Japanese

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Context statement

The place of Japanese culture and language in Australia and in the world
Japanese is the official language of Japan, Australia’s northern neighbour in the Asia region. It is also widely used by communities of speakers in Hawaii, Peru and Brazil, and learnt as an additional language by large numbers of students in the Republic of Korea, China, Indonesia and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Japanese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of content
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Japanese: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, students bring to their learning existing knowledge of Japanese language and culture and a range of learning strategies. They are increasingly aware of the world beyond their own and are engaging with youth-related and social and environmental issues. They require continued guidance and mentoring but work increasingly independently to analyse, reflect on and monitor their language learning and intercultural experiences. They are considering future pathways and options, including the possible role of Japanese in these.

Japanese language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration, vocabulary expansion, and experimentation with different modes of communication, for example, digital media, collaborative performance and group discussions. Learners become more confident in communicating in a wider range of contexts through greater control of language structures and vocabulary and increased understanding of the variability of language use. They use Japanese to communicate and interact; to access and exchange information; to express feelings and opinions; to participate in imaginative and creative experiences; and to create, interpret and analyse a wider range of texts and experiences. They sequence and describe events using a range of cohesive devices, and complete communicative tasks that involve planning, performance, collaborative and independent work. They use language more fluently, with a greater degree of self-correction and repair, and use あいづち to facilitate communication. They reference the accuracy of their language use against a stronger frame of grammatical knowledge.

Learners at this level are able to read and write using hiragana, katakana and an increasing number of kanji in all texts. Their writing is more sophisticated, using connectives and conjunctions, and they engage with more complex language structures.

Contexts of interaction

Learners interact with peers, the teacher and other Japanese speakers in immediate and local contexts, and with wider communities and cultural resources via virtual and online environments. They may access additional cultural experiences through events such as school exchanges, festivals, interschool events or cultural performances.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with texts designed for language learning, such as teacher-generated materials and online resources. Learning is enriched by exposure to a range of authentic materials designed for or generated by young Japanese speakers, such as video clips or advertisements. Students take some responsibility for sourcing additional materials to support their own learning.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners use more complex language in oral, written and multimodal forms. They expand their knowledge and control of grammatical elements such as the form and plain form of verbs, for example, ~ています、~てもいい、~と(おも)います、and ~たり~たり、and conjugation patterns for both verbs and adjectives. Their language production includes elements of interpreting, creating and performing. They engage in analysis of texts such as advertisements and media reports, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and cultural contexts.

Learners examine the processes involved in using a different language, recognising them as cognitive, cultural and personal as well as linguistic. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness, and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to ‘decentre’ from normative ways of thinking and communicating, to consider themselves through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Level of support

Support at this level of learning includes provision of rich and varied stimulus materials, continued scaffolding and modelling of language functions and communicative tasks, and explicit instruction and explanation of the grammatical system. Learners are provided with opportunities to discuss, clarify, practise and apply their knowledge. Critical and constructive teacher feedback is combined with peer support and self-review to monitor and evaluate learning outcomes, such as through portfolios, peer review, or digital journals.

The role of English

Japanese is used in more extended and complex ways. English continues to be used for discussion, explanation and analysis. This allows learners to communicate in depth and detail about the experience of learning Japanese and about their thoughts on culture, identity and intercultural experience. English is the language of analysis and critique, supporting discussion of concepts such as stereotypes, difference, diversity and values. It allows for a degree of expression and reflection that is beyond learners’ communicative capabilities in Japanese.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Engage in discussions and comparisons of young people’s interests, activities and lifestyles

