Japanese

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Context statement

The place of Japanese culture and language in Australia and in the world
Japanese is the official language of Japan, Australia’s northern neighbour in the Asia region. It is also widely used by communities of speakers in Hawaii, Peru and Brazil, and learnt as an additional language by large numbers of students in the Republic of Korea, China, Indonesia and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Japanese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of content
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Japanese: Sequence …

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Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate worlds of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Japanese language and culture.

Japanese language learning and use

The initial focus is on listening to the sounds and patterns of Japanese through language-rich activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Repetition and recycling help children to identify frequently used words, simple phrases and non-verbal communication strategies employed in greetings and other social interactions. Learners experiment with simple responses to prompts and cues.

They are introduced to the scripts through initial exposure to high-frequency kanji, focusing on their ideographic nature before learning the associated Japanese sounds. They learn hiragana using a play-based approach that incorporates chanting, the use of mnemonics and a focus on the creative and crafted process of writing Japanese kana. As they learn to read hiragana they draw on first language literacy skills such as predicting the meaning of unfamiliar elements using contextual cues or by linking them to known elements.

Reading skills begin with recognition of single kanji or hiragana and progress to reading whole words and familiar phrases. Writing skills progress from labelling pictures with single kanji and tracing and copying words in hiragana to scaffolded writing of words and short phrases.

As they progress to using Japanese for functions such as asking and answering questions, responding to classroom instructions, singing songs, and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks, children begin to notice that language behaves differently in different situations and that Japanese speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. They practise and repeat formulaic expressions and gestures such as bowing that differ in Japanese from ways of communicating in English. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Japanese for purposeful interaction.

Contexts of interaction

Children use Japanese to interact with one another and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communications technology (ICT) resources provide additional access to Japanese language and cultural experiences.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, visual and written texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas, and join in stories, songs, plays and simple conversations. Written and digital texts include stories, wall charts, Big Books, and teacher-produced materials such as games, captions and flashcards.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners become familiar with the sound systems of the Japanese language, including pronunciation and rhythm. They learn to pronounce individual sounds and sound combinations. They understand basic word order in simple sentences, indicate affirmative or negative responses, respond to requests, and notice different levels of formality when addressing friends, family and teachers. They discuss similarities and differences that they notice between Japanese and their first language(s) and culture(s), such as adjective–noun patterns, adding to ask a question, and ways of showing respect.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling and monitoring by the teacher, provision of rich and varied sources of input, opportunities for recycling and reviewing, and regular cues, feedback, response and encouragement. At this stage, play and imaginative activities, music, movement and familiar routines provide the essential scaffolding for language development.

The role of English

While children are encouraged to use Japanese whenever possible, with the teacher providing rich and varied language input, English is used as a medium of instruction, and for explanation and discussion. This allows learners to discuss differences and similarities they notice between Japanese and their own language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions, and to express their reactions to the experience of learning and using an additional language.


Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Exchange greetings and introduce and share information about self with the teacher and peers using simple language and gestures

[Key concepts: self, interaction, politeness, preferences; Key processes: greeting, interacting, introducing, describing] (ACLJAC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • learning how to greet others at different times of the day using appropriate gestures and forms of address, for example, せんせい、おはようございます、さようなら、おはよう、じゃあね
  • using culturally appropriate titles, forms of address and levels of politeness in everyday interactions with the teacher and peers, for example, Smith せんせい、ありがとう ございます。 Tom くん、ありがとう。Alisa さん、おめでとう。
  • introducing self, using formal spoken language and appropriate non-verbal language such as bowing, for example, はじめまして、Hana です。どうぞよろしく。
  • using formulaic Japanese phrases for everyday interactions such as giving and receiving, thanking, apologising and offering wishes or congratulations, for example, どうぞ、(どうも) ありがとう、すみません、がんばって
  • indicating likes and dislikes, using modelled statements such as いぬ が すき です。わに が すき じゃない です。
  • describing friends, favourite things and objects, using visual, concrete and digital support material, for example, これ は ねずみ です。ちいさい です。かわいい です。 はいいろ です。 すいか です。おいしい です。 ちいさい () です。
  • responding to questions and indicating ownership, for example, だれ の ですか。わたし の です。Ollie くん/ Sarah さん の です 。わたし の えんぴつ(です)。
  • using formulaic expressions to convey emotions, for example, すごい、え~!、 かわいい、 やったー!
Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement, gestures and pictures to support understanding and to convey meaning

[Key concepts: play, action learning, collaboration; Key processes: participating, turn-taking, interacting] (ACLJAC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • singing and responding to action songs such as むすんでひらいて, ひげじいさん, きらきらぼし, おおきなくりのきのしたで、or tongue twisters (早(はや)口(くち)言(こと)葉(ば)) such as

    なまむぎなまごめなまたまご、 あかパジャマきパジャマちゃパジャマ

  • playing じゃんけんぽん and using it in interactions such as turn-taking
  • participating in games, tasks and activities that involve guessing, matching and choosing objects, such as Bingo, Snap or Go Fish, using modelled questions and responses, for example,
    うさぎ です か。はい/いいえ。はい、うさぎ です。
    いいえ、うさぎ じゃない です。
  • using formulaic phrases related to playing games, for example, つぎ、 はい!、 かった、 まけた、ざんねん、あたり、はずれ
  • using rehearsed language to collaborate in craft activities, for example, のり を ください。はい、どうぞ。
Participate in classroom routines such as addressing and responding to the teacher, opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, following instructions, thanking and asking for help, using appropriate gestures and behaviour

[Key concepts: routines, rules, interactions; Key processes: participating, responding, requesting, apologising] (ACLJAC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating as a group in classroom routines such as opening and closing lessons, for example, せんせい、おはようございます。さようなら。, using appropriate gestures
  • understanding and responding to questions using まる/ばつ (○×) and はい/いいえ
  • understanding and responding to classroom instructions to play games, complete work or get ready for class, for example, たって ください、すわって ください、かいて ください、みて  ください、よんで ください、きいて ください。
  • requesting classroom objects, for example, noun を ください、えんぴつ が あります か。 はい、どうぞ。
  • giving one another reminders such as しずかに、すわって, using appropriate gestures
  • participating in routine exchanges such as responding to the class roll and apologising for arriving late, for example, はい、います。Tia さん は、いません。やすみ です。おくれて すみません。

Informing

Locate items of information in simple texts such as charts, songs, rhymes, video clips and anime to complete guided tasks

[Key concepts: information, meaning, text, context; Key processes: listening, identifying, demonstrating, making meaning] (ACLJAC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening for key words in stories, rhymes or songs, using visual cues such as gestures and facial expressions to assist understanding
  • recognising simple kanji, hiragana or words in familiar contexts such as labels and titles
  • demonstrating early Japanese literacy skills by selecting the correct hiragana or kanji through labelling, matching, clicking and dragging, drawing, mime and actions
  • listening to and/or viewing texts to obtain information such as colour (あか、あお、しろ、くろ、きいろ), size (おおきい、ちいさい) and shape (まる、さんかく、しかく), and using this information in guided activities such as drawing, building or collecting
  • listening to information about Japan, and demonstrating understanding by responding to questions such as 日本(にほん) です か。しんかんせん です か。すし です か。はい/いいえ, for example, by pointing to places on a map, such as Japan, Tokyo or Mount Fuji, or at pictures of different types of food
Convey factual information about self, family, friends and significant objects, using simple statements, gestures and support materials

[Key concepts: self, family, immediate environment; Key processes: naming, labelling, presenting, describing] (ACLJAC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using digital technologies to help label and name personal items, classroom objects and shared resources, for example, ほん、きょうしつ、つくえ、いす、まど
  • using simple sentence structures, familiar vocabulary, concrete materials and appropriate gestures to provide information about self and immediate environment, for example, ぼく の えんぴつ です。いぬ が すき です。
  • presenting spoken information related to significant objects, using phrases such as わたし/ぼく の noun です。 adjective です。これ は noun です。
  • expressing factual information about qualities such as colour あか、あお、しろ、くろ、きいろ、 number (いち)(ひゃく)size おおきい、ちいさい and shape まる、さんかく、しかく
  • making simple spoken statements about friends, family or favourite characters, for example, げんき、やさしい、おもしろい、つよい、しずか, using images or support materials

Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of imaginative texts, and respond through singing, chanting, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement

[Key concepts: imagination, response, expression; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing] (ACLJAC114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • performing songs such as あたまかたひざあし、むすんでひらいて, rhymes, chants or simple stories that include repeated phrases and rhythms and non-verbal forms of expression such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions
  • using simple language structures and supporting drawings or actions to describe and respond to imaginary characters or experiences, for example, おばけ/おに/かっぱ/たぬき/ようかい です。
  • participating in shared reading and viewing of print and digital imaginative texts, sharing opinions and responding to prompt questions such as だれ です か。ちいさい です か。おおきい です か。かわいい です か。
  • making simple statements about favourite characters in stories or songs, for example, やさしいかわいい こわいつよい
  • responding to Japanese versions of familiar children’s stories and folk tales, comparing expressions at key points in the story with English-language versions, and re-enacting with puppets, props or actions
Participate in shared performances and presentations of stories, songs, chants and rhymes

[Key concepts: performance, narration, image, rhythm; Key processes: acting, creating, composing, expressing] (ACLJAC115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • re-enacting or retelling simple stories or interactions with puppets, props, actions or gestures, using modelled language such as おむすびころりん、ももたろう
  • creating digital texts based around familiar contexts and characters using pictures and captions
  • creating/re-creating simple songs, poems and rhymes using spoken and written language as well as non-verbal forms of support such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions

Translating

Translate words and familiar phrases used in everyday situations from Japanese into English and vice versa, noticing how some words are shared between Japanese and English

[Key concepts: meaning, translation, explanation; Key processes: translating, demonstrating, interpreting] (ACLJAC116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining to others the meaning and use of simple expressions such as greetings that are used for different times and occasions, for example, おはようございます、いただきます
  • using classroom resources such as word banks, visual and online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate the meaning of single words and common expressions
  • identifying Japanese expressions and practices that do not translate readily into English, for example, きもの、おべんとう、せんせい、~さん、~くん, using two hands for giving and receiving and まる/ばつ (○×)
  • finding examples of Japanese words used in English, for example, ‘sushi’, ‘karate’, ‘origami’, and explaining what they mean
  • identifying key words in children’s stories or songs, for example, むかしむかし、おわり, and providing English translations or explanations of meaning
Create simple print or digital bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, labels and wall charts

[Key concepts: meaning, vocabulary, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, matching, selecting] (ACLJAC117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • performing simple presentations for the school community that involve both Japanese and English language elements, such as a contribution to an assembly performance for Grandparents’ Day
  • creating bilingual wall charts or picture dictionaries with captions, stickers and simple descriptions in English to explain Japanese words and expressions that have particular cultural meaning
  • writing parallel captions in Japanese and English for a photographic display of a class event such as a sports carnival or pets’ day or about a topic such as caring for the school environment
    • Sustainability
  • creating sets of word cards in English and Japanese and playing matching games such as Memory or Snap

Reflecting

Notice and describe some ways in which Japanese language and communicative behaviour are similar or different to own language(s) and cultural forms of expression

[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity and difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, considering] (ACLJAC118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing Japanese ways of showing respect and being polite with how this is done in their own language(s), for example, by using titles such as Sensei, bowing, and accepting objects with both hands
  • comparing aspects of Australian and Japanese children’s lifestyles, such as ways of playing games じゃんけん、eating food (using chopsticks and formulaic language) or addressing family members and friends
  • experimenting with using Japanese in spontaneous interactions, for example, いたい、 すごい、 ぺこぺこ、がんばれ,、noticing any changes in the use of voice or body language and communicating how this feels
Use simple statements and gestures to express aspects of self, such as membership of family, friendship, gender, school/class or cultural groups

[Key concepts: identity, self, group, communication; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying] (ACLJAC119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making simple statements about themselves, such as their name and age, for example, ぼく は Sam  です、9 さい です 。
  • identifying themselves as part of a family, class or peer group ぼく は おとうと です。おねえさん は< 15 さい で す。, for example, by representing these relationships through drawing pictures or a family tree, adding captions to photos or creating digital presentations
  • noticing and comparing their own use of words or expressions from different languages when communicating in English

Systems of language

Recognise sounds and rhythms of spoken Japanese, and learn how sounds are produced and represented in the three different scripts

[Key concepts: mora, rhythm, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising] (ACLJAU120 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising the concept of the basic unit of sound in Japanese (‘mora’: モーラ or (はく)), for example, いいえ has three moras
  • understanding that the independent nasal sound ‘n’ () has a mora of its own, for example, こんにちは
  • understanding that when pronouncing Japanese it is important to keep the length of each mora even
  • noticing that statements and questions have different intonation patterns
Recognise and copy some hiragana and a few high-frequency kanji

[Key concepts: script, kana, kanji, phonemic awareness, meaning; Key processes: recognising, tracing, copying] (ACLJAU121 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding that the Japanese language uses three different scripts depending on word origins and the context of language use
  • understanding that one kana represents a basic unit of Japanese sound
  • understanding that each individual kanji represents meaning as well as sounds, for example, ()()(にち), whereas one kana or one letter of the English alphabet does not represent individual meaning
  • recognising some kanji, for example, numbers and 象形文字(しょうけいもじ) (pictographs) such as (やま)(かわ)(くち)()(うえ)
  • recognising the 46 basic hiragana, using supports such as mnemonic clues
  • tracing and copying kanji and kana
  • tracing and copying their own name in katakana or hiragana
  • identifying known hiragana within a word and using that to predict the meaning
  • noticing that Japanese can be written vertically or horizontally
Understand the structure of basic sentences in Japanese and recognise some key elements of Japanese grammar

[Key concepts: grammar, vocabulary, syntax; Key processes: recognising, describing, indicating] (ACLJAU122 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • knowing common forms of greetings, for example, おはようございます、おはよう, and noticing the different levels of formality
  • identifying gender-specific pronouns わたし and ぼく
  • understanding the use of common suffixes such as さん or くん or titles such as せんせい to address and refer to other people, for example, Luke くん and White せんせい
  • understanding basic word order in simple sentences, for example, noun が すき です。りんご が すき です。, adjective + noun です。 おおきい いぬ です。
  • understanding how to specify items using the possessive particle , for example, わたし  の  かぞく、 Sarah さん の ほん、おばあさん  の いえ
  • referring to numbers of things using cardinal numbers 0–100: (いち)()(さん)(ひゃく)
  • learning to describe the colour あお です。size おおきい です。 and shape まる です。of things
  • understanding different question words such as だれ、なに、どこ and the sentence-ending particle
  • recognising and responding to a request using verb  ください, for example, きいて ください。and すわって ください。
  • indicating affirmative and negative responses using はい and いいえ
  • using some culturally specific parallel phrases related to giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ and ありがとう
  • learning to use common onomatopoeia such as ぺこぺこ and わんわん
  • building vocabulary to describe and label familiar and immediate objects and environments
Understand that language is organised as ‘text’, and that different types of texts, such as storybooks, songs, chants, labels or rhymes, have different features

[Key concepts: text, meaning, genre, metalanguage; Key processes: recognising, identifying, describing] (ACLJAU123 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding texts as different forms of communication that are spoken, written, digital or visual, and recognising that they can be very short, for example, たって, or much longer, for example, たって ください。
  • recognising that different types of texts have different features, for example, repetition and rhythm in action songs and chants
  • beginning to use metalanguage to talk about texts, identifying and naming familiar types of texts, such as ‘story’, ‘list’, ‘song’, ‘rhyme’ and ‘tongue twister’, and describing features, for example, stories usually have a story starter (むかしむかし), while songs usually have rhyming and the repetition of words
  • noticing how texts such as storybooks are sequenced and organised, for example, by identifying the main title and the connections between pictures and text

