as desire, likelihood, shift of actions, designation, habits, pretence (as if …) and verge (almost ...), for example, 알고 싶어요, 비가 올 것 같아요, 갔다 왔어요, 보러 가요,조깅을 하곤 했어요, 바쁜 척했어요, 가지 못할 뻔했어요

  • reporting speech or thought using –다고/–(이)라고, for example, 맞다고 생각해요, 4 번이라고 생각해요; 한국에서 가장 큰 축제라고 해요

  • connecting ideas in different relationships using a range of conjunctive suffixes, noting the different tense expressions in the two connected clauses, for example:

      • –다가: 학교에 가다가 친구를 만났어요: 학교에 갔다가 친구를만났어요
      • –(으)니까: 비가 올 것 같으니까 우산을 가지고 가세요
      • –(으)ㄴ/는데: 생각을 많이 해 봤는데 아직 잘 모르겠어
      • –느라고: 축구를 하느라고 숙제를 못 했어요
      • –더니: 한국에 갔더니 아름다운 산이 아주 많았어요
      • –(으)면서: 소라가 음악을 들으면서 책을 읽고 있어요

     

    • –다면: 한국에 간다면 제주도에 가 보고싶어요

     

  • using the structures: a verb stem + –기 때문에 and a noun + 에 대해서 appropriately, for example, 비가 자주 오지 않기 때문에 물을 아껴야 해요; 쓰레기 분리수거에 대해서 이야기해 봅시다

  • understanding the function and meaning of a range of defective nouns (불완전 명사, for example, 동안, 때, 뻔, 것/거, 척, …) used in complex structures, and using them appropriately: …노래하는 동안(에) …; 한국에 갈 때(에) …; 비행기를 못 탈 뻔했어요; 학교에 갔을 거예요; 바쁜 척 했어요

  • using a range of sentence enders and understanding their differences in meaning and appropriateness to the context,for example, –잖아요, –(으)ㄹ래요, –(으)ㄹ까요, –(으)ㅂ시다, –(으)ㄴ/는데요, –지요

Understand and use vocabulary that conveys abstract ideas and establishes register and style for specific audiences

[Key concepts: vocabulary choice, register, style; Key processes: predicting, applying, inferring] (ACLKOU204 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using a range of common nouns and verbs to describe activities and phenomena taking place in home,school and the wider context, such as transport, networking, festivals, weather, seasons, nature, transactions, for example, 여행, 기차, 비행기, …, 축제, 숙제, 음악, 산, 강, 호수, …, 여름, 겨울, …, 영화, 입장권, 표, …, 차례, 소리, 바쁘다, 아끼다, 춥다, 덥다, …, 많다, 적다, …,연락하다, 편리하다, 친절하다, 다치다, 시작하다, 출발하다, 도착하다, 참가하다, 기다리다

  • using abstract nouns and verbs associated with abstract or complex concepts, processes, attitudes, for example, 방법,문제, 계획(하다), 신선하다, 생각하다, 심각하다, 생기다, 되다, 그렇다, 믿다, 확신하다

  • using a range of descriptive verbs to express qualities of people, animals or nature, such as character, appearance or scenery, including some complex personal attributes, for example, 착하다, 부지런하다, 게으르다, 참을성이 있다, 정직하다, 깨끗하다

  • using specialised vocabulary drawn from other learning areas or broader topics of interest such as social or environmental issues, including some highly abstract words, special terminology, some loan words from English and some figurative use of common words (for example, ‘지구가 죽는다’): 지구, 북극, 남극,빙하, 환경, 자연, 태풍, 사이클론, 캠페인, 에너지, 청소년, 실업, 녹다, 보호(하다), 절약(하다), 낭비(하다), 파괴되다, ‘쓰레기 분리수거’, ‘환경보호’, ‘지구 온난화’, ‘다문화 사회’

  • using/recognising some well-known Korean geographical names (for example, 부산, 제주도)

  • identifying Korean names of some folk genres such as민요, 설화 or 탈춤, and some titles of Korean folk songs or folktales such as 아리랑, 강강술래, 심청전 or 흥부전

  • using/recognising some procedural vocabulary relating to some aspects of everyday life such as operating appliances or cooking instant food, for example, 국수, 국물, 정도 (for example, 4분 정도) 냄비, 끓이다, 넣다, 붓다, 젓다

  • using reflective/sympathetic words or phrases to signal empathy, down-toning or indirect disagreement, or just as a pause filler, for example, 그렇지요?; 좋았겠어요;아마; 글쎄요; 그런가요?; 아닌 것 같은데요