[Key concepts: perspectives, relationships, youth culture, social practices; Key processes: discussing, describing, reciprocating] (ACLJAC181 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • engaging in face-to-face or online discussions with Japanese-speaking peers using descriptive and expressive language to describe significant events, special occasions or milestones in their lives, such as スクール・フォーマルでおどったり、写真(しゃしん)をとったりします。ですから、たくさん人が来るでしょう
  • exchanging ideas with peers or online Japanese-speaking contacts, presenting and expressing personal views on contemporary issues such as environmental sustainability, education or youth culture, considering the relationship between culture and context, for example, 日本のリサイクルはかなりきびしいです。けれども、かんきょうにいいと(おも)います。J-pop K-pop はオーストラリアで人気(にんき)があります。
    • Sustainability
  • initiating and sustaining conversation by using appropriate あいづち, inviting contributions or asking for clarification, using culturally appropriate patterns of language and interaction, for example, すみません。あ、それはいいですね。どう思いますか。それは~ですか/ね。
  • discussing their responsibilities at home and at school and comparing with those of young people in Japan, noting the importance of community and collaboration in Japan, for example, in relation to tasks such as cleaning classrooms after school
Collaborate, plan and manage activities, events or experiences, such as hosting a Japanese class or visitor, going to a restaurant, or preparing for a real or virtual event, trip or excursion

[Key concepts: collaboration, intercultural experience, active learning; Key processes: planning, cooperating, rehearsing, mediating] (ACLJAC182 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • expressing preferences in relation to shared plans, for example, それはいいですね。そうしましょう。and summarising and clarifying arrangements, for example, 金曜日のごご三時半に、えきの前で()いましょう。じゃあ、金曜日のごご三時半に、えきの前ですね。
  • planning and preparing for a real or virtual event, trip or excursion, such as a visit to Japan
  • participating in scenarios related to travelling and living in Japan, for example, interacting with a host family, using public transport, shopping, sightseeing or eating out
  • planning and making shared arrangements for Japanese visitors to the school or a homestay, for example, by preparing print or digital informative materials, such as filming an introduction to Australian school and home life, preparing welcome speeches, or conducting school tours
  • planning and completing tasks that involve asking for, giving and following directions to real or virtual locations, for example, すみません、としょかんはどこですか。, using resources such as digital devices, street or rail maps
  • planning and participating in learning experiences that combine linguistic and cultural elements, such as an excursion to a Japanese restaurant, exhibition, film festival or community event, by preparing and rehearsing language forms, structures and vocabulary and considering appropriate behaviours, for example, 六時半に学校(がっこう)の前で会って、バスで行きます。
Develop language to reflect on the experience of learning and using Japanese

[Key concepts: metalanguage, reflection, review; Key processes: expressing, analysing, comparing, evaluating] (ACLJAC183 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using reflective language to discuss the experience of learning and using Japanese, for example, ぶんぽうはちょっとむずかしいと思います。
  • evaluating Japanese learning resources such as textbooks, websites or dictionaries, for example, じしょはとてもべんりですが、オンラインじしょはもっとべんりです。
  • building and using metalanguage to discuss language and language learning, for example, めいし、けいようし、どうし、ぶん
  • engaging in peer and self-reflection activities, such as providing evaluations or giving and receiving compliments using culturally appropriate language, for example, ~くんは会話(かいわ)上手(じょうず)ですね。いいえ、まあまあです。

Informing

Analyse ideas presented in a range of texts, identifying context, purpose and intended audience

[Key concepts: register, standpoint, representation, themes; Key processes: scanning, summarising, comparing, analysing] (ACLJAC184 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying underlying values, cultural references and the purpose and intended audience of different types of community texts such as advertisements or posters
  • summarising the gist and some specific details of media texts such as documentary features or community notices
  • comparing and evaluating perspectives and intentions reflected in texts such as public information notices or street signs in Japanese and Australian contexts, identifying words, expressions or images that suggest cultural similarities or differences
  • scanning websites of Japanese schools or clubs, discussing and comparing choices they would make in relation to offered activities if they were students in that context
  • identifying culture-specific terms and representations in Japanese promotional materials such as travel brochures, symbols on maps, magazine features or online resources, for example, 小学校(しょうがっこう)新聞(しんぶん)
  • planning a real or imagined trip to a selected region of Japan, using resources such as internet sites and travel brochures to map out elements such as transport, itineraries and selected events, for example, しんかんせんにのりたいですね。 広島(ひろしま)に行きましょうか。
  • analysing key perspectives or themes reflected in interview data collected from Japanese speakers discussing roles and responsibilities in home, school and community contexts, and comparing with their own views on the topics
Present different types of information for specific purposes and contexts using appropriate formats and styles of presentation

