Japanese

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Context statement

The place of Japanese culture and language in Australia and in the world
Japanese is the official language of Japan, Australia’s northern neighbour in the Asia region. It is also widely used by communities of speakers in Hawaii, Peru and Brazil, and learnt as an additional language by large numbers of students in the Republic of Korea, China, Indonesia and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Japanese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of content
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Japanese: Sequence …

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Years 3 and 4

Years 3 and 4 Band Description

The nature of the learners

At this level, children are developing awareness of their social worlds and of their memberships of various groups, including of the Japanese class. They are further developing literacy capabilities in English, and while this highlights differences between writing in alphabetic and character-based languages, it also assists to some degree in learning Japanese. They benefit from varied, activity-based learning that builds on their interests and capabilities and makes connections with other areas of learning.

Japanese language learning and use

The development of oral proficiency at this stage continues to rely on rich language input in different modes. Learners listen and respond by actions to build active listening and comprehension skills. They participate in classroom routines and tasks and use some spontaneous language to describe feelings related to classroom activities. They participate in games and activities and engage with texts through teacher-generated questions and prompting. They give short presentations related to their personal worlds, including simple descriptions. With support they create labels, captions and short sentences. Language experience and input include authentic texts with some modification, familiar vocabulary and simple sentence structures. Children are supported to expand their use of the language in familiar interactions and situations, such as exchanging simple information and participating in shared tasks, performances and play. They continue to control simple grammatical forms and build vocabulary that can be adapted for different purposes. Students learn the use of diacritic marks to create voiced sounds. They learn to produce and pronounce characters with the support of flashcards, mnemonics, digital games and exercises. They read and write words written in hiragana and in high-frequency kanji with support and scaffolding. There is a combined focus on grammar, vocabulary building, pronunciation, and non-verbal and cultural dimensions of language use through purposeful communicative activities and experiences.

Contexts of interaction

The context in which learners interact is primarily the language classroom and the school environment, with some access to wider communities of Japanese speakers and resources through digital technology.

Texts and resources

Children develop literacy skills and textual knowledge through supported interaction with a range of spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts. Imaginative and interactive texts such as picture books, stories, puppet plays, songs and games develop the expressive and cultural dimensions of language. To support the development of cultural knowledge, learners may have access to resources developed for Japanese children, such as storybooks, songs, television programs or interactive games.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners recognise the predictable nature of pronunciation in Japanese and apply their knowledge of sound–letter associations to spell new words. They recognise and use elements of grammar such as simple verb forms, adjectives, interrogatives and some particles to understand and create simple spoken and written texts. They use appropriate word order and sentence structures, including time, counter classifiers, and present, past and negative forms. Learning Japanese contributes to learners’ general literacy development and to the process of making sense of their worlds that characterises this stage of their development. As they encounter elements of Japanese language they make comparisons with their own language(s) and culture(s) and consider their own ways of communicating.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves extensive support. Tasks are carefully scaffolded. Teachers provide models and examples; introduce language, concepts and resources needed to manage and complete the task; make time for experimentation, drafting and redrafting; and provide support for self-monitoring and reflection. Learners use the hiragana chart as a systematic framework to support reading and writing.

The role of English

Learners are supported to use Japanese as much as possible for classroom routines, social interaction, structured learning tasks and language experimentation and practice. English is used for discussion, explanation and reflection, enabling learners to develop a language (metalanguage) for sharing ideas about language and culture systems and experience. Using both Japanese and English in the classroom develops awareness of what it means to be bilingual.


Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Interact with the teacher and peers to exchange information about self, family, friends and favourite things, and likes and dislikes, and to express praise, support and respect for others

[Key concepts: communication, information, self, family, respect; Key processes: introducing, interacting, describing] (ACLJAC127 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • introducing self using formal spoken language and appropriate non-verbal language such as bowing, for example, はじめまして、 Julie です、(きゅう)さい です、おんがく が すき です、どうぞ よろしく
  • exchanging information and building vocabulary to communicate about self, friends or family, using simple statements such as かぞく は 六人 です。おとうさん と おかあさん と おねえさん と ぼく と いもうと と あかちゃん です。いもうと  は 五さい  です。おかあさん は やさしい です。
  • asking and answering factual questions relating to concepts such as time, place or number, using formulaic structures and familiar expressions, for example, かぞく は なんにん です か。3 人 です。いつ です か。五月(ごがつ) です。なんじ です か。三じ です。どこ です か。
  • showing interest in and respect for others, such as by expressing praise or encouragement, using formulaic expressions, for example, だいじょうぶ?たいへん?むずかしい?すごい(です)ね、やさしいね、おもしろいね、じょうずですね、かっこいいね、たのしかった?
  • communicating about activities and shared experiences, for example, place に いきました。 food を たべました。 drink を のみます。 activity/sports を しましょう/しました。おいしかった  です。
Participate in guided tasks that involve following instructions and cooperating with peers, such as sports and craft activities

