Japanese

Please select at least one Sequence to view the content
Please select at least one year level to view the content
Please select at least one Strand to view the content

Context statement

The place of Japanese culture and language in Australia and in the world
Japanese is the official language of Japan, Australia’s northern neighbour in the Asia region. It is also widely used by communities of speakers in Hawaii, Peru and Brazil, and learnt as an additional language by large numbers of students in the Republic of Korea, China, Indonesia and Australia.

Read More >>

PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Japanese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of content
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Japanese: Sequence …

Read More >>

Foundation to Year 2

Foundation to Year 2 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Children enter the early years of schooling with established communication skills in one or more languages and varying degrees of early literacy capability. For young students, learning typically focuses on their immediate worlds of family, home, school, friends and neighbourhood. They are learning how to socialise with new people, share with others, and participate in structured routines and activities at school. Typically they have little to no experience of Japanese language and culture.

Japanese language learning and use

The initial focus is on listening to the sounds and patterns of Japanese through language-rich activities such as rhymes, songs, clapping and action games. Repetition and recycling help children to identify frequently used words, simple phrases and non-verbal communication strategies employed in greetings and other social interactions. Learners experiment with simple responses to prompts and cues.

They are introduced to the scripts through initial exposure to high-frequency kanji, focusing on their ideographic nature before learning the associated Japanese sounds. They learn hiragana using a play-based approach that incorporates chanting, the use of mnemonics and a focus on the creative and crafted process of writing Japanese kana. As they learn to read hiragana they draw on first language literacy skills such as predicting the meaning of unfamiliar elements using contextual cues or by linking them to known elements.

Reading skills begin with recognition of single kanji or hiragana and progress to reading whole words and familiar phrases. Writing skills progress from labelling pictures with single kanji and tracing and copying words in hiragana to scaffolded writing of words and short phrases.

As they progress to using Japanese for functions such as asking and answering questions, responding to classroom instructions, singing songs, and taking turns in games and simple shared tasks, children begin to notice that language behaves differently in different situations and that Japanese speakers communicate in some ways that are different from their own. They practise and repeat formulaic expressions and gestures such as bowing that differ in Japanese from ways of communicating in English. Creative play provides opportunities for exploring these differences and for using Japanese for purposeful interaction.

Contexts of interaction

Children use Japanese to interact with one another and the teacher, with some access to wider school and community members. Information and communications technology (ICT) resources provide additional access to Japanese language and cultural experiences.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a variety of spoken, visual and written texts. They listen and respond to teacher talk, share ideas, and join in stories, songs, plays and simple conversations. Written and digital texts include stories, wall charts, Big Books, and teacher-produced materials such as games, captions and flashcards.

Features of Japanese language use

Learners become familiar with the sound systems of the Japanese language, including pronunciation and rhythm. They learn to pronounce individual sounds and sound combinations. They understand basic word order in simple sentences, indicate affirmative or negative responses, respond to requests, and notice different levels of formality when addressing friends, family and teachers. They discuss similarities and differences that they notice between Japanese and their first language(s) and culture(s), such as adjective–noun patterns, adding to ask a question, and ways of showing respect.

Level of support

Learning is supported through the provision of experiences that are challenging but achievable with appropriate scaffolding and support. This involves modelling and monitoring by the teacher, provision of rich and varied sources of input, opportunities for recycling and reviewing, and regular cues, feedback, response and encouragement. At this stage, play and imaginative activities, music, movement and familiar routines provide the essential scaffolding for language development.

The role of English

While children are encouraged to use Japanese whenever possible, with the teacher providing rich and varied language input, English is used as a medium of instruction, and for explanation and discussion. This allows learners to discuss differences and similarities they notice between Japanese and their own language(s) and culture(s), to ask questions, and to express their reactions to the experience of learning and using an additional language.


Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Exchange greetings and introduce and share information about self with the teacher and peers using simple language and gestures