[Key concepts: social media, promotional material; Key processes: composing, selecting, editing, presenting] (ACLJAC185 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • creating a personal profile or résumé for a real or imagined part-time job, including basic information such as age, experience, interests and skills, for example, 人と(はな)すことが好きです。 一年間(ねんかん)、スーパーではたらきました。しゃしんにきょうみがあります 。
  • creating informative or promotional texts such as posters, leaflets or web pages targeted at their own age group, for example, promotional materials for recreational activities, advice on healthy eating or environmental sustainability, reviews of new music releases
    • Sustainability
  • researching and reporting on community attitudes towards and challenges in relation to issues such as recycling, using presentation techniques such as Venn diagrams, digital displays, flow charts or captioned photographic displays
    • Sustainability
  • composing individual and group contributions to different forms of social media, such as tweets, memes, blogs, shared websites or student newsletters on issues related to their own social worlds

Creating

Identify how expressive and imaginative texts create humorous, emotional or aesthetic effects that reflect cultural values or experiences

[Key concepts: humour, emotion, effects, culture; Key processes: interpreting, evaluating, analysing, comparing] (ACLJAC186 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying how imaginative texts such as たなばた use structure, language and mood to build action, convey emotion and reflect cultural values
  • comparing lyrics and styles of Japanese- and English-language songs and performances, tracking similarities and differences in genres, themes and modes of emotional expression
  • discussing how texts such as films, plays, songs, memes and manzai use humour or aesthetic effects to provide commentary on social issues such as family, identity, status or humility
  • identifying and responding to key messages and values in traditional texts such as 花さかじいさん、かさじぞう, and considering their relevance in modern times
  • identifying and discussing how typical elements of haiku such as brevity and aesthetic effect engage readers/listeners and reflect cultural values
Create a variety of imaginative texts to express ideas, attitudes and values that suggest intercultural comparisons

[Key concepts: imagination, stimulus, context, values; Key processes: adapting, creating, interpreting, expressing, engaging, performing] (ACLJAC187 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • adapting existing texts to change the emotional effect or to represent different cultural values or experiences, for example, by changing the location, characters or era of a familiar story or cartoon
  • composing and performing poems, songs, monologues or dialogues that reflect cultural values and personal experiences
  • creating a haiku or rap to perform to their peers that provides commentary on a social issue that is important or relevant to them
  • creating a digital persona or avatar that combines elements of observed Japanese styles of communication with their usual ways of self-expression in their home-culture environment

Translating

Compare translations of different types of texts, including versions obtained from digital translators, considering differences in interpretation and how language reflects elements of culture

[Key concepts: meaning, interpretation, cultural expression; Key processes: translating, comparing, analysing, reviewing] (ACLJAC188 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing English translations and interpretations of Japanese texts such as song lyrics, proverbs and advertisements that contain cultural elements and references
  • comparing translations of language associated with significant events, rituals or practices in Japan/Japanese-speaking communities, identifying examples of the relationship between language and cultural values and experience, for example, おじゃまします。
  • comparing own translations of newspaper headlines or email communications with peers’, noticing differences in interpretation or translation and considering reasons for such variations
  • evaluating and reviewing online translators
Create bilingual texts in Japanese and English for a range of communicative and informative purposes, incorporating oral, written and visual elements

[Key concepts: bilingual learning resources, bicultural contexts; Key processes: classifying, translating, glossing, referencing, mediating] (ACLJAC189 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating a bilingual digital database that groups words, for example, words and expressions associated with themes, fields or contexts, such as food, travel, the environment or school
  • producing bilingual texts such as travel advisories for exchange or study tour students, and reflecting on the process of working in both languages
  • creating oral commentaries that switch between English and Japanese for a bilingual audience at a sporting or performing arts event
  • producing bilingual texts such as video clips with subtitles explaining Australian cultural practices, for example, New Year’s Eve or birthday celebrations