Language variation and change

Recognise that there are differences in how language is used in different cultural and social contexts, such as ways of greeting and addressing people

[Key concepts: variation, context, culture; Key processes: exploring, identifying, comparing] (ACLJAU124 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring how language is used differently in Japanese to reflect different relationships, for example, parent–child exchanges おはよう、いってらっしゃい、いってきます、ただいま、おかえり, communication with peers なに?, and teacher–child interactions なんですか。
  • understanding that language use varies according to the context and situation, for example, こんにちは。 and もしもし。
  • understanding that language forms such as greetings vary according to the time of day or the occasion, for example, おはよう、こんにちは、こんばんは
  • understanding that language used in particular interactions can vary between cultural contexts, for example, the use of titles in Japanese (~さん、~せんせい) compared to the informal use of names in Australian English
Recognise that Japanese and English borrow words and expressions from each other and from other languages

[Key concepts: language, change, word borrowing; Key processes: noticing, recognising, classifying] (ACLJAU125 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing that languages borrow words from one another and that both Japanese and Australian English include many words and expressions from other languages
  • recognising that Japanese uses many loan words from English and other languages, such as ペン、テレビ、ピンク, and that these are pronounced differently by Japanese speakers
  • recognising that English loan words in Japanese are written in katakana and sound like a familiar word in English, for example, レモン、ピザ、アイスクリーム
  • creating a class record of Japanese words that are used in English and other languages, such as ‘judo’, ‘origami’, ‘sushi’ and ‘manga’, and comparing how these words are pronounced in the two languages

Role of language and culture

Understand that language and culture are closely connected

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, questioning] (ACLJAU126 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • exploring the meaning of ‘culture’, how it involves visible elements, such as ways of eating or symbols such as flags, and invisible elements, such as how people live, how they think about themselves and others and how they relate to their environment
  • understanding that learning and using Japanese involves becoming familiar with some different ways of communicating, for example, いただきます、ごちそうさま, and also some ways of thinking about things and behaving that may be unfamiliar
  • noticing similarities and differences between classroom interactions in Japanese and English, for example, referring to the teacher using only せんせい
  • understanding that culture and cultural behaviours are woven into languages and cannot be separated from them, for example, it is possible to bow without a spoken greeting in Japanese but not to greet without bowing

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through play- and action-related language. They use formulaic expressions and appropriate gestures in everyday interactions such as exchanging greetings and farewells, for example, おはようございます、おはよう、こんにちは、さようなら、また、あした, thanking and apologising, and giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ、どうも. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual support such as pictures, gestures, facial expressions and props to make meaning of simple texts. When listening to simple repetitive spoken texts, they identify key words such as names or numbers of objects or people, and demonstrate comprehension by actions, drawing or labelling. They respond to instructions through actions, for example, きいて ください。みて ください 。, and respond to questions, for example, だれなに どこ with single words and set phrases and by selecting images or objects, for example, いぬ です か。ねこ です か 。. They present information about themselves, their family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, using formulaic and modelled language. They describe people and objects using adjectives to indicate colour, shape and size, for example, あかい りんご、おおきい、まるい. They indicate ownership by using, for example, だれ の ですか。わたし/ぼく の です。 They mimic Japanese pronunciation, intonation and rhythm through shared reading and singing. Students recognise and begin to write single kanji, such as , , 山、川、月、日、一、ニ、三, the 46 hiragana symbols, and some hiragana words such as くち、ねこ、あお、しかく. They demonstrate understanding of hiragana as well as kanji by actions such as matching, labelling and sorting. They translate and interpret examples of everyday Japanese language use and cultural behaviours such as the exchange of greetings or thanks, terms of address and some formulaic expressions and behaviours.

Students identify the three different scripts in Japanese, hiragana, kanji and katakana. They understand that hiragana represents the basic units of Japanese sound and apply that knowledge in their communication. They know that kanji represents meaning as well as sounds, and that katakana is used for borrowed words. They know that stroke order in writing characters is important. Students identify patterns in Japanese words and phrases and make comparisons between Japanese and English, for example, the word order in greetings, such as Smith せんせい、and in simple sentences, such as おりがみ が すきです。ぞう は おおきい です。. They provide examples of different ways of addressing friends, family and teachers or other adults. They use pronouns, such as わたし/ぼく, and titles/suffixes, such as ~せんせい/~さん/~くん, to address different people. They identify Japanese words that are often used in English-speaking contexts, for example, ‘sushi’, ‘origami’ and ‘karate’. They give examples of Japanese words and phrases that have been borrowed from other languages, such as ピンク、テレビ、パン. They identify similarities and differences between Japanese and their own languages and cultures.


Foundation to Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios

Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including of the Japanese class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, and while this highlights differences between writing in alphabetic and character-based languages, it also assists to some degree in learning Japanese. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Japanese language learning and use

The development of oral proficiency at this stage continues to rely on rich language input in different modes. Learners listen and respond by actions to build active listening and comprehension skills. They participate in classroom routines and tasks and use some spontaneous language to describe feelings related to classroom activities. They participate in games and activities and engage with texts through teacher-generated questions and prompting. They give short presentations related to their personal worlds, including simple descriptions. With support they create labels, captions and short sentences. Language experience and input include authentic texts with some modification, familiar vocabulary and simple sentence structures. Children are supported to expand their use of the language in familiar interactions and situations, such as exchanging simple information and participating in shared tasks, performances and play. They continue to control simple grammatical forms and build vocabulary that can be adapted for different purposes. Students learn the use of diacritic marks to create voiced sounds. They learn to produce and pronounce characters with the support of flashcards, mnemonics, digital games and exercises. They read and write words written in hiragana and in high-frequency kanji with support and scaffolding. There is a combined focus on grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use through purposeful communicative activities and experiences.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners interact is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some access to wider communities of Japanese speakers and resources through digital technology.

Texts and resources

Children develop literacy skills and textual knowledge through supported interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts such as picture books, stories, puppet plays, songs and games develop the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. To support the development of cultural knowledge, learners may have access to resources developed for Japanese children, such as storybooks, songs, television programs or interactive games.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners recognise the predictable nature of pronunciation in Japanese and apply their knowledge of sound–letter associations to spell new words. They recognise and use elements of grammar such as simple verb forms, adjectives, interrogatives and some particles to understand and create simple spoken and written texts. They use appropriate word order and sentence structures, including time, counter classifiers, and present, past and negative forms. Learning Japanese contributes to learners’ general literacy development and to the process of making sense of their worlds that characterises this stage of their development. As they encounter elements of Japanese language they make comparisons with their own language(s) and culture(s) and consider their own ways of communicating.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves extensive support. Tasks are carefully scaffolded. Teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the task; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection. Learners use the hiragana chart as a systematic framework to support reading and writing.

The role of English

Learners are supported to use Japanese as much as possible for classroom routines, social interaction, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is used for discussion, explanation and reflection, enabling learners to develop a language (metalanguage) for sharing ideas about language and culture systems and experience. Using both Japanese and English in the classroom develops awareness of what it means to be bilingual.


Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about self, family, friends and favourite things, and likes and dislikes, and to express praise, support and respect for others

[Key concepts: communication, information, self, family, respect; Key processes: introducing, interacting, describing] (ACLJAC127 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • introducing self using formal spoken language and appropriate non-verbal language such as bowing, for example, はじめまして、 Julie です、(きゅう)さい です、おんがく が すき です、どうぞ よろしく
  • exchanging information and building vocabulary to communicate about self, friends or family, using simple statements such as かぞく は 六人 です。おとうさん と おかあさん と おねえさん と ぼく と いもうと と あかちゃん です。いもうと  は 五さい  です。おかあさん は やさしい です。
  • asking and answering factual questions relating to concepts such as time, place or number, using formulaic structures and familiar expressions, for example, かぞく は なんにん です か。3 人 です。いつ です か。五月(ごがつ) です。なんじ です か。三じ です。どこ です か。
  • showing interest in and respect for others, such as by expressing praise or encouragement, using formulaic expressions, for example, だいじょうぶ?たいへん?むずかしい?すごい(です)ね、やさしいね、おもしろいね、じょうずですね、かっこいいね、たのしかった?
  • communicating about activities and shared experiences, for example, place に いきました。 food を たべました。 drink を のみます。 activity/sports を しましょう/しました。おいしかった  です。
Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions and cooperating with peers, such as sports and craft activities

[Key concepts: collaboration, participation, task, performance; Key processes: following instructions, rehearsing, performing, presenting] (ACLJAC128 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in guided tasks involving instructions and peer cooperation, such as group/pair language activities, games and sports, for example, せんせい says, ふくわらい、じゃんけんぽん, What’s the time, Mr Wolf?
  • following procedures for activities such as cooking, model-making or origami, understanding instructions such as はんぶん に おって、ここ に おいて、あつめて
  • participating in classroom routines, such as taking the roll はい、います。いいえ、いません。, naming the months and days of the week and describing the weather, for example, きょう は 月よう日 です。はれ です。
  • preparing, rehearsing and conducting presentations and performances, such as a Japanese item for assembly or a digital presentation about a significant event
  • working collaboratively to adapt and perform action songs, for example, by changing lyrics (()(うた)) based on modelled patterns, rehearsing and performing songs with appropriate gestures and actions
Follow teacher instructions and directions by responding to questions and requests, and use simple questions and statements to ask permission and to show interest and appreciation

[Key concepts: interaction, negotiation, response; Key processes: responding, requesting, rehearsing] (ACLJAC129 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating in classroom interactions, for example, by responding with comments such as Matt くん は いません。 Todd くん と Sally さん は やすみ です。 Ella さん も やすみ です。
  • using appropriate formulaic expressions and gestures to contribute to interactions, for example, しつれいします。 おねがいします。
  • asking for help or clarification, for example, すみません。もういちど。, and negotiating turn-taking, for example, ちょっと まって。 Matilda さん の ばん。どうぞ 。
  • responding to teacher instructions such as ペア に なって ください。三人 グループ に なって ください。ならんで ください。大きいこえで。
  • recognising and rehearsing interjections or fillers in conversations, for example, ええとすみません 。ほんとう? そうですね 。

Informing

Locate and process specific points of information in familiar types of written, spoken, multimodal and digital texts associated with people, places and objects

[Key concepts: information, research, data; Key processes: locating, collecting, classifying, recognising] (ACLJAC130 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • finding examples of Japanese language at home or in the community to create a class collection, display or digital database of terms related to recipes, toys, gadgets or menus
  • viewing or listening to a simple community text such as a weather report, recognising key words such as はれ、くもり
  • identifying features of seasons and tracking the progress of seasonal weather changes on a map of Japan, for example, reports of さくら、つゆ、こうよう
  • gathering information about one another’s home life and activities, for example, by surveys on pets, sports, activities, families, or likes and dislikes, using graphs to display results
  • viewing or reading simple print or digital texts such as advertisements, catalogues, menus or packaging to locate key points of information in relation to elements such as product, number, price, target audience or capacity for recycling
    • Sustainability
Present factual information relating to familiar home, community and cultural contexts, using graphic and digital support such as photos, tables, lists and charts

[Key concepts: family, relationships, routines; Key processes: describing, explaining, annotating] (ACLJAC131 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • describing family members and friends, identifying relationships such as (かあ)さん, using simple descriptive, modelled language and supporting resources, for example, これ は わたし の お(とう)さん です。Ken です。お(とう)さん は やきゅう が すきです。お(とう)さん は やさしい です。
  • creating a display such as a chart, diorama, mini book or digital presentation to showcase elements of their Japanese language learning, for example, ぼく/わたし の ふでばこ、ぼく/わたし の かばん
  • labelling aspects of their daily routines, selecting captions or attaching word bubbles, including expressions of time, for example, waking in the morning with a clock displaying (しち/なな) and the words おはようございます。

Creating

Participate in and respond to imaginative texts such as interactive stories and performances, for example by acting out responses or making simple statements to identify and compare favourite characters and elements

[Key concepts: response, expression; Key processes: participating, imagining, creating, interpreting] (ACLJAC132 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • viewing excerpts from texts such as anime and children’s television programs, listening for key words and familiar phrases and interpreting cultural expressions and behaviours
  • collecting favourite exclamations, words or expressions used in imaginative and expressive texts in oral, print and digital formats, such as へえー、うそー、あれ?、うーん、どうしよう、こまった、できた、やったー!、おめでとう、がんばって、すごい、いいよ、だめ and using them in their own communicative exchanges in similar modes
  • drawing their own versions of characters encountered in imaginative texts, and selecting simple descriptive modelled statements as captions to their pictures
  • sequencing elements of imaginative texts such as cartoons or simple narratives, for example, by creating a storyboard using pictures and captions
  • recognising character traits or behaviours in texts such as anime, manga and children’s stories that reflect Japanese culture and traditions
Create and present imaginative texts for a range of audiences that use familiar expressions and modelled language and allow for exploration and enjoyment of language, cultural expression and performance

[Key concepts: fantasy, imagination, dramatisation; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing] (ACLJAC133 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating imaginary characters, places or animals, and presenting them through performance, digital display or visual representation, for example, みみ が 大きい です。かわ に います。 food/object を たべます。とても こわい です。おばけやしき です。たくさん おばけ が います。目 が 大きい です。あし が ありません。
  • incorporating onomatopoeic sounds such as どきどき、ぺこぺこ、ぴかぴか、にこにこ into written/performed texts to enrich the texts and to entertain others
  • taking on the role of a character from a story, manga or anime, and responding to questions such as すきな たべもの は なん です か。 noun が すき です か。なんさい です か。
  • creating, performing and presenting imaginative texts such as skits, songs and raps

Translating

Interpret and explain simple interactions in Japanese, noticing linguistic and cultural features

[Key concepts: meaning, culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: identifying, explaining, interpreting, comparing] (ACLJAC134 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining features of Japanese language protocols such as the use of formulaic expressions, for example, いってきます、ただいま, counter classifiers, and the indication of politeness by using です
  • explaining and modelling culture-specific practices and formulaic language, such as apologising for being late by waiting at the entrance/door, bowing and using the expression おくれて すみません。しつれいします。
  • demonstrating and explaining hand gestures, body language or facial expressions that work with language or stand alone in Japanese communication, such as beckoning with fingers pointing downwards, or waving a hand in front of the face to signal a negative response
  • using visual, print or online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate simple familiar texts such as labels or captions
Create bilingual versions of familiar texts such as songs, conversations, picture dictionaries, captions for images and displays, or photo stories

[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression, code-mixing; Key processes: translating, performing, creating, adapting] (ACLJAC135 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • including some Japanese words, exclamations or phrases when interacting in English in simple games or exchanges that involve feelings or reactions, for example, いたい, あぶない, oh that was fun, でも まけた。 Anne さん, that was すごい!
  • performing bilingual versions of familiar songs such as ‘If You’re Happy and You Know It …’, alternating between the two languages and switching key words in repeated phrases
  • creating personal print or digital bilingual dictionaries that include visual cues and representations
  • creating simple activities or action songs that involve alternating or combining repeated words or phrases in Japanese and English, such as verbs, question words or months of the year, for example, せんせい says

Reflecting

Notice what is similar or different to own language and culture when interacting in Japanese in different contexts and situations

[Key concepts: respect, culture, similarity and difference, communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, experimenting, reflecting] (ACLJAC136 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • noticing how respect is shown to teachers and classmates through practices such as apologising for ‘interrupting’ when entering a room, しつれいします、おくれて すみません, expressing humility by not going first or putting oneself forward どうぞ, or not using さん for self
  • practising ways of accepting compliments or praise in Japanese, for example, by saying いいえ instead of ありがとう。, and comparing this with what they would do in a similar situation in their own language(s)
  • noticing differences between Japanese and Australian-English language used in certain social situations, for example, いただきます、ごちそうさまでした, before and after meals, and ただいま、おかえりなさい, when leaving or returning home, including forms of address and the use of body language, intonation and expression
  • considering how some aspects of Australian ways of communicating such as greetings, responding to thanks or using direct eye contact may be interpreted by people from a Japanese cultural background
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Notice how ways of communicating and behaving reflect identity and relationships

