By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Korean to interact with teachers, peers and others, and to exchange ideas, experiences and interests. They pronounce polysyllabic words that involve syllable-final consonants (받침) such as 먹고, 어떻게 and 축하합니다 as 먹꼬, 어떠케 and 추카함니다, applying relevant pronunciation rules with some accuracy. When interacting, they initiate conversations (for example, 지금 뭐 해요? 어디 가요?), and ask and respond to questions (for example, 왜 한국어를 배워요? 방학 때 뭐 할 거예요?). Students clarify answers or instructions (for example, 무슨 뜻이에요? 다시 말해 주세요) and ask for and give opinions (for example, 어떻게 생각해요?; 제 생각에는…; …인 것 같아요). They describe plans (for example, 한국에 갈 거예요) and ask for suggestions (for example, 무엇을 할까요?). They locate and evaluate factual information in texts and create informative and imaginative texts in a range of modes using multimodal or conventional formats. Students explain reasons for actions and show contrasts between feelings or facts, using conjunctive suffixes (clausal connectives) such as –어/아서 and –지만 (for example, 소라가 좋아서 한국어를 배웠어요; 모자가 예쁘지만 너무 작아요). They use humble/honorific words or honorific particles such as 진지, 드리다 and –께 appropriately, and use some basic onomatopoeic and mimetic words such as 똑똑 and 콜콜 to create expressive effects and engage the interest of the audience. Students use cohesive devices, for example, conjunctions (such as 그리고, 그래서, 그러나, 그런데, –고, –어/아서, –지만), adverbs of frequency (such as 가끔, 보통, 자주, 언제나), time (such as 벌써, 아직) and direction (such as 쭉, 곧장) and the agreement among honorific elements, at sentence level (for example, 할머니께 꽃을 드려요) and throughout the text by using the informal polite style ending –어/아요. They use a range of case markers and particles such as –의, – (으)로, 와/과, –부터 and –까지 (for example, 소라의 생일, 색연필로, 왼쪽으로, 불고기와 김치, 아침부터 저녁까지) and location nouns attached by –에 to indicate relative locations (for example, 책상 위에 …, 상자 안에 …). Students use some complex structures in verb phrases such as –어/아 주다, –고 있다, –(으)ㄹ 줄 알다, –(으)ㄹ 수 있다 and –어/아 보다 as set phrases. They form questions using a range of question words such as 언제, 어디, 어떻게, 어느 and 무슨, and modify nouns using an adjectival form of a descriptive verb suffixed by –(으)ㄴ (for example, 착한 사람). Students write loan words from English in Hangeul and compare their original pronunciation and how they are pronounced as loan words in Korean (for example, 테니스, 포크). They translate across languages, paraphrasing or annotating words or expressions where equivalence is not possible, such as 정들었어요, 세배 or ‘mufti day’. They recount their reactions to intercultural experiences, describing and reflecting on aspects that do or do not fit with their own sense of identity.
Students identify grammatical elements such as case markers, particles, suffixes and verb endings from simple Korean sentences, and compare how grammatical functions of nouns and verbs are determined in Korean and English sentences. They provide examples of the Korean honorific system that works at grammar and word levels (for example, 진지 드세요) and illustrate how politeness and respect are important aspects of Korean language and culture. Students differentiate between oral and written forms of words, and apply spelling conventions and spacing rules in their writing. Students explain how word order in Korean differs from English and use a metalanguage to identify common features such as nouns, verbs, cases and subject–object–verb/subject–verb–object constructions. Students identify and reproduce characteristic grammatical features in familiar texts. They vary their language use and make choices of linguistic features, such as the use of polite forms, according to the context. They provide examples showing that Korean is a language for local, international and virtual communication and that it continuously changes as society and culture change, impacted by globalisation and new technologies. Students explain how cultural values and ideas are embedded in language and communicative behaviours. They give examples from their own language/s and cultural behaviour/s which may be interpreted differently from other cultural perspectives and give such possible interpretations.