Reflecting

Monitor language choices when using Japanese and take responsibility for modifying language and behaviours to assist intercultural communication

[Key concepts: reciprocity, intercultural experience; Key processes: reflecting, evaluating, exemplifying, comparing] (ACLJAC190 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • reflecting and reporting on how learning Japanese provides insights into language and culture in general, and how their own assumptions about Japan or Asia have changed as a result of intercultural language learning
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • evaluating the nature and effectiveness of their own language and actions when interacting in Japanese
  • reflecting on how additional language experience supports and enhances first-language understanding and capabilities, for example, by identifying Japanese expressions, behaviours or attitudes that might enrich their own perspectives
  • reflecting on aspects of their own experiences of intercultural communication, such as instances of breakdowns or breakthroughs in communication, repair and recovery strategies, and responses to and insights gained through interactions
Reflect on cultural differences between Japanese- and English-language communication styles and on how these affect intercultural interactions

[Key concepts: identity, culture, communication; Key processes: comparing, analysing, evaluating, profiling] (ACLJAC191 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • reflecting on elements of the experience of learning Japanese that have involved adopting styles of communication that have been challenging, easy or memorable
  • sharing with peers examples of successful interactions with other Japanese speakers, for example, when gestures or communication styles have been well received and clearly understood and have strengthened the relationship
  • creating a reflective self-profile or autobiography in formats such as journal entries, articles, captioned photo stories, digital accounts or short films, including episodes related to the experience of learning Japanese language and culture that have impacted on their understanding, attitudes, or sense of identity
  • composing a ‘cultural ID profile’, blog or digital diary to exchange with other Japanese speakers, making decisions about what points of information should be included

Systems of language

Understand intonation and phrasing patterns in both informal and formal speech, and recognise multiple readings of familiar kanji in different compounds

[Key concepts: phrasing, intonation, variation, meaning; Key processes: identifying, discriminating] (ACLJAU192 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising the basic pattern of intonation in Japanese, taking the form of a downturning curve, and applying it when speaking
  • identifying the use of rising intonation when asking questions in casual speech or ましょう form, for example, 食べない? 食べましょうか?
  • understanding how to make appropriate pauses in a sentence, that is, dividing up a sentence into cohesive chunks to allow for the use of あいづち
  • understanding that changes occur in kanji readings, for example, (あたら)しい、新聞(しんぶん)()きます、オーストラリア(じん)(ひと)
Use knowledge of familiar kanji to predict meaning of unknown words

[Key concepts: script conventions, kanji readings, radicals; Key processes: recognising, discriminating, writing, decoding] (ACLJAU193 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that kanji are used for nouns, stems of verbs and adjectives, and some adverbs, and that the addition of hiragana to the stem of verbs and adjectives is called okurigana
  • recognising that many kanji have multiple readings and that there are two types of readings, that is, on-yomi (; on ‘reading’ or ‘sound’), Chinese-style pronunciation; and kun-yomi (; kun ‘reading’ or ‘explanation’), Japanese-style pronunciation
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • developing strategies to guess the meaning of unknown words that contain unfamiliar kanji, utilising clues such as radicals
  • writing some kanji compound words, for example, 外国語(がいこくご), 日本料理(にほんりょうり)
Understand how sophistication in expression can be achieved by the use of a variety of verb and adjective conjugations