[Key concepts: identity, community, family, culture; Key processes: selecting, creating, representing, comparing] (ACLJAC137 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using digital resources to create a self-profile such as an avatar or montage to exchange with a potential Japanese friend, selecting key words and simple expressions from word banks and modelled statements that capture their sense of themselves, and comparing their choices and how they think about their identity
  • sharing ideas about their family cultures, creating visual or digital representations of their families, friendship groups and communities, and listing key terms and expressions associated with each group
  • noticing and comparing their own and one another’s ways of communicating, identifying any elements that reflect cultural differences or influences of other languages, including those from the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Systems of language

Understand that hiragana symbols can be combined to represent words

[Key concepts: consonant, vowel, kana, foot, mora, rhythm, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, differentiating, demonstrating] (ACLJAU138 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising that there are 19 distinct consonants in Japanese (k, g, s, sh, z, j, t, ch, ts, d, n, h, f, b, p, m, y, r, w) and five vowels (a, i, u, e, o)
  • understanding the system of basic Japanese sound combinations, that is, a vowel can be attached to most consonants to produce a kana
  • understanding that vowel length can differentiate words in Japanese, for example, ‘e’ () for a picture and ‘ee’ (ええ) for ‘yeah’
  • recognising the concept of the minimum unit of rhythm in Japanese (‘foot’ or フット) and that one foot in Japanese consists of two moras, for example, ごちそうさま is pronounced as a three-foot word ごち・そう・さま
  • demonstrating understanding of the differences in pronunciation of English and Japanese versions of loan words such as バナナ、ペット、サッカー
Recognise the systematic order within the hiragana character set; commence hiragana script writing and recognise and write frequently used kanji

[Key concepts: character, kana and kanji, stroke order, font; Key processes: recognising, tracing, reading, writing] (ACLJAU139 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • learning how to use the character chart as a systematic framework for reading and writing
  • understanding that there is a stroke order for both kana and kanji
  • recognising that Japanese has various printed fonts and that handwritten forms of several characters differ from the printed versions in most fonts, for example, き、さ、ふ、ら、り
  • learning to read and write words using kana
Understand and identify elements of basic grammar and sentence structure and interaction patterns

[Key concepts: verb conjugation, particles, word order, vocabulary, counter; Key processes: describing, indicating, identifying, questioning] (ACLJAU140 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing metalanguage for communicating about language, using concepts such as parts of speech, for example, ‘noun’, ‘verb’ and ‘adjective’
  • understanding the rules of Japanese word order (subject + object + verb), the use of associated particles は、を、と、も、に, and the use of in formulaic expressions, for example, noun が すき です。
  • describing actions using verb ます form, for example, すし を たべます。
  • understanding the rules for conjugating verbs, such as ~ます、~>ましょう、~ました、~ません
  • understanding that Japanese uses name + suffix instead of pronouns when referring to other people, for example, John くん、はなさん、 Grant せんせい
  • indicating time and frequency using expressions such as まいにち、ときどき
  • describing people, animals, places and things using adjective–noun phrases, for example, 大きい 目、おいしい もも
  • understanding time words associated with days of the week, months of the year and seasons
  • building vocabulary that relates to familiar environments in daily life and personal worlds and that can be used for cross-curricular content learning
  • beginning to use counters in Japanese, for example, ~人、~さい、~月
  • telling time using ~じ/ ~じはん です。なんじ です か。
  • seeking information using question words such as なに、なん、いつ、どこ and だれ and the sentence-ending particle , for example, なに が すき です  か。なんさい です  か。なんにん です  か。いつ です か。
Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular language features and textual conventions

[Key concepts: text, genre, language features, mode; Key processes: comparing, analysing, recognising] (ACLJAU141 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising features of familiar genres of Japanese texts such as picture books, digital books or games, video clips or songs
  • recognising differences between the layout and language features of different types of texts, including たてがき, よこがき
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon
  • recognising patterns in simple spoken or written texts in Japanese, for example, in relation to the use of particles, verb endings and other frequently occurring features

Language variation and change

Understand that language varies according to the age and relationship of those using it, and according to the situation in which it is being used

[Key concepts: register, context, variation; Key processes: observing, recognising, reflecting] (ACLJAU142 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • observing that Japanese expressions can be made more or less formal with very slight changes, for example, おはよう and おはようございます、はし and おはし、なまえ and おなまえ、to suit the relationship between speakers
  • noticing differences in the ways in which both Japanese and English speakers communicate with different people, for example, with young children, with unfamiliar adults or with elderly people
  • reflecting on how they communicate with their own family and friends and with people less close to them, noticing differences in language use and communicative behaviour
  • recognising that familial terms such as おじいさん and おばあさん are often used in place of ‘old man’ or ‘old woman’ in both folk tales and daily conversation, and considering why this might be so
Recognise that Japanese is the official language of Japan and one of the major languages of the Asia-Pacific region

[Key concepts: language status, standard language, multilingualism; Key processes: recognising, comparing, classifying] (ACLJAU143 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding the status of Japanese as the official language of Japan, a major language in the Asia-Pacific region, a world language and an Australian community language
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that there is a standardised form of Japanese, and that different dialects are spoken in different regions of Japan
  • comparing the language profile of Japan with the multilingual nature of Australian society, which includes speakers of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Understand that the ways people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: cultural expression, values, respect, gestures; Key processes: observing, comparing, discussing, interpreting] (ACLJAU144 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that language carries information about the people who use it and that common expressions often reflect cultural values, for example, the importance of respect for older people is reflected in terms of address in Japanese
  • exploring additional elements of ‘culture’, such as what is valued in different communities, contexts and environments, or different approaches to teaching and learning in school, understanding formulaic expressions that reflect cultural values, for example, いってきます、 いってらっしゃい、きをつけて
  • noticing how politeness and respect are conveyed in Japanese language and behaviour, such as how body language and gestures can replace language, for example, bowing as an apology or as a request to be excused
  • learning to discuss culture and language by responding to prompt questions such as ‘What do you notice?’ ‘Why do you think that …?’ ‘How is this similar / different …?’
  • identifying terms, expressions and ways of communicating associated with Australian contexts that might need explaining to Japanese children, for example, using first names when addressing adults, colloquial expressions such as ‘no worries’ or ‘footy’, and terms associated with Indigenous cultures, such as ‘the Dreaming’
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers in regular classroom routines and structured interactions. They understand and respond to instructions related to classroom organisation and activities, for example, ペア に なって ください。大きい こえ で いって ください。. They use formulaic and rehearsed language to exchange information about their personal worlds and in familiar interactions such as praising or encouraging one another, for example,

がんばって. They use language spontaneously in simple familiar communicative exchanges, for example, やったー!だいじょうぶ?. They respond to simple questions using short spoken statements, for example, いつ です か。なに が すき です か。. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as なん(にん)、なん(がつ)、なんじ、なんさい. Students identify specific items of information, such as facts about or key characteristics of people, when listening to or viewing texts such as short stories, weather reports or video clips. They use cues such as context, visual images and familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension. They create short spoken informative and descriptive texts related to their personal world with the support of modelled language, scaffolded examples and resources such as word lists. They describe people and events using adjectives, time-related vocabulary and appropriate verb forms, such as ます、ましょう、ました and ません. They read and write the 46 hiragana, including long vowels (for example, おとうさん、おおきい), voiced sounds (for example, かぞく、たべます), and blended sounds as formulaic language (for example, きょう、でしょう), as well as high-frequency kanji such as 月、日、先生. They apply word order (subject–object–verb) in simple sentences. They comprehend short written texts such as captions, labels, signs and stories that use familiar and repetitive language. They translate simple texts using classroom resources such as charts or word lists, noticing that some words and expressions do not translate easily. Students identify examples of cultural differences between ways of communicating in Japanese and in their own language(s).

