By the end of Year 8, students use Japanese to interact with peers, the teacher and others to exchange information, recount experiences and express opinions. They use verb ましょう for planning and making arrangements and offering suggestions. They ask and respond to a range of questions, for example, だれと、何で、いつ、どこで、using both rehearsed and some spontaneous language, giving opinions and making comparisons, for example, でも or が、わたしは フットボールが 好きです。でも、母は フットボールが 好きじゃないです。. Students apply rules of pronunciation, rhythm, stress and intonation to a range of sentence types and vocabulary, including double consonant and long vowel sounds and borrowed words. Students read and write hiragana, read katakana, and write familiar katakana words, including elongated vowels, double consonants and contractions. They read and write high-frequency kanji for verbs (for example, 行きます、見ます、来きます), nouns (for example, 先生、父、母、月よう日), adjectives (for example, 早い), and the pronoun 私. They read some compound words such as 日本語. They locate, analyse and summarise information from a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts, such as video clips, letters, posters, notices and advertisements. They plan, draft and present informative and imaginative texts with the support of modelled resources. They use counter classifiers in response to questions, for example, いくつ、何まい、何本、何分. They build cohesion in their texts and elaborate on meaning through the use of grammatical elements such as conjunctions (for example, だから), and adverbs of frequency (for example, いつも), time (for example, 時、半、分、前) and direction, for example, みぎ、ひだり、前、うしろ. They use a variety of verb tenses to express ideas and experiences, and a range of particles, such as が、へ、から、まで、including for exampleに to indicate timeframes. Students translate and interpret short texts from Japanese into English and vice versa, providing alternative expressions when equivalence is not possible. They share their reactions to intercultural experiences, describing and explaining why some elements fit easily with their sense of their own identity while others do not.
Students understand that the pronunciation of katakana is the same as that of hiragana, and that the pronunciation of borrowed words is influenced by the Japanese sound system. They apply appropriate word order in their spoken and written language, varying the order of noun phrases without altering the meaning. They understand and use いandなadjectives when appropriate, and apply the rules of phonetic change to counter classifiers, such as ひとつ、さんぼん、じゅっぷん. They identify and reproduce features of familiar text types such as emails, descriptions and dialogues. They identify words (for example, お母さんand 母), phrases (for example, どうぞよろしく。), prefixes (for example, お and ご), suffixes (for example, ～さん and ～さま) and titles (for example, ～先生) that indicate different levels of formality. They recognise values that are important in Japanese society, such as maintaining harmony and a sense of collective well-being, and how these are reflected through language and behaviours, such as indirect forms of refusal or disagreement, for example,もうすこしがんばりましょう。. They explain how cultural values and ideas are embedded in all languages and how their own communicative behaviour might be interpreted from other cultural perspectives.