[Key concepts: metalanguage, plain form, form conjugation, word functions; Key processes: identifying, defining, classifying, sequencing] (ACLJAU194 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • further developing metalanguage to describe and increase control of grammatical concepts and language elements and to organise learning resources such as verb charts and lists of vocabulary and sentence structures
  • understanding and applying the rules of the plain form, and knowing that the basic form of all Japanese verbs ends in -u, -eru or -iru, the forms they are listed under in dictionaries
  • understanding that verbs can be divided into three groups according to the way they are conjugated: Group 1 (five-step verbs), Group 2 (one-step verbs) and Group 3 (irregular verbs)
  • using character charts as a systematic framework for recognising patterns for verb conjugation, and applying the formation rules of each verb group
  • using verb form to connect events, for example, (あさ)おきてジョギングをします。
  • understanding and using the different functions of verb form
  • using present continuous tense using verb ています, for example, ラジオを聞いています。
  • requesting and giving permission and expressing prohibition using verb form, for example, ~てもいいです。~てはいけません。~てはだめです。
  • using verb stems with grammatical features such as ~かった。~やすい/にくいです。~に行きます。
  • exploring how to use plain forms in authentic contexts such as conversations with peers, for example, 食べる? 見る?
  • expressing opinions, intentions and thoughts using the plain form, for example:
    • plain verb つもりです。
    • verb/adjective とおもいます。
    • ~たり~たりします。
  • using and adjectives in present and past tenses, for example:
    • おいしい ◊ おいしかったです。
    • たのしくない ◊ たのしくなかったです。
    • しずかな ◊ しずかでした。
  • using adverbs and intensifiers such as かなり, ぜんぜん, たいてい
  • sequencing actions, for example, 朝おきてジョギングをします。
  • increasing cohesion within paragraphs by using conjunctions, for example, ですから
  • indicating the status of actions using adverbs such as まだ and もう
  • understanding the concept of uchi-soto ((うち)(そと)) for making appropriate choices of register, for example, 食べる?食べますか?
Identify, analyse and compare textual features and conventions that characterise social and informative media in Japanese and English

[Key concepts: textual conventions, language features, cohesion; Key processes: comparing, analysing, identifying] (ACLJAU195 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • identifying the use of cohesive devices such as conjunctions to sequence and link ideas and actions in both Japanese and English media texts, for example, verb form, だから、それに、それで
  • identifying features of familiar types of texts such as emails, songs, slogans or public signs, and noticing how the choice of language and structure works to achieve each text’s purpose
  • comparing language features of Japanese and English versions of texts such as weather reports or text messages, including the use of abbreviations and emoticons, and noting differences that might be culturally significant
  • recognising textual conventions employed within a letter, email or article, identifying elements such as introductions, sequencing of ideas and the use of また to link paragraphs
  • comparing features of spoken and written versions of texts, for example, spoken and print advertisements, face-to-face conversations and emails, to understand how text mode shapes structure and helps a text achieve its purpose

Language variation and change

Analyse variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships

[Key concepts: (うち)/(そと), respect, social relations, variation, register; Key processes: selecting, applying, comparing, evaluating] (ACLJAU196 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • applying an understanding of Japanese values such as respect ((うち)/(そと)) by making appropriate language choices, for example, using ご/お prefixes, and plain or polite forms, and recognising characteristics of formal/informal registers
  • evaluating how language choices reflect social relations and priorities, such as using expressions that deflect praise of self or own family to show modesty, for example, 日本語がじょうずですね。いいえ、ぜんぜん。
  • noticing differences in text structure and grammar between formal and informal Japanese language use, such as abbreviations, dropping of particles and emphatic intonation in informal communication such as face-to-face interactions, blogs, emails and other forms of correspondence, for example, あした行く?/先生、あした行きますか。うん、わかった。/はい、わかりました。それは何?/山中(やまなか)さん、それは何ですか。
  • comparing verbal and non-verbal elements of communication in different languages and cultural contexts, such as ways of disagreeing or responding to thanks, or the use of gestures, facial expressions or あいづち/silence
Investigate changes to Japanese and other languages and cultures, identifying factors such as education, media and new technologies, popular culture and intercultural exchange