  • expanding and using honorific or humble vocabulary, for example, 주무시다, 여쭤 보다

  • expanding the range and use of adverbs, for example,훨씬, 함께, 겨우, 아마, 한번, 모두, 분명히, 하마터면

  • expanding the use of temporal vocabulary, including 작년, 올해, 내년, …전/후

  • using elements of metalanguage appropriately, for example, 단어, 명사, 동사, 줄임말, 높임말/존대말, 문장

  • inferring meanings of unknown words or expressions from information available from the text or context

Analyse and compose different types of texts in spoken and written modes for different purposes such as information exchange, social and cultural interaction or sharing imaginative experiences, using appropriate linguistic, textual and cultural elements

[Key concepts: style, register, perspectives; Key processes: analysing, correlating, composing] (ACLKOU205 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying register used in Korean texts, for example in recipes, such as the formal polite style used for statements (–ㅂ/습니다) and commands (–(으)십시오) or vocabulary used to determine audience, purposes and context

  • examining cohesive devices used in Korean texts such as consistency in speech levels and honorific elements, conjunctors (–지만, –(으)니까, –어/아서, …),conjunctive adverbs (그러니까, 하지만, 그러므로, ...) and ellipsis, and their appropriateness for Korean discourse

  • creating own texts in Korean including those in digital or online forms for particular audiences and purposes in particular contexts, for example, to introduce Korean food culture to parents invited to the Korean evening, using a range of appropriate discourse devices for coherence and cohesion including appropriate vocabulary

  • comparing and contrasting the structures of a variety of authentic texts in Korean and English, exploring how the audience, purpose and context are considered differently in each language

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Language variation and change

Examine variations and expectations reflected in Korean language that relate to roles, relationships and contexts of interactions, considering how and why these differ from interactions in English or in other languages represented in the classroom

[Key concepts: cultural expectations, intercultural literacy; Key processes: examining, reflecting, explaining] (ACLKOU206 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using language, body language and gestures in culturally appropriate ways, identifying and reflecting on expected roles in contexts specific to Korean or Australian culture

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • discussing possible consequences resulting from language use related to different cultures, reflecting on how Korean ways of thinking and world views are reflected in Korean language by analysing texts such as old sayings, axioms, idioms and lyrics, for example, 호랑이도 제 말하면 온다, 김칫국부터 마신다, 빈 수레가요란하다, 아리랑

  • reflecting on English old sayings, axioms, idioms and lyrics that could be possible equivalents to Korean examples, and discussing how ways of thinking and world views are reflected in different ways around the same ideas/phenomena in different cultures and languages

Reflect on the dynamic and ecological nature of language that interacts with constantly changing environments such as contact with different languages and cultures and changing sociocultural circumstances in local and global contexts, identifying and illustrating examples from Korean language forms and uses

[Key concepts: exchange, change, variation, integration; Key processes: comparing, analysing, reflecting] (ACLKOU207 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring how Korean language has changed over time, for example, by viewing Korean dramas in historical settings and those in contemporary settings and comparing the language used between people in comparable relationships such as between family members

  • examining possible influences on language change in Korean, such as exposure to other languages, contexts of use and the development of digital technology

    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • comparing spoken and written texts (for example, spoken and print advertisements, face-to-face conversations and emails) to understand how mode relates to linguistic structures and features, and how this affects meaning

  • understanding that languages incorporate other languages into their systems and examining how this takes place in Korean, for example, 조깅해요, 온라인으로

Explore how language shapes thoughts and world views and mobilises action

[Key concepts: world views, thoughts, conceptualisation, perspectives; Key processes: analysing, reflecting, explaining] (ACLKOU208 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • collecting examples that show the reciprocal relationship between language and culture, drawing on areas of interest including other learning areas

  • comparing and discussing the examples collected and relating them to Korean language and culture, for example, how the creation of Hangeul in the 15th century has continued to impact on Korean language and culture up until now

  • reflecting on how world views of a culture are reflected in and shaped by the way people use everyday language, for example, different ways to answer negative questions between Korean and English (숙제를 안 했어요? 아니요, 했어요 / 네, 안 했어요), or different perspectives involved in the use of 가다 /오다 and ‘go/come’ (파티에갈 거예요. 나하고 같이 가겠어요?; 빨리 올래요? 지금 가요!)