[Key concepts: self, interaction, politeness, preferences; Key processes: greeting, interacting, introducing, describing] (ACLJAC109 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • learning how to greet others at different times of the day using appropriate gestures and forms of address, for example, せんせい、おはようございます、さようなら、おはよう、じゃあね
  • using culturally appropriate titles, forms of address and levels of politeness in everyday interactions with the teacher and peers, for example, Smith せんせい、ありがとう ございます。 Tom くん、ありがとう。Alisa さん、おめでとう。
  • introducing self, using formal spoken language and appropriate non-verbal language such as bowing, for example, はじめまして、Hana です。どうぞよろしく。
  • using formulaic Japanese phrases for everyday interactions such as giving and receiving, thanking, apologising and offering wishes or congratulations, for example, どうぞ、(どうも) ありがとう、すみません、がんばって
  • indicating likes and dislikes, using modelled statements such as いぬ が すき です。わに が すき じゃない です。
  • describing friends, favourite things and objects, using visual, concrete and digital support material, for example, これ は ねずみ です。ちいさい です。かわいい です。 はいいろ です。 すいか です。おいしい です。 ちいさい () です。
  • responding to questions and indicating ownership, for example, だれ の ですか。わたし の です。Ollie くん/ Sarah さん の です 。わたし の えんぴつ(です)。
  • using formulaic expressions to convey emotions, for example, すごい、え~!、 かわいい、 やったー!
Participate in guided group activities such as games, songs and simple tasks, using movement, gestures and pictures to support understanding and to convey meaning

[Key concepts: play, action learning, collaboration; Key processes: participating, turn-taking, interacting] (ACLJAC110 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • singing and responding to action songs such as むすんでひらいて, ひげじいさん, きらきらぼし, おおきなくりのきのしたで、or tongue twisters (早(はや)口(くち)言(こと)葉(ば)) such as

    なまむぎなまごめなまたまご、 あかパジャマきパジャマちゃパジャマ

  • playing じゃんけんぽん and using it in interactions such as turn-taking
  • participating in games, tasks and activities that involve guessing, matching and choosing objects, such as Bingo, Snap or Go Fish, using modelled questions and responses, for example,
    うさぎ です か。はい/いいえ。はい、うさぎ です。
    いいえ、うさぎ じゃない です。
  • using formulaic phrases related to playing games, for example, つぎ、 はい!、 かった、 まけた、ざんねん、あたり、はずれ
  • using rehearsed language to collaborate in craft activities, for example, のり を ください。はい、どうぞ。
Participate in classroom routines such as addressing and responding to the teacher, opening and closing of lessons, transition activities, following instructions, thanking and asking for help, using appropriate gestures and behaviour

[Key concepts: routines, rules, interactions; Key processes: participating, responding, requesting, apologising] (ACLJAC111 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • participating as a group in classroom routines such as opening and closing lessons, for example, せんせい、おはようございます。さようなら。, using appropriate gestures
  • understanding and responding to questions using まる/ばつ (○×) and はい/いいえ
  • understanding and responding to classroom instructions to play games, complete work or get ready for class, for example, たって ください、すわって ください、かいて ください、みて  ください、よんで ください、きいて ください。
  • requesting classroom objects, for example, noun を ください、えんぴつ が あります か。 はい、どうぞ。
  • giving one another reminders such as しずかに、すわって, using appropriate gestures
  • participating in routine exchanges such as responding to the class roll and apologising for arriving late, for example, はい、います。Tia さん は、いません。やすみ です。おくれて すみません。

Informing

Locate items of information in simple texts such as charts, songs, rhymes, video clips and anime to complete guided tasks

[Key concepts: information, meaning, text, context; Key processes: listening, identifying, demonstrating, making meaning] (ACLJAC112 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • listening for key words in stories, rhymes or songs, using visual cues such as gestures and facial expressions to assist understanding
  • recognising simple kanji, hiragana or words in familiar contexts such as labels and titles
  • demonstrating early Japanese literacy skills by selecting the correct hiragana or kanji through labelling, matching, clicking and dragging, drawing, mime and actions
  • listening to and/or viewing texts to obtain information such as colour (あか、あお、しろ、くろ、きいろ), size (おおきい、ちいさい) and shape (まる、さんかく、しかく), and using this information in guided activities such as drawing, building or collecting
  • listening to information about Japan, and demonstrating understanding by responding to questions such as 日本(にほん) です か。しんかんせん です か。すし です か。はい/いいえ, for example, by pointing to places on a map, such as Japan, Tokyo or Mount Fuji, or at pictures of different types of food
Convey factual information about self, family, friends and significant objects, using simple statements, gestures and support materials

[Key concepts: self, family, immediate environment; Key processes: naming, labelling, presenting, describing] (ACLJAC113 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • using digital technologies to help label and name personal items, classroom objects and shared resources, for example, ほん、きょうしつ、つくえ、いす、まど
  • using simple sentence structures, familiar vocabulary, concrete materials and appropriate gestures to provide information about self and immediate environment, for example, ぼく の えんぴつ です。いぬ が すき です。
  • presenting spoken information related to significant objects, using phrases such as わたし/ぼく の noun です。 adjective です。これ は noun です。
  • expressing factual information about qualities such as colour あか、あお、しろ、くろ、きいろ、 number (いち)(ひゃく)size おおきい、ちいさい and shape まる、さんかく、しかく
  • making simple spoken statements about friends, family or favourite characters, for example, げんき、やさしい、おもしろい、つよい、しずか, using images or support materials

Creating

Participate in shared listening to, viewing and reading of imaginative texts, and respond through singing, chanting, miming, play-acting, drawing, action and movement

[Key concepts: imagination, response, expression; Key processes: responding, performing, sharing, expressing] (ACLJAC114 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • performing songs such as あたまかたひざあし、むすんでひらいて, rhymes, chants or simple stories that include repeated phrases and rhythms and non-verbal forms of expression such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions
  • using simple language structures and supporting drawings or actions to describe and respond to imaginary characters or experiences, for example, おばけ/おに/かっぱ/たぬき/ようかい です。
  • participating in shared reading and viewing of print and digital imaginative texts, sharing opinions and responding to prompt questions such as だれ です か。ちいさい です か。おおきい です か。かわいい です か。
  • making simple statements about favourite characters in stories or songs, for example, やさしいかわいい こわいつよい
  • responding to Japanese versions of familiar children’s stories and folk tales, comparing expressions at key points in the story with English-language versions, and re-enacting with puppets, props or actions
Participate in shared performances and presentations of stories, songs, chants and rhymes

[Key concepts: performance, narration, image, rhythm; Key processes: acting, creating, composing, expressing] (ACLJAC115 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • re-enacting or retelling simple stories or interactions with puppets, props, actions or gestures, using modelled language such as おむすびころりん、ももたろう
  • creating digital texts based around familiar contexts and characters using pictures and captions
  • creating/re-creating simple songs, poems and rhymes using spoken and written language as well as non-verbal forms of support such as clapping, gestures and facial expressions

Translating

Translate words and familiar phrases used in everyday situations from Japanese into English and vice versa, noticing how some words are shared between Japanese and English

[Key concepts: meaning, translation, explanation; Key processes: translating, demonstrating, interpreting] (ACLJAC116 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • explaining to others the meaning and use of simple expressions such as greetings that are used for different times and occasions, for example, おはようございます、いただきます
  • using classroom resources such as word banks, visual and online dictionaries, word lists and pictures to translate the meaning of single words and common expressions
  • identifying Japanese expressions and practices that do not translate readily into English, for example, きもの、おべんとう、せんせい、~さん、~くん, using two hands for giving and receiving and まる/ばつ (○×)
  • finding examples of Japanese words used in English, for example, ‘sushi’, ‘karate’, ‘origami’, and explaining what they mean
  • identifying key words in children’s stories or songs, for example, むかしむかし、おわり, and providing English translations or explanations of meaning
Create simple print or digital bilingual texts for the classroom environment, such as captions, labels and wall charts

[Key concepts: meaning, vocabulary, bilingualism; Key processes: creating, matching, selecting] (ACLJAC117 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • performing simple presentations for the school community that involve both Japanese and English language elements, such as a contribution to an assembly performance for Grandparents’ Day
  • creating bilingual wall charts or picture dictionaries with captions, stickers and simple descriptions in English to explain Japanese words and expressions that have particular cultural meaning
  • writing parallel captions in Japanese and English for a photographic display of a class event such as a sports carnival or pets’ day or about a topic such as caring for the school environment
    • Sustainability
  • creating sets of word cards in English and Japanese and playing matching games such as Memory or Snap

Reflecting

Notice and describe some ways in which Japanese language and communicative behaviour are similar or different to own language(s) and cultural forms of expression

[Key concepts: language, culture, similarity and difference, respect; Key processes: noticing, comparing, considering] (ACLJAC118 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing Japanese ways of showing respect and being polite with how this is done in their own language(s), for example, by using titles such as Sensei, bowing, and accepting objects with both hands
  • comparing aspects of Australian and Japanese children’s lifestyles, such as ways of playing games じゃんけん、eating food (using chopsticks and formulaic language) or addressing family members and friends
  • experimenting with using Japanese in spontaneous interactions, for example, いたい、 すごい、 ぺこぺこ、がんばれ,、noticing any changes in the use of voice or body language and communicating how this feels
Use simple statements and gestures to express aspects of self, such as membership of family, friendship, gender, school/class or cultural groups

[Key concepts: identity, self, group, communication; Key processes: describing, explaining, identifying] (ACLJAC119 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • making simple statements about themselves, such as their name and age, for example, ぼく は Sam  です、9 さい です 。
  • identifying themselves as part of a family, class or peer group ぼく は おとうと です。おねえさん は< 15 さい で す。, for example, by representing these relationships through drawing pictures or a family tree, adding captions to photos or creating digital presentations
  • noticing and comparing their own use of words or expressions from different languages when communicating in English

Systems of language

Recognise sounds and rhythms of spoken Japanese, and learn how sounds are produced and represented in the three different scripts

[Key concepts: mora, rhythm, intonation; Key processes: listening, distinguishing, recognising] (ACLJAU120 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • recognising the concept of the basic unit of sound in Japanese (‘mora’: モーラ or (はく)), for example, いいえ has three moras
  • understanding that the independent nasal sound ‘n’ () has a mora of its own, for example, こんにちは
  • understanding that when pronouncing Japanese it is important to keep the length of each mora even
  • noticing that statements and questions have different intonation patterns
Recognise and copy some hiragana and a few high-frequency kanji

[Key concepts: script, kana, kanji, phonemic awareness, meaning; Key processes: recognising, tracing, copying] (ACLJAU121 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding that the Japanese language uses three different scripts depending on word origins and the context of language use
  • understanding that one kana represents a basic unit of Japanese sound
  • understanding that each individual kanji represents meaning as well as sounds, for example, ()()(にち), whereas one kana or one letter of the English alphabet does not represent individual meaning
  • recognising some kanji, for example, numbers and 象形文字(しょうけいもじ) (pictographs) such as (やま)(かわ)(くち)()(うえ)
  • recognising the 46 basic hiragana, using supports such as mnemonic clues
  • tracing and copying kanji and kana
  • tracing and copying their own name in katakana or hiragana
  • identifying known hiragana within a word and using that to predict the meaning
  • noticing that Japanese can be written vertically or horizontally
Understand the structure of basic sentences in Japanese and recognise some key elements of Japanese grammar

[Key concepts: grammar, vocabulary, syntax; Key processes: recognising, describing, indicating] (ACLJAU122 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • knowing common forms of greetings, for example, おはようございます、おはよう, and noticing the different levels of formality
  • identifying gender-specific pronouns わたし and ぼく
  • understanding the use of common suffixes such as さん or くん or titles such as せんせい to address and refer to other people, for example, Luke くん and White せんせい
  • understanding basic word order in simple sentences, for example, noun が すき です。りんご が すき です。, adjective + noun です。 おおきい いぬ です。
  • understanding how to specify items using the possessive particle , for example, わたし  の  かぞく、 Sarah さん の ほん、おばあさん  の いえ
  • referring to numbers of things using cardinal numbers 0–100: (いち)()(さん)(ひゃく)
  • learning to describe the colour あお です。size おおきい です。 and shape まる です。of things
  • understanding different question words such as だれ、なに、どこ and the sentence-ending particle
  • recognising and responding to a request using verb  ください, for example, きいて ください。and すわって ください。
  • indicating affirmative and negative responses using はい and いいえ
  • using some culturally specific parallel phrases related to giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ and ありがとう
  • learning to use common onomatopoeia such as ぺこぺこ and わんわん
  • building vocabulary to describe and label familiar and immediate objects and environments
Understand that language is organised as ‘text’, and that different types of texts, such as storybooks, songs, chants, labels or rhymes, have different features

[Key concepts: text, meaning, genre, metalanguage; Key processes: recognising, identifying, describing] (ACLJAU123 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • understanding texts as different forms of communication that are spoken, written, digital or visual, and recognising that they can be very short, for example, たって, or much longer, for example, たって ください。
  • recognising that different types of texts have different features, for example, repetition and rhythm in action songs and chants
  • beginning to use metalanguage to talk about texts, identifying and naming familiar types of texts, such as ‘story’, ‘list’, ‘song’, ‘rhyme’ and ‘tongue twister’, and describing features, for example, stories usually have a story starter (むかしむかし), while songs usually have rhyming and the repetition of words
  • noticing how texts such as storybooks are sequenced and organised, for example, by identifying the main title and the connections between pictures and text

Language variation and change

Recognise that there are differences in how language is used in different cultural and social contexts, such as ways of greeting and addressing people