[Key concepts: globalisation, exchange, influence, contemporary culture, language revival/reclamation; Key processes: mapping, classifying, analysing, reviewing] (ACLJAU197 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • finding examples of ways in which social and cultural influences impact on languages, for example, the abbreviation of borrowed words in Japanese, such as リモコン or スマホ, or the combination of borrowed words with る、ググる and サボる to make verbs
  • reflecting on changes in their own language(s) and cultures due to influences such as technology and social media, for example, the use of abbreviations in text messaging or the replacement of words by emoticons, and considering possible effects of such changes on kanji acquisition in Japanese and spelling in English
  • exploring the influence of Japanese popular culture in Australia, the Asia region and around the world, such as the influence of Japanese design and technology and the popularity of J-pop, electronic games, anime, manga and cosplay
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • investigating the state and nature of indigenous Japanese languages, considering issues such as language revival and reclamation, and drawing comparisons with Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages in Australia
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Role of language and culture

Understand that the Japanese language carries embedded cultural information and assumptions that can be difficult for speakers of other languages to interpret

[Key concepts: intercultural exchange, meaning, reciprocity, values; Key processes: analysing, questioning, discussing] (ACLJAU198 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • providing examples of exchanges in Japanese that require cultural as well as literal interpretation, such as responses that deflect personal considerations (for example, replying positively to the enquiry 元気(げんき)ですか), or strategies to preserve values of humility and honour
  • discussing how the cultural value of (うち)/(そと) is expressed through language, such as the use of prefixes and suffixes when referring to people outside the immediate ‘group’, the choice of informal or formal register, and decisions about what to share/not share in general conversation
  • exploring cultural concepts embedded in Japanese language which embody important core values and behaviours and for which there is no direct English translation, for example, えんりょ and ()
  • discussing their own and others’ attitudes towards cultural diversity and difference, including the use of stereotypes and generalisations, and considering how these affect communication
  • considering how contemporary expressions of individuality exemplified in some forms of contemporary Japanese youth culture relate to traditional concepts of conformity and collective identity

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use Japanese to share information, experiences and views related to their social worlds using rehearsed and spontaneous language. They use correct pronunciation, including that of borrowed words, and adopt appropriate rhythm and phrasing to allow for others’ use of あいづち. They ask and respond to questions, elaborating responses by providing reasons or explanations, using a range of adjectives and adverbs such as ぜんぜん or かなり. Students begin to use plain form to communicate with their peers. They use kanji to read and write verbs, for example, 思います、来ます、聞きます、食べます、()みます, nouns, for example, 新聞、会話(かいわ), 外国語(がいこくご) and adjectives, for example, 早い、上手な、下手(へた). Students extract, analyse and evaluate information from extended spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as films, blogs, brochures, itineraries and journals. They predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions from context, grammatical knowledge and familiar kanji, and by drawing on their knowledge of textual characteristics and features. Students produce informative and imaginative texts, appropriate to audience and purpose, using the form and plain form to express preferences, permission and prohibition and to describe past experiences. They build cohesion and complexity in written texts by using conjunctions, such as ですから、けれども, and indicate frequency by using a range of intensifiers, for example, よく、たいてい. Students discriminate appropriately in their use of kanji, hiragana and katakana. They translate and interpret texts, explaining words and expressions that are difficult to translate or that have embedded cultural meanings, such as にゅうがくしき、おぼん、サラリーマン. They discuss elements of interaction in Japanese, such as the importance and use of あいづち in meaning-making. They make connections and comparisons between their own and others’ culturally shaped perspectives, reflecting on the influence of perspectives on intercultural communication.

Students understand the functions of the different scripts within text, for example, hiragana for grammatical elements; katakana for borrowed words and some onomatopoeia; and kanji for nouns, verbs, adjectives and some adverbs. They distinguish, for example, between おくりがな and ふりがな, and understand the concept of おん/くん readings. They identify multiple readings of kanji, and begin to use kanji radicals as a tool for indicating meaning. Students use the form and plain form verbs as a basis for grammar conjugations. They use metalanguage to describe and compare language features and rules of sentence construction. Students choose です/ます or plain form based on age, relationship, familiarity and context. They identify hybrid terms that combine Japanese and English, such as コピペ、オーガナイズする、ダンスする. They explain how key Japanese cultural values such as community, (うち)/(そと) and humility, いいえ、まだです。, and consideration of others are reflected in language and behaviours.