  • understanding how language influences people’s actions and beliefs, for example, by analysing language used in community appeals in response to natural disasters

Role of language and culture

Understand that language and culture are interrelated and reflect on how they shape and are shaped by each other

[Key concepts: intercultural understanding, reciprocity, intercultural literacy; Key processes: critiquing, evaluating, reflecting] (ACLKOU209 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • recognising that language and culture are intertwined in texts and together convey cultural perspectives, concepts and values

  • analysing how the Korean language may reflect cultural perspectives and values such as collectivism, harmony, humility and the importance of ties between family members, for example, a range of kinship terms extending to remote relations, using kinship terms rather than first names to address members of the family and norms such as showing deference and saving face, for example, 네, 괜찮아요

  • investigating the origins of particular expressions or words, developing awareness of the origins of meanings and how these may or may not change over time

  • reflecting on own experiences of moving between cultures in the school, local and virtual communities and on their different roles played in different intercultural exchanges as a learner and user of Korean

  • recognising the historical, political and cultural functions and values of language, researching how the Korean language played a role in maintaining the Korean people’s culture and everyday life under the cultural and linguistic oppression during the early 19th century colonial period and how Korean culture and language lived it out, flourish and are recognised in the contemporary world


Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Korean to communicate with teachers, peers and others in a range of settings and for a range of purposes. They use Korean to access and exchange information on a broad range of social, cultural and environmental issues of interest to young people. They initiate, sustain and extend spoken and written exchanges in interactions and transactions by asking and responding to open-ended questions, eliciting opinions (for example, 어떻게 생각해요?; 어디에서 …–(으)면 좋을까요?), requesting elaboration (for example, 왜 …을/를 좋아해요?; 어떻게 그렇게 되었어요?) and providing their own opinions (for example, 저는 민수가 맞다고 생각해요; 저는 4번이라고 생각했어요) and information when requested. They use non-verbal communication strategies such as facial expressions, gestures, pausing or pitching, and give verbal feedback expressing empathy, down-toning, acknowledging or expressing indirect disagreement using reflective language (such as 그렇지요?; 좋았겠어요; 아마; 글쎄요; 아, 그렇군요; 아닌 것 같은데요; 정말 그럴까요?). They make suggestions in relation to topics of conversation (for example, 여러분도 한번 한국에 가 보세요) and consider options, using a range of suffixes and complex/idiomatic structures indicating the future in verb phrases (such as –겠–, –(으)ㄹ래요, –(으)ㄹ 계획이에요, –(으)ㄹ 거예요, –(으)면 좋을까요?). They make decisions comparing options using ...보다 더 ... and providing reasons for decisions (for example, 기차가 버스보다 더 편리하니까 기차로 가요). Students locate and evaluate information from a range of sources, and analyse, interpret and integrate information from diverse perspectives. They create informative and imaginative texts, using a range of case markers, including honorific forms, particles and verb phrases in complex structures (such as –지 않다/못하다, –(으)ㄹ 뻔하다, –(으)ㄴ/는/(으)ㄹ것 같다, –러 가다), and describing two related ideas or events in different relationships by connecting two clauses in a sentence (for example, 비가 올 것 같으니까 우산을 가져 가세요; 저기에서 노래하는 사람이 누구예요?). They use a range of abstract words, selecting vocabulary suitable for the target audience, purpose and context. They maintain the cohesiveness of the text by keeping consistency in terms of speech level and style and honorific elements, and by using cohesive devices such as conjunctors (such as –(으)니까, –다가, –(으)ㄴ/는데, –(으)면서), conjunctive adverbs (such as 하지만, 그러므로, 그러니까) and ellipsis. Students translate and create bilingual texts across Korean and English, providing and comparing alternative versions, identifying ways to interpret and convey embedded meanings in culture-specific terms or expressions that are language-specific. They compare their intercultural experiences, referencing their current and past senses of identity, views and attitudes in relation to their ways of using language.

Students describe how spoken and written Korean vary and are modified according to contexts, audiences and purposes. They exemplify such adjustments (for example, changes to pitch or speed of speech, use of contractions or 반말, choice of vocabulary, and level of politeness and formality), explaining possible reasons for particular adjustments. They describe how languages change and borrow from, build on and blend with each other, giving examples in relation to Korean and languages such as English, Chinese and Japanese that share social, cultural and historical relationships. They explain how language influences ways of thinking, views of the world and human relationships. Students use metalanguage to explain aspects of the Korean language such as tense, suffix, honorification, adverb, modification, speech level (for example, 반말, 높임말), and politeness. They assess their own language use and cultural practices from multicultural perspectives and the meaning and impact of multiculturalism from various perspectives.


Years 9 and 10 Work Sample Portfolios