[Key concepts: collaboration, participation, task, performance; Key processes: following instructions, rehearsing, performing, presenting] (ACLJAC128 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • participating in guided tasks involving instructions and peer cooperation, such as group/pair language activities, games and sports, for example, せんせい says, ふくわらい、じゃんけんぽん, What’s the time, Mr Wolf?
  • following procedures for activities such as cooking, model-making or origami, understanding instructions such as はんぶん に おって、ここ に おいて、あつめて
  • participating in classroom routines, such as taking the roll はい、います。いいえ、いません。, naming the months and days of the week and describing the weather, for example, きょう は 月よう日 です。はれ です。
  • preparing, rehearsing and conducting presentations and performances, such as a Japanese item for assembly or a digital presentation about a significant event
  • working collaboratively to adapt and perform action songs, for example, by changing lyrics (()(うた)) based on modelled patterns, rehearsing and performing songs with appropriate gestures and actions
Follow teacher instructions and directions by responding to questions and requests, and use simple questions and statements to ask permission and to show interest and appreciation

[Key concepts: interaction, negotiation, response; Key processes: responding, requesting, rehearsing] (ACLJAC129 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating in classroom interactions, for example, by responding with comments such as Matt くん は いません。 Todd くん と Sally さん は やすみ です。 Ella さん も やすみ です。
  • using appropriate formulaic expressions and gestures to contribute to interactions, for example, しつれいします。 おねがいします。
  • asking for help or clarification, for example, すみません。もういちど。, and negotiating turn-taking, for example, ちょっと まって。 Matilda さん の ばん。どうぞ 。
  • responding to teacher instructions such as ペア に なって ください。三人 グループ に なって ください。ならんで ください。大きいこえで。
  • recognising and rehearsing interjections or fillers in conversations, for example, ええとすみません 。ほんとう? そうですね 。

Informing

Locate and process specific points of information in familiar types of written, spoken, multimodal and digital texts associated with people, places and objects

[Key concepts: information, research, data; Key processes: locating, collecting, classifying, recognising] (ACLJAC130 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • finding examples of Japanese language at home or in the community to create a class collection, display or digital database of terms related to recipes, toys, gadgets or menus
  • viewing or listening to a simple community text such as a weather report, recognising key words such as はれ、くもり
  • identifying features of seasons and tracking the progress of seasonal weather changes on a map of Japan, for example, reports of さくら、つゆ、こうよう
  • gathering information about one another’s home life and activities, for example, by surveys on pets, sports, activities, families, or likes and dislikes, using graphs to display results
  • viewing or reading simple print or digital texts such as advertisements, catalogues, menus or packaging to locate key points of information in relation to elements such as product, number, price, target audience or capacity for recycling
    • Sustainability
Present factual information relating to familiar home, community and cultural contexts, using graphic and digital support such as photos, tables, lists and charts

[Key concepts: family, relationships, routines; Key processes: describing, explaining, annotating] (ACLJAC131 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • describing family members and friends, identifying relationships such as (かあ)さん, using simple descriptive, modelled language and supporting resources, for example, これ は わたし の お(とう)さん です。Ken です。お(とう)さん は やきゅう が すきです。お(とう)さん は やさしい です。
  • creating a display such as a chart, diorama, mini book or digital presentation to showcase elements of their Japanese language learning, for example, ぼく/わたし の ふでばこ、ぼく/わたし の かばん
  • labelling aspects of their daily routines, selecting captions or attaching word bubbles, including expressions of time, for example, waking in the morning with a clock displaying (しち/なな) and the words おはようございます。

Creating

Participate in and respond to imaginative texts such as interactive stories and performances, for example by acting out responses or making simple statements to identify and compare favourite characters and elements

[Key concepts: response, expression; Key processes: participating, imagining, creating, interpreting] (ACLJAC132 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • viewing excerpts from texts such as anime and children’s television programs, listening for key words and familiar phrases and interpreting cultural expressions and behaviours
  • collecting favourite exclamations, words or expressions used in imaginative and expressive texts in oral, print and digital formats, such as へえー、うそー、あれ?、うーん、どうしよう、こまった、できた、やったー!、おめでとう、がんばって、すごい、いいよ、だめ and using them in their own communicative exchanges in similar modes
  • drawing their own versions of characters encountered in imaginative texts, and selecting simple descriptive modelled statements as captions to their pictures
  • sequencing elements of imaginative texts such as cartoons or simple narratives, for example, by creating a storyboard using pictures and captions
  • recognising character traits or behaviours in texts such as anime, manga and children’s stories that reflect Japanese culture and traditions
Create and present imaginative texts for a range of audiences that use familiar expressions and modelled language and allow for exploration and enjoyment of language, cultural expression and performance

[Key concepts: fantasy, imagination, dramatisation; Key processes: imagining, creating, experimenting, performing] (ACLJAC133 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating imaginary characters, places or animals, and presenting them through performance, digital display or visual representation, for example, みみ が 大きい です。かわ に います。 food/object を たべます。とても こわい です。おばけやしき です。たくさん おばけ が います。目 が 大きい です。あし が ありません。
  • incorporating onomatopoeic sounds such as どきどき、ぺこぺこ、ぴかぴか、にこにこ into written/performed texts to enrich the texts and to entertain others
  • taking on the role of a character from a story, manga or anime, and responding to questions such as すきな たべもの は なん です か。 noun が すき です か。なんさい です か。
  • creating, performing and presenting imaginative texts such as skits, songs and raps

Translating

Interpret and explain simple interactions in Japanese, noticing linguistic and cultural features

[Key concepts: meaning, culture, translation, interpretation; Key processes: identifying, explaining, interpreting, comparing] (ACLJAC134 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining features of Japanese language protocols such as the use of formulaic expressions, for example, いってきます、ただいま, counter classifiers, and the indication of politeness by using です
  • explaining and modelling culture-specific practices and formulaic language, such as apologising for being late by waiting at the entrance/door, bowing and using the expression おくれて すみません。しつれいします。
  • demonstrating and explaining hand gestures, body language or facial expressions that work with language or stand alone in Japanese communication, such as beckoning with fingers pointing downwards, or waving a hand in front of the face to signal a negative response
  • using visual, print or online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate simple familiar texts such as labels or captions
Create bilingual versions of familiar texts such as songs, conversations, picture dictionaries, captions for images and displays, or photo stories

[Key concepts: bilingualism, expression, code-mixing; Key processes: translating, performing, creating, adapting] (ACLJAC135 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • including some Japanese words, exclamations or phrases when interacting in English in simple games or exchanges that involve feelings or reactions, for example, いたい, あぶない, oh that was fun, でも まけた。 Anne さん, that was すごい!
  • performing bilingual versions of familiar songs such as ‘If You’re Happy and You Know It …’, alternating between the two languages and switching key words in repeated phrases
  • creating personal print or digital bilingual dictionaries that include visual cues and representations
  • creating simple activities or action songs that involve alternating or combining repeated words or phrases in Japanese and English, such as verbs, question words or months of the year, for example, せんせい says

Reflecting

Notice what is similar or different to own language and culture when interacting in Japanese in different contexts and situations

[Key concepts: respect, culture, similarity and difference, communication; Key processes: identifying, explaining, experimenting, reflecting] (ACLJAC136 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • noticing how respect is shown to teachers and classmates through practices such as apologising for ‘interrupting’ when entering a room, しつれいします、おくれて すみません, expressing humility by not going first or putting oneself forward どうぞ, or not using さん for self
  • practising ways of accepting compliments or praise in Japanese, for example, by saying いいえ instead of ありがとう。, and comparing this with what they would do in a similar situation in their own language(s)
  • noticing differences between Japanese and Australian-English language used in certain social situations, for example, いただきます、ごちそうさまでした, before and after meals, and ただいま、おかえりなさい, when leaving or returning home, including forms of address and the use of body language, intonation and expression
  • considering how some aspects of Australian ways of communicating such as greetings, responding to thanks or using direct eye contact may be interpreted by people from a Japanese cultural background
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Notice how ways of communicating and behaving reflect identity and relationships

[Key concepts: identity, community, family, culture; Key processes: selecting, creating, representing, comparing] (ACLJAC137 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • using digital resources to create a self-profile such as an avatar or montage to exchange with a potential Japanese friend, selecting key words and simple expressions from word banks and modelled statements that capture their sense of themselves, and comparing their choices and how they think about their identity
  • sharing ideas about their family cultures, creating visual or digital representations of their families, friendship groups and communities, and listing key terms and expressions associated with each group
  • noticing and comparing their own and one another’s ways of communicating, identifying any elements that reflect cultural differences or influences of other languages, including those from the Asia region
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Systems of language

Understand that hiragana symbols can be combined to represent words

[Key concepts: consonant, vowel, kana, foot, mora, rhythm, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, differentiating, demonstrating] (ACLJAU138 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising that there are 19 distinct consonants in Japanese (k, g, s, sh, z, j, t, ch, ts, d, n, h, f, b, p, m, y, r, w) and five vowels (a, i, u, e, o)
  • understanding the system of basic Japanese sound combinations, that is, a vowel can be attached to most consonants to produce a kana
  • understanding that vowel length can differentiate words in Japanese, for example, ‘e’ () for a picture and ‘ee’ (ええ) for ‘yeah’
  • recognising the concept of the minimum unit of rhythm in Japanese (‘foot’ or フット) and that one foot in Japanese consists of two moras, for example, ごちそうさま is pronounced as a three-foot word ごち・そう・さま
  • demonstrating understanding of the differences in pronunciation of English and Japanese versions of loan words such as バナナ、ペット、サッカー
Recognise the systematic order within the hiragana character set; commence hiragana script writing and recognise and write frequently used kanji

[Key concepts: character, kana and kanji, stroke order, font; Key processes: recognising, tracing, reading, writing] (ACLJAU139 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • learning how to use the character chart as a systematic framework for reading and writing
  • understanding that there is a stroke order for both kana and kanji
  • recognising that Japanese has various printed fonts and that handwritten forms of several characters differ from the printed versions in most fonts, for example, き、さ、ふ、ら、り
  • learning to read and write words using kana
Understand and identify elements of basic grammar and sentence structure and interaction patterns

[Key concepts: verb conjugation, particles, word order, vocabulary, counter; Key processes: describing, indicating, identifying, questioning] (ACLJAU140 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • developing metalanguage for communicating about language, using concepts such as parts of speech, for example, ‘noun’, ‘verb’ and ‘adjective’
  • understanding the rules of Japanese word order (subject + object + verb), the use of associated particles は、を、と、も、に, and the use of in formulaic expressions, for example, noun が すき です。
  • describing actions using verb ます form, for example, すし を たべます。
  • understanding the rules for conjugating verbs, such as ~ます、~>ましょう、~ました、~ません
  • understanding that Japanese uses name + suffix instead of pronouns when referring to other people, for example, John くん、はなさん、 Grant せんせい
  • indicating time and frequency using expressions such as まいにち、ときどき
  • describing people, animals, places and things using adjective–noun phrases, for example, 大きい 目、おいしい もも
  • understanding time words associated with days of the week, months of the year and seasons
  • building vocabulary that relates to familiar environments in daily life and personal worlds and that can be used for cross-curricular content learning
  • beginning to use counters in Japanese, for example, ~人、~さい、~月
  • telling time using ~じ/ ~じはん です。なんじ です か。
  • seeking information using question words such as なに、なん、いつ、どこ and だれ and the sentence-ending particle , for example, なに が すき です  か。なんさい です  か。なんにん です  か。いつ です か。
Recognise that texts such as stories, games and conversations have particular language features and textual conventions

[Key concepts: text, genre, language features, mode; Key processes: comparing, analysing, recognising] (ACLJAU141 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising features of familiar genres of Japanese texts such as picture books, digital books or games, video clips or songs
  • recognising differences between the layout and language features of different types of texts, including たてがき, よこがき
  • recognising the role played by different elements in texts to contribute to meaning-making, for example, the layout, title, illustration and use of punctuation in a picture book or the use of speech bubbles in a cartoon
  • recognising patterns in simple spoken or written texts in Japanese, for example, in relation to the use of particles, verb endings and other frequently occurring features

Language variation and change

Understand that language varies according to the age and relationship of those using it, and according to the situation in which it is being used

[Key concepts: register, context, variation; Key processes: observing, recognising, reflecting] (ACLJAU142 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • observing that Japanese expressions can be made more or less formal with very slight changes, for example, おはよう and おはようございます、はし and おはし、なまえ and おなまえ、to suit the relationship between speakers
  • noticing differences in the ways in which both Japanese and English speakers communicate with different people, for example, with young children, with unfamiliar adults or with elderly people
  • reflecting on how they communicate with their own family and friends and with people less close to them, noticing differences in language use and communicative behaviour
  • recognising that familial terms such as おじいさん and おばあさん are often used in place of ‘old man’ or ‘old woman’ in both folk tales and daily conversation, and considering why this might be so
Recognise that Japanese is the official language of Japan and one of the major languages of the Asia-Pacific region