Students identify both vowel and vowel–consonant sounds of hiragana, recognising that vowel sounds can be elongated and that this can change meaning. They identify ways in which rhythm is used to chunk phrases within a sentence. Students use the hiragana chart to support their reading and writing, recognising its systematic nature. They demonstrate awareness of the predictable nature of pronunciation. They know the role of particles, for example, は、を、と、も、に; the rules for simple verb tense conjugations; and how to create questions using the sentence-ending particle . They understand and use the rules and phonetic changes that apply to counter classifiers, for example, はっさい、ひとり、ふたり. They identify language variations that occur according to the age and relationship of participants, and according to the situation, for example, なまえ/ おなまえ、はし/ おはし. They demonstrate their understanding of the importance in Japanese of non-verbal communication such as the use of gestures, for example, bowing to replace words and to communicate meaning. Students identify ways in which Japanese language reflects ways of behaving and thinking.


Years 3 and 4 Work Sample Portfolios

Years 5 and 6

Years 5 and 6 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students are widening their social networks, experiences and communication repertoires in both their first language and Japanese. They continue to need guidance and participate in structured, collaborative tasks that both recycle and extend language. Students are gaining greater independence and becoming more conscious of their peers and social context. They are gaining a greater awareness of the world around them. Learners are noticing similarities and differences between Japanese language and culture and their own.

Japanese language learning and use

Learners use Japanese with peers and the teacher for a widening range of purposes: asking and responding to questions, exchanging information, expressing ideas and feelings, performing, responding to learning experiences, and interacting with Japanese language resources. They are developing greater fluency and accuracy in communication. As they draw on a growing range of vocabulary resources and grammatical structures, their pronunciation, intonation and phrasing improve. They begin to use Japanese more spontaneously when interacting with one another, and use an increasing range of body language and gestures. Shared tasks provide a context for purposeful language experience and experimentation. Focused attention on language structures, literacy skills development and exploration of cultural elements of communication are conducted at least in part in Japanese. Learners use digital media to support their learning in increasingly independent ways, such as exchanging resources and information with other Japanese speakers. In doing this, they may access music and media resources.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use Japanese with one another and with the teacher for a growing range of purposes. They may have some access to other Japanese speakers and cultural experiences in wider contexts and communities through the use of information and communications technology (ICT).

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a growing range of oral, written and multimodal texts, including published texts such as modified folk stories, songs and computer games, as well as teacher-generated resources such as language games, exercises and presentations. In addition, learners have some access to Japanese language and culture through texts created for young Japanese people, such as stories, music clips, anime/manga and video clips.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners notice the relationship between stress, pacing and meaning, and use appropriate intonation patterns to exclaim, make a statement or ask a question. They continue to acquire a wider range of vocabulary and to build grammatical and textual knowledge. They use verbs, nouns and adjectives, a variety of particles, prepositions, counters and conjunctions. They differentiate between animate and inanimate objects and apply their knowledge of こそあど in context. They develop metalanguage to describe patterns, rules and variations in language structures. As they use Japanese to interact in different situations, they develop understanding of how language and culture influence each other, and reflect on their own ways of communicating and using language. Learners begin to experience and reflect on the challenges and opportunities involved in moving between languages and different ways of making meaning.

Level of support

While learners work more independently at this level, ongoing support is incorporated into tasks and activities. Systematic feedback and review assist the interactive process of learning. Support includes provision of models, stimulus materials, scaffolded opportunities for reflection, and resources such as word and character charts, vocabulary lists, dictionaries and electronic reference materials. Learning tasks and activities take account of both learners’ current level of Japanese capability and their more general cognitive and social levels of development.

The role of English

While the use of Japanese in the classroom increases at this level, the use of English for discussion, reflection and explanation ensures the continued development of learners’ knowledge base and intercultural capability.


Years 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with peers and the teacher to describe aspects of daily life such as routines and pastimes, or celebrations and special days; to express preferences; and to show interest in and respect for others

[Key concepts: communication, correspondence, exchange, interests; Key processes: interacting, communicating, greeting, describing] (ACLJAC145 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • communicating with peers and other Japanese speakers in local or online communities or digital forums, using strategies such as active listening skills, turn-taking cues, requests for clarification, and respectful language for agreeing or disagreeing, for example, へー、そうですね、すみません、もういちど おねがいします、ちょっと
  • showing interest in, respect and concern for others by asking questions such as だいじょうぶ です か。
  • exchanging simple correspondence such as greeting cards in print or digital form based on modelled language such as おたんじょうび おめでとう(ございます)。あけまして おめでとう ございます。おかあさん、ありがとう。~へ~より
  • using formulaic language to exchange emails with young Japanese speakers to provide personal information such as ~さんへ、~より、じゃあ また, their names, likes and dislikes, family members or leisure activities
  • exchanging information with one another or with other Japanese-speaking students about school or home routines, leisure activities, interests or preferences, popular culture or sport, for example, サッカー を します か。いつ  します か。()よう() に サッカー を します。サッカー  が  すき です か。ぼく も すき です。
  • recounting experiences with own family and friends, for example, ()よう() に ともだち と うみ に いきました。たん生日(じょうび) に ケーキ を たべました。
  • exchanging gifts using appropriate body language/gestures, such as giving and receiving with two hands and using expressions such as すみません。どうぞ 。どうも  ありがとう ございます。
Collaborate with peers to plan and conduct shared events or activities such as teaching and working with a buddy class, organising a shared event, or rehearsing and presenting a school performance

[Key concepts: collaboration, performance, transaction; Key processes: planning, organising, introducing, explaining, transacting, budgeting] (ACLJAC146 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • planning and organising activities such as a class event, visit or performance, using language related to place, people, time and numbers and creating promotional materials, for example, たいこ の えんそう、(もく)よう()、十一時、たいいくかん
  • creating a skit, performance or action game to introduce a buddy class to aspects of Japanese language and culture, for example, introducing hiragana, individual words or expressions, or behaviours such as bowing appropriately or receiving a gift
  • participating in simulated transactions such as purchasing goods or ordering food, using appropriate gestures, formulaic expressions and relevant question–answer exchanges such as いらっしゃいませ。これ を ください 。いくら です か 。3000 円 です。はい、どうぞ。
  • becoming familiar with the value of Japanese yen by carrying out real or simulated transactions and exchanges
  • budgeting for virtual shopping expeditions, for example, by consulting online catalogues and menus, comparing prices and values, and discussing intended purchases, using formulaic expressions such as ちょっと (たか)い です。でも、おいしそう です。
Participate in everyday classroom activities and routines such as asking how to say or write something, asking for help or repetition, praising or complimenting one another, thanking, apologising and expressing preferences

[Key concepts: roles, interaction, communication; Key processes: reading, naming, describing, requesting] (ACLJAC147 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • taking on different roles and responsibilities in the classroom (当番(とうばん)), such as taking the roll, identifying the day of the week, describing the weather or acting as monitor, for example, (ほん) を ください。ノート を ください。(どうも) ありがとう。
  • doing 日直(にっちょく), taking turns to lead the class in routines such as opening and closing lessons, for example, きり,つ れい、ちゃくせき, using appropriate gestures
  • indicating that something is either correct or incorrect using はい (>そうです) 。 ちがいます。
  • using appropriate language, actions and gestures to participate in interactions such as interrupting or asking for clarification, for example, 先生、すみません。 ちょっと わかりません。 ゆっくり (おねがいします) 。

Informing

Gather, classify and compare information from a range of sources related to concepts from other learning areas

[Key concepts: interests, behaviours, social interactions, cultural expression; Key processes: researching, compiling, presenting, identifying] (ACLJAC148 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • surveying and compiling information about young people’s interests and preferences in different contexts, such as favourite activities, television and websites, preferred means of transport or communication, or leisure activities at different times of the year, and presenting findings in formats such as flow charts, graphs, diagrams or oral presentations, for example, ぜんぶ で 二十人 です。六人 は ゲーム が すき です。
  • extracting key points from a range of spoken, written or digital texts on topics such as healthy eating, school lunches, or home or school routines, discussing findings and comparing opinions, for example, 日本人 は がっこう で そうじ を します。オーストラリア人 は そうじ を しません。
  • identifying points of information in texts such as advertisements, conversations, brochures or announcements, and representing them in different formats, such as charts, concept maps, skits or digital presentations
  • viewing video clips or reading simple texts containing social interactions such as exchanges between parents and children or customers and shop assistants, identifying and recording new words and expressions for use in their own language production
  • identifying words, expressions and behaviours associated with important Japanese cultural activities or events, and comparing them with equivalent Australian expressions or behaviours, for example, locating あけまして おめでとう ございます on a New Year’s card ((ねん)()(じょう))
Convey information on specific topics using formats such as oral or digital presentations, displays, diagrams, timelines and guided descriptions

[Key concepts: content, profile, audience, format; Key processes: presenting, profiling, referencing] (ACLJAC149 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • organising and presenting information relating to aspects of Japanese culture, for example, fashion, famous landmarks/icons or festivals, using supporting resources such as sound, visuals or graphics, and providing a structured summary, for example,  です。高い です。そして、ゆうめい です。かざん です。 or さっぽろ です。さっぽろ は とても さむい です。ゆき が ふります。ふゆ に ゆきまつり が あります。
  • creating a profile in digital format of a context, situation or event for a specified audience, such as a virtual tour of the school or classroom for an intending exchange student group or sister school
  • creating a class book or digital display about topics that connect with other curriculum areas and are relevant to their own lives, such as sports, environmental sustainability, transport or health
    • Sustainability

Creating

Listen to, read and view different imaginative texts such as anime, folk stories and manga, describe and give opinions about characters and events, and identify cultural elements

[Key concepts: character, plot, context, values, emotion; Key processes: analysing, discussing, responding, expressing, comparing] (ACLJAC150 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing key messages in print, digital or multimodal texts, such as the moral of a folk story, ideas or values expressed in songs or characterisation in anime, and comparing their treatment across cultural contexts and time
  • recalling and/or illustrating main characters and events in stories, songs or anime, for example, by responding to questions such as だれ、いつ、どこ
  • responding to simple spoken, written or digital narratives such as folk tales, anime, manga or films that evoke positive or negative emotions such as happiness, amusement or affection, fear or anger, connecting these with their own experiences by using stem statements such as わくわく します。だいすき です 。こわい です。どきどき します。びっくり しました。へん です ね 。
Create and present or perform imaginative texts for a variety of purposes and audiences

[Key concepts: performance, audience, rhythm, digital text; Key processes: creating, performing, designing] (ACLJAC151 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating and performing a presentation for a particular audience, for example, a puppet show or play for a buddy class or a performance for the school or community
  • designing and presenting a commercial for a new or existing product likely to appeal to consumers in their age group
  • creating a rap or song that involves experimentation with rhyme and rhythm
  • teaching younger children songs that involve repetitive phrases and actions, for example, songs from popular anime films
  • using familiar and modelled language to create imaginative digital texts, such as a photo story, an e-book or profile of an imagined avatar, for example, これ は たからじま です。大きい とりい と、(ちい)さい とりい が  あります。じてんしゃ で、大きい とりい に いきます。大きい とりい の (した) にはこ が あります。はこ の (なか) に (きん) が あります。
  • producing and presenting picture books/Big Books/mini books or short scripted scenarios for younger students, incorporating elements of Japanese language and culture that are likely to be unfamiliar, engaging or challenging

Translating

Explain aspects of spoken, written and non-verbal communication in Japanese interactions that require interpretation and carry cultural meaning

[Key concepts: meaning, culture, interpretation, equivalence; Key processes: explaining, interpreting, demonstrating, experimenting, reflecting] (ACLJAC152 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • providing explanations or interpretations of formulaic expressions such as おめでとう used in a range of situations and celebrations, for example, congratulations おめでとう ございます and birthday wishes おたんじょうび  おめでとう
  • collecting, using and explaining Japanese words and expressions that do not translate easily into English, such as おかえり、いらっしゃいませ、ごちそうさま
  • demonstrating and explaining elements of non-verbal Japanese communication that require interpretation for non-Japanese speakers, such as hand gestures, eye contact and counting systems
  • experimenting with bilingual dictionaries and/or online translators, considering relative advantages or limitations of each resource
Create bilingual texts and learning resources such as displays, websites, posters, picture books, games, word banks and menus

[Key concepts: bilingualism, learning resources, translation; Key processes: classifying, glossing, annotating, composing] (ACLJAC153 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating shared bilingual learning resources such as print or digital word banks or glossaries of Japanese and English expressions used in formal and informal everyday interactions
  • performing a role-play or skit for an audience, using Japanese for the performance and English for supporting explanations
  • using dictionaries and electronic translation tools to compose bilingual texts such as captions, menus, posters or invitations, comparing results and identifying how bilingual texts support intercultural communication
  • creating bilingual texts for the classroom or school community, for example, invitations to attend class or school assembly performances, posters advertising Languages Day

Reflecting

Reflect on the experience of learning and using Japanese, and identify how language reflects cultural practices and norms

[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity and difference, values; Key processes: identifying, analysing, comparing, reflecting] (ACLJAC154 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying frequently used Japanese phrases and behaviours in everyday social exchanges that reflect cultural traditions or values that appear different to their own, for example, おてがみ ありがとう ございます。いらっしゃいませ。
  • comparing their own and one another’s reactions to the experience of learning Japanese, and considering whether their attitudes or understandings have changed in relation to cultural diversity and intercultural experience
  • reflecting on the experience of using Japanese language, gestures and body language, and considering how their responses reflect their own attitudes and experience
  • noticing aspects of communication and cultural expression represented in Japanese stories, songs or audio/visual media, responding to teacher prompts such as ‘What do you see?’ ‘What do you notice about …?’ ‘Why do you think …?’ ‘How is this similar/different to …?’
Discuss the experience of speaking and interacting in a different language, what they understand by ‘identity’, and whether learning Japanese has any effect on their sense of self

[Key concepts: identity, communication, stereotype, protocol; Key processes: reflecting, identifying, exploring] (ACLJAC155 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying elements of identity that are important across all cultures, for example, family, community, location
  • creating multimodal texts that represent elements of their own identity, such as personal emblems/mottos, self-profile, photo journal, or caricature/self-portrait, and considering how Japanese children of the same age might respond to these
  • exploring the idea of stereotypes and how people think about others from different cultural backgrounds
  • practising formulaic expressions such as those exchanged before and after meals or when giving or receiving gifts or food, for example, いただきます、ごちそうさまでした, and reflecting on the experience of using such exchanges
  • considering whether learning and using Japanese impacts on their sense of identity or influences their behaviour in or out of the classroom, for example, when playing Japanese games online, eating in Japanese restaurants and reading signs or menus

Systems of language

Engage with authentic spoken language, recognising how words blend and understanding the relationship between sounds, words and meaning

[Key concepts: phonemic awareness, spelling, rhythm; Key processes: identifying, discriminating, pronouncing, spelling] (ACLJAU156 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • knowing how to pronounce all the sounds in the kana chart, including voiced and unvoiced sounds (てんてん and まる), combined and long vowel sounds and double consonants, for example, きって and りょうり
  • understanding that the sounds of hiragana and katakana are identical even though the associated scripts are different
  • knowing that the hiragana spelling of a particular particle does not match its pronunciation, for example, ‘wa’ for , ‘e’ for , ‘o/wo’ for
  • noticing that certain combinations of two moras make one rhythm unit (foot), for example, the copula です and the verb suffix ます
Recognise some single and whole word katakana and develop the ability to use hiragana and kanji in a single text

