Japanese

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Context statement

The place of Japanese culture and language in Australia and in the world
Japanese is the official language of Japan, Australia’s northern neighbour in the Asia region. It is also widely used by communities of speakers in Hawaii, Peru and Brazil, and learnt as an additional language by large numbers of students in the Republic of Korea, China, Indonesia and Australia.

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PDF documents

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Languages - Japanese are available as PDF documents. 
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of content
Languages - Japanese: Sequence of Achievement - F-10 Sequence
Languages - Japanese: Sequence …

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Years 9 and 10

Years 9 and 10 Band Description

The nature of the learners

Students have prior experience of learning Japanese and bring a range of capabilities, strategies and knowledge that can be applied to new learning. They are expanding the range and nature of their learning experiences and of the contexts within which they communicate with others. They have a growing awareness of the wider world, including the diversity of languages, cultures, and forms of intercultural communication. They are considering future pathways and prospects, including how Japanese may feature in these.

Japanese language learning and use

This is a period of language exploration and vocabulary expansion, and of experimentation with different modes of communication, collaborative performance and guided group discussion. Increasing control of language structures and systems builds confidence and interest in communicating in a wider range of contexts. Students use Japanese in classroom interactions and activities, to communicate and interact, to access and exchange information, to express feelings and opinions, to participate in imaginative and creative experiences, and to design, interpret and analyse a range of texts. They use a wide range of formulaic expressions that are essential for everyday Japanese interactions. They use an increasing range of culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours, with a greater degree of self-correction, spontaneity and repair. They monitor their own language use in relation to cultural context, situation, purpose and audience. They develop a greater understanding of Japanese cultural norms, for example, in relation to responding to praise, communicating refusal, or the use of eye contact. Students initiate and sustain interactions with other speakers of Japanese in spoken and written modes. They use familiar language patterns as a foundation for generating increasingly original language in the contexts of their physical and social environments. They develop broader knowledge of vocabulary and grammar to produce more sophisticated language for a variety of audiences.

Students build on their mastery of hiragana and katakana and understand sound variation in the pronunciation of borrowed words. They use a greater number of kanji and increasingly apply their understanding of known kanji to predict the meaning of unfamiliar words.

They explore and produce a range of texts associated with different contexts, and analyse information and concepts relevant to their social, cultural and communicative interests. They read, view and interact with texts for a variety of purposes, for example, social, informative, transactional, imaginative, expressive and instructional. They draw on modelled examples to understand and use more complex structures. They engage in drafting and editing their texts to clarify meaning.

Contexts of interaction

Learners use written and spoken Japanese to interact with peers, teachers and other speakers of the language in immediate and local contexts, and may also interact with other Japanese speakers through online environments.

Texts and resources

Learners engage with a range of language-learning texts and supporting materials, such as textbooks, modified and authentic texts, film/video clips, media texts and online materials. They also draw increasingly on texts produced for young people in Japan, such as short stories, songs, poems, films, video clips, blogs and social media texts.

Features of Japanese language use

Students become more fluent and accurate in both spoken and written language production. They gain more control of grammatical and textual elements. They use expressive and descriptive language to discuss feelings, opinions and experiences. They demonstrate understanding of language variation and change, and of how intercultural experience, technology, media and globalisation influence forms of communication. They develop understanding of the nature of both translation and interpretation, noticing the relationship between language, texts and culture. They understand that many Japanese phrases convey values and beliefs that underpin Japanese culture and cannot be translated into English. A balance is maintained between activities that focus on language forms and structures and those that involve communicative tasks, performance and experiences. Tasks involve collaborative as well as independent language planning and performance, and development and strategic use of language and cultural resources. Learners analyse text more critically, identifying how language choices reflect perspectives and shape meaning. At this level, learners are developing understanding of the relationship between language, culture and identity. They identify how meaning-making and representation in a different language involve interpretation and personal response as well as literal translation and factual reporting. They explore the reciprocal nature of intercultural communication: how moving between different languages and cultural systems impacts on the learner’s ways of thinking and behaving; and how successful communication requires flexibility, awareness and openness to alternative ways. They develop the capacity to consider their own cultural practices through the eyes of others, and to communicate in interculturally appropriate ways.

Learners draw from authentic and modified resources to apply their developing linguistic and cultural understandings. They compare, analyse and reflect on their understandings of Japanese language and culture and of their own language(s) and culture(s), and question their preconceived ideas about Western and Japanese values. They continue to build metalanguage to think and communicate about Japanese and about their own language(s) and culture(s), using English to discuss their experience of language learning. Students identify aspects of culture embedded in Japanese words, expressions and behaviours, and recognise contexts in which particular values are expressed for different purposes and audiences.

Level of support

This stage of learning involves consolidation and progression. Learners are provided with new challenges and engage in more independent learning experiences. Continued scaffolding, modelling and monitoring support these challenges. Students are encouraged to develop increasing autonomy as language learners and users and to self-monitor and adjust language in response to their experience in different contexts. They analyse and reflect on texts and intercultural experiences through discussion, documenting and journaling. Continued focused attention on grammatical and textual features supports learners’ development as text producers.

The role of English

Japanese is used in more extended and complex ways by both learners and teachers. English is used for substantive discussion, elaboration, comparison, analysis and reflection.