[Key concepts: variation, context, culture; Key processes: exploring, identifying, comparing] (ACLJAU124 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • exploring how language is used differently in Japanese to reflect different relationships, for example, parent–child exchanges おはよう、いってらっしゃい、いってきます、ただいま、おかえり, communication with peers なに?, and teacher–child interactions なんですか。
  • understanding that language use varies according to the context and situation, for example, こんにちは。 and もしもし。
  • understanding that language forms such as greetings vary according to the time of day or the occasion, for example, おはよう、こんにちは、こんばんは
  • understanding that language used in particular interactions can vary between cultural contexts, for example, the use of titles in Japanese (~さん、~せんせい) compared to the informal use of names in Australian English
Recognise that Japanese and English borrow words and expressions from each other and from other languages

[Key concepts: language, change, word borrowing; Key processes: noticing, recognising, classifying] (ACLJAU125 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • noticing that languages borrow words from one another and that both Japanese and Australian English include many words and expressions from other languages
  • recognising that Japanese uses many loan words from English and other languages, such as ペン、テレビ、ピンク, and that these are pronounced differently by Japanese speakers
  • recognising that English loan words in Japanese are written in katakana and sound like a familiar word in English, for example, レモン、ピザ、アイスクリーム
  • creating a class record of Japanese words that are used in English and other languages, such as ‘judo’, ‘origami’, ‘sushi’ and ‘manga’, and comparing how these words are pronounced in the two languages

Role of language and culture

Understand that language and culture are closely connected

[Key concepts: language, culture, meaning; Key processes: noticing, reflecting, questioning] (ACLJAU126 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Sustainability
  • exploring the meaning of ‘culture’, how it involves visible elements, such as ways of eating or symbols such as flags, and invisible elements, such as how people live, how they think about themselves and others and how they relate to their environment
  • understanding that learning and using Japanese involves becoming familiar with some different ways of communicating, for example, いただきます、ごちそうさま, and also some ways of thinking about things and behaving that may be unfamiliar
  • noticing similarities and differences between classroom interactions in Japanese and English, for example, referring to the teacher using only せんせい
  • understanding that culture and cultural behaviours are woven into languages and cannot be separated from them, for example, it is possible to bow without a spoken greeting in Japanese but not to greet without bowing

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 2, students interact with the teacher and peers through play- and action-related language. They use formulaic expressions and appropriate gestures in everyday interactions such as exchanging greetings and farewells, for example, おはようございます、おはよう、こんにちは、さようなら、また、あした, thanking and apologising, and giving and receiving, for example, どうぞ、どうも. They use visual, non-verbal and contextual support such as pictures, gestures, facial expressions and props to make meaning of simple texts. When listening to simple repetitive spoken texts, they identify key words such as names or numbers of objects or people, and demonstrate comprehension by actions, drawing or labelling. They respond to instructions through actions, for example, きいて ください。みて ください 。, and respond to questions, for example, だれなに どこ with single words and set phrases and by selecting images or objects, for example, いぬ です か。ねこ です か 。. They present information about themselves, their family, friends and favourite things at word and simple sentence level, using formulaic and modelled language. They describe people and objects using adjectives to indicate colour, shape and size, for example, あかい りんご、おおきい、まるい. They indicate ownership by using, for example, だれ の ですか。わたし/ぼく の です。 They mimic Japanese pronunciation, intonation and rhythm through shared reading and singing. Students recognise and begin to write single kanji, such as , , 山、川、月、日、一、ニ、三, the 46 hiragana symbols, and some hiragana words such as くち、ねこ、あお、しかく. They demonstrate understanding of hiragana as well as kanji by actions such as matching, labelling and sorting. They translate and interpret examples of everyday Japanese language use and cultural behaviours such as the exchange of greetings or thanks, terms of address and some formulaic expressions and behaviours.

Students identify the three different scripts in Japanese, hiragana, kanji and katakana. They understand that hiragana represents the basic units of Japanese sound and apply that knowledge in their communication. They know that kanji represents meaning as well as sounds, and that katakana is used for borrowed words. They know that stroke order in writing characters is important. Students identify patterns in Japanese words and phrases and make comparisons between Japanese and English, for example, the word order in greetings, such as Smith せんせい、and in simple sentences, such as おりがみ が すきです。ぞう は おおきい です。. They provide examples of different ways of addressing friends, family and teachers or other adults. They use pronouns, such as わたし/ぼく, and titles/suffixes, such as ~せんせい/~さん/~くん, to address different people. They identify Japanese words that are often used in English-speaking contexts, for example, ‘sushi’, ‘origami’ and ‘karate’. They give examples of Japanese words and phrases that have been borrowed from other languages, such as ピンク、テレビ、パン. They identify similarities and differences between Japanese and their own languages and cultures.


Foundation to Year 2 Work Sample Portfolios