[Key concepts: scripts, characters, stroke order, punctuation; Key processes: reading, writing, recognising] (ACLJAU157 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • reading and writing all hiragana (including voiced, combined and long vowel sounds and double consonants) using the kana chart
  • learning that kanji were brought from China and that hiragana was formed by simplifying the form of kanji, while katakana was formed using a part of kanji
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • learning to apply the basic principles of stroke order to write all hiragana and high-frequency kanji such as 月、日、木、人
  • recognising frequently used katakana words such as オーストラリア
  • reading and writing words, phrases and sentences using kana, for example, わたし の 本、これ は かぞく です。
  • understanding the use of basic Japanese punctuation marks such as まる(。) and てん(、), and katakana long vowel marks, for example, in a student’s name such as ルーク
  • understanding the use of furigana as a reading aid
Recognise the systematic nature of Japanese grammatical rules and apply these to generate new language for a range of purposes

[Key concepts: metalanguage, grammar, counters; Key processes: identifying, explaining, discriminating, applying] (ACLJAU158 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • expanding metalanguage for communicating about language, using additional terms such as ‘pronoun’ and ‘conjunction’
  • understanding and identifying elements of different sentence structures and the use of particles such as へ、で
  • understanding the use of ~が あります/います。 to refer to inanimate/animate objects
  • describing locations of homes, people, animals and items, using basic structures, for example, noun  place に  あります。 noun  place に います。
  • knowing how to use prepositions to describe the position of objects, for example, つくえ の 上 に, いす の 下  に
  • understanding the use of こそあど series in concrete contexts, for example, これ、それ、あれ、どれ
  • using the verb form as a formulaic expression, such as when giving instructions or seeking permission, for example, 見て ください。トイレ に いっても いい です か。
  • knowing how to use common counters and classifiers such as ~こ、~ひき/ びき/ ぴき、~えん
  • understanding Japanese numerical place order: 一、十、(ひゃく)(せん)(まん)
  • understanding location words and expressions indicating direction or means of transportation, for example, くるま で がっこう に いきます。
  • understanding different question words such as いくら、どれ
  • using conjunctions such as そして、それから to link ideas
Recognise the use of formulaic expressions and textual features in familiar texts such as emails, letters, postcards or telephone conversations

[Key concepts: textual features, context, variation; Key processes: recognising, identifying, explaining, reflecting] (ACLJAU159 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising the order for writing the components of the date in Japanese, for example, (ねん)、月、日、よう日
  • understanding the significance of features of different types of texts, such as opening and closing emails, letters or phone conversations, for example, ~さんへ、~より、もしもし
  • considering how the composition of texts in different languages reflects cultural values, such as the ordering of information on Japanese ID cards or when kanji or Arabic numerals are used in Japanese texts
  • understanding conventions associated with using げんこうようし、for example, the size of small characters, the position in the square and the placing of punctuation

Language variation and change

Understand that different ways of using Japanese language shape and reflect different relationships, such as deciding to be formal or informal

[Key concepts: register, context, tenor; Key processes: observing, reflecting, comparing] (ACLJAU160 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • noticing that language can be made casual or ‘softer’ by adding particular endings, such as そうですね。すみません。 ちょっと。
  • observing how language use reflects respect and social distance, such as showing respect for authority figures, for example, しつれいします。よろしく おねがいします。, or expressing familiarity with friends by using first names rather than surnames
  • noticing differences in interaction styles in some familiar situations in Japanese and Australian contexts, such as interactions in classrooms or shops
Recognise that the Japanese language is both influenced by in turn influences other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: language contact, word borrowing, globalisation, technology, change; Key processes: identifying, classifying, reflecting] (ACLJAU161 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • exploring how the Japanese language is influenced by other languages and cultures, for example, in relation to food パン、スパゲッティー、クレープ、ハンバーガー, music and sport ミュージカル、ロック、ダンス、サッカー、バスケットボール, and technology パソコン、メール、インターネット
  • investigating the influence of Japanese language and culture on their own language and experience, for example, by creating a glossary of Japanese words and expressions used in fields such as martial arts (‘judo’, ‘karate’, ‘sensei’, ‘sumo’), food (‘sushi’, ‘tofu’, ‘wasabi’) or communication/culture (‘haiku’, ‘anime’, ‘manga’, ‘sudoku’)
  • understanding that there are Japanese-speaking communities outside Japan, for example, in Hawaii and South America, and that Japanese is widely taught in many countries around the world, including Australia and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that all languages change, that some are constantly growing and expanding while others are disappearing or being revived, for example, many indigenous languages, including Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Role of language and culture

Make connections between cultural practices and values and language use, such as formulaic expressions, and consider how these affect intercultural communication

[Key concepts: language, culture, expression, values, perspectives; Key processes: noticing, identifying, comparing, reflecting] (ACLJAU162 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • noticing ways in which Japanese language and behaviour reflect values and traditions, for example, reluctance to volunteer or compete for attention in class, responding to compliments じょうず です ね。いいえ, and prioritising the group rather than the individual
  • understanding that people ‘read’ intercultural experiences in different ways depending on their cultural perspective, recognising the validity of different perspectives and questioning notions of ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ ideas
  • imagining potential challenges for a visiting Japanese student spending time in an Australian classroom, and identifying phrases, expressions and behaviours that may need explaining, and elements of interaction, such as the use of personal space or volume of voice, that may appear inappropriate
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • reflecting on how different languages and cultures represented in the classroom influence ways of communicating about or relating to social and physical environments, for example, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditions in relation to place, language and culture
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • identifying and comparing traditional and contemporary cultural images used in Japanese and Australian print and media advertising and tourist brochures, considering when they are used and what message they convey
  • noticing similarities and differences between their own ways of communicating and observed interactions between young Japanese speakers in contexts such as everyday social situations or online forums, for example, responding to offers of food or drink, turn-taking in conversations

Years 5 and 6 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 6, students use formulaic and modelled language in classroom interactions to carry out transactions and to share or convey information about daily routines, activities and events, using time expressions such as まい日、ときどき. They ask and respond to questions in familiar contexts using complete sentences and appropriate pronunciation, rhythm and intonation. They ask for clarification and assistance, negotiate turn-taking and follow instructions. They extend their answers by using conjunctions such as そして、それから. They show concern for and interest in others by making enquiries such as だいじょうぶ?, and apologise and express thanks using appropriate gestures. They read and write all hiragana, including voiced sounds, long vowel sounds, double consonants and blends, and high-frequency kanji, for example, (いぬ), 小さい、(あめ). Students locate specific information and some supporting details in a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts on familiar topics. They express reactions to imaginative texts, such as by describing qualities of characters, for example, やさしい 人 です。. They create connected texts of a few sentences, such as descriptions, dialogues or skits. They structure sentences using particles, for example, へ、で、を、がand prepositions, for example, (うえ), and apply the rules of punctuation when writing. They describe and recount events and experiences in time, for example, adjective です。noun です/でした。 and present/past/negative verb forms, for example, のみます、たべます、()ました、いきません. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as いくら です か。なんびきなんこ?. Students translate familiar texts, recognising formulaic expressions and culturally specific textual features and language use. They comment on similarities and differences in ways of expressing values such as politeness, consideration and respect in Japanese compared to other languages and cultures.

Students understand and use the hiragana chart to pronounce contracted and blended sounds and exceptions to phonetic rules, such as を、へ、は, and です. They understand and apply the rules and phonetic changes related to counter classifiers, such as さんぜんえん、いっこ、はっぴき. They apply their knowledge of stroke order to form characters. They give examples of ways in which languages both change over time and are influenced by other languages and cultures. They identify words from other languages used in Japanese, such as パソコン、メール、パスタ, and how the pronunciation, form and meaning of borrowed words can change when used in Japanese. Students identify behaviours and values associated with Japanese society and incorporate these into their own language use, such as ways of deflecting praise, for example, じょうず です ね。いいえ。.


Years 5 and 6 Work Sample Portfolios