[Key concepts: language status, standard language, multilingualism; Key processes: recognising, comparing, classifying] (ACLJAU143 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding the status of Japanese as the official language of Japan, a major language in the Asia-Pacific region, a world language and an Australian community language
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that there is a standardised form of Japanese, and that different dialects are spoken in different regions of Japan
  • comparing the language profile of Japan with the multilingual nature of Australian society, which includes speakers of Aboriginal languages and Torres Strait Islander languages, Asian languages and world languages
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Understand that the ways people use language reflect where and how they live and what is important to them

[Key concepts: cultural expression, values, respect, gestures; Key processes: observing, comparing, discussing, interpreting] (ACLJAU144 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures
  • understanding that language carries information about the people who use it and that common expressions often reflect cultural values, for example, the importance of respect for older people is reflected in terms of address in Japanese
  • exploring additional elements of ‘culture’, such as what is valued in different communities, contexts and environments, or different approaches to teaching and learning in school, understanding formulaic expressions that reflect cultural values, for example, いってきます、 いってらっしゃい、きをつけて
  • noticing how politeness and respect are conveyed in Japanese language and behaviour, such as how body language and gestures can replace language, for example, bowing as an apology or as a request to be excused
  • learning to discuss culture and language by responding to prompt questions such as ‘What do you notice?’ ‘Why do you think that …?’ ‘How is this similar / different …?’
  • identifying terms, expressions and ways of communicating associated with Australian contexts that might need explaining to Japanese children, for example, using first names when addressing adults, colloquial expressions such as ‘no worries’ or ‘footy’, and terms associated with Indigenous cultures, such as ‘the Dreaming’
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 4, students interact with the teacher and peers in regular classroom routines and structured interactions. They understand and respond to instructions related to classroom organisation and activities, for example, ペア に なって ください。大きい こえ で いって ください。. They use formulaic and rehearsed language to exchange information about their personal worlds and in familiar interactions such as praising or encouraging one another, for example,

がんばって. They use language spontaneously in simple familiar communicative exchanges, for example, やったー!だいじょうぶ?. They respond to simple questions using short spoken statements, for example, いつ です か。なに が すき です か。. They use counter classifiers in response to questions such as なん(にん)、なん(がつ)、なんじ、なんさい. Students identify specific items of information, such as facts about or key characteristics of people, when listening to or viewing texts such as short stories, weather reports or video clips. They use cues such as context, visual images and familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension. They create short spoken informative and descriptive texts related to their personal world with the support of modelled language, scaffolded examples and resources such as word lists. They describe people and events using adjectives, time-related vocabulary and appropriate verb forms, such as ます、ましょう、ました and ません. They read and write the 46 hiragana, including long vowels (for example, おとうさん、おおきい), voiced sounds (for example, かぞく、たべます), and blended sounds as formulaic language (for example, きょう、でしょう), as well as high-frequency kanji such as 月、日、先生. They apply word order (subject–object–verb) in simple sentences. They comprehend short written texts such as captions, labels, signs and stories that use familiar and repetitive language. They translate simple texts using classroom resources such as charts or word lists, noticing that some words and expressions do not translate easily. Students identify examples of cultural differences between ways of communicating in Japanese and in their own language(s).

Students identify both vowel and vowel–consonant sounds of hiragana, recognising that vowel sounds can be elongated and that this can change meaning. They identify ways in which rhythm is used to chunk phrases within a sentence. Students use the hiragana chart to support their reading and writing, recognising its systematic nature. They demonstrate awareness of the predictable nature of pronunciation. They know the role of particles, for example, は、を、と、も、に; the rules for simple verb tense conjugations; and how to create questions using the sentence-ending particle . They understand and use the rules and phonetic changes that apply to counter classifiers, for example, はっさい、ひとり、ふたり. They identify language variations that occur according to the age and relationship of participants, and according to the situation, for example, なまえ/ おなまえ、はし/ おはし. They demonstrate their understanding of the importance in Japanese of non-verbal communication such as the use of gestures, for example, bowing to replace words and to communicate meaning. Students identify ways in which Japanese language reflects ways of behaving and thinking.


Years 3 and 4 Work Sample Portfolios