Years 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Socialising

Initiate and sustain interactions to share experiences, personal opinions, aspirations, thoughts and feelings and to discuss aspects of young people’s experience

[Key concepts: discussion, social experience, popular culture, views; Key processes: interacting, responding, comparing, expressing opinions] (ACLJAC019 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • comparing experiences of teenage life and expressing opinions and aspirations, for example, 行きたいです。先生になりたいです。 つまらないとおもいます 。
  • sharing information about significant or special events in their own life and comparing with those of Japanese teenagers, such as birthdays, holidays, celebrations, sporting events and festivals, for example, 土曜日はぼくのたん生日パーティーでした。 どうでしたか。 たくさん友だちが来て、 たのしかったです。
  • developing strategies to initiate and sustain interactions, such as asking for clarification or confirmation, acknowledging and showing interest, using appropriate gestures and expressions such as あいづち, ああ そうですか。いいですね。そうですね。 へえ。はい うん。
  • maintaining and extending conversations by requesting additional information, asking appropriate questions, and using conversation fillers such as いつしますか。だれとしますか。 どうですか。
  • providing evidence or reasons to justify own opinions or planned actions, for example, べんりです。 だからコンビニで()いものをします。
  • communicating with one another and with other young Japanese speakers via email, online conferencing or school-based exchanges about shared interests such as popular culture, sports and special events, or comparing aspects of school or home life, for example, (わたし)のしゅみはスポーツです。山川(やまかわ)さんはスポーツをしますか。私はスーパーでアルバイトをしています。 デービッドさんはアルバイトをしていますか。 or ぶかつに入っていますか。
  • using appropriate levels of formality for everyday exchanges such as greetings, introductions and apologies, for example, こんにちは。おそくなってすみません。ごめんね!、 and for thanking, inviting or congratulating one another, for example, メールをどうもありがとう。 いっしょにカラオケをしませんか。
Participate in activities that involve transacting, negotiating, planning and participating in events and experiences

[Key concepts: social exchange, transaction, negotiation; Key processes: planning, transacting, making decisions, performing] (ACLJAC020 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • engaging in social transactions such as presenting gifts, accepting and declining invitations, making excuses and apologising, using appropriate protocols such as forms of politeness and respect, for example, (よう)日はひまですか。 土曜日はちょっと…。 日曜日はどうですか。日よう日にえいがを()に行きませんか。 いいですね、行きましょう。
  • planning and completing tasks involving authentic or simulated transactions, for example, planning a holiday, purchasing goods, ordering food or making requests by email or text message
  • negotiating and making decisions about services, such as ordering in shops and restaurants, specifying size, number and colour where relevant, and commenting on products, for example, おこのみやきを(ふた)つください。おいしそうですね。むらさきのLサイズをください。かわいいですね 。
  • creating a digital presentation or performance to present information about their own school to a Japanese sister school or Japanese visitors
  • planning social events, negotiating and making shared decisions, and creating associated texts, such as invitations or posters for an excursion or for activities for Languages Week, for example, 八時(はちじ)学校(がっこう)(まえ)()いましょう。それから学校のバスで行きましょう、 八時ちょっと(まえ)()てください。
  • role-playing scenarios related to travelling or living in Japan, for example, interactions with a host family or using public transport
Develop classroom language to participate in interactions such as clarifying, apologising, showing appreciation, complimenting, and reflecting on their learning experiences

[Key concepts: discussion, reflection, interaction; Key processes: requesting, responding, clarifying, enquiring] (ACLJAC021 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • interacting in classroom routines using appropriate language to apologise, for example, すみません、しゅくだいをわすれました。、 to request clarification, for example, テストは何日(なんにち)ですか。ゆっくり言ってください。、 and to ask and respond to questions, for example, ~は英語(えいご)で何ですか。この(かん)()はどう()みますか。
  • further developing metalanguage to communicate about language and about their experience of learning Japanese, using Japanese for terms such as verbs (どうし), adjectives (けいようし) and nouns (めいし)
  • enquiring about and describing the location of classroom items and materials by using appropriate prepositions, for example, げんこうようしはどこにありますか。テーブルの(うえ)にあります。学校の(ひだり)にあります 。
  • participating in class discussion by eliciting or offering opinions, for example, どうおもいますか。つまらないです 。、 and by asking questions or making suggestions, for example, つぎはだれですか。 いっしょにしましょうか。
  • discussing their language-learning experience, for example, 日本語はやさしいですね。かんじはむずかしいです。でも、おもしろいです。
  • showing appreciation and complimenting one another, for example, よくできました。うたがじょうずですね。

Informing

Access ideas and information from a range of spoken, print and multimodal texts, compare views, state opinions, and present information in different formats to inform or interest others

[Key concepts: information, representation, modality, audience; Key processes: reviewing, recording, summarising, comparing] (ACLJAC022 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining factual information from a range of print, online/web-based travel and leisure texts, using it to compare options and make suggestions, for example, しんかんせんはとても高いですが、べんりだと(おも)います。東京(とうきょう)から京都(きょうと)まで二時間半(じかんはん)かかります。バスで八時間ぐらいかかります。
  • understanding the gist and recording specific details from texts such as websites, newspaper articles, documentaries, reports or podcasts on topics such as popular culture, schools, sports or leisure activities in Japan
  • obtaining and using information from a range of media texts, including television weather reports, interviews and digital video clips, and summarising key points through presentation modes such as graphs, charts, diagrams, and written or digital reports
  • identifying variations in spoken and written informative and persuasive texts, for example, print, television and online advertisements, noticing differences in language according to intended audience
Convey factual information, ideas and opinions using different modes of presentation that take account of context, purpose and audience

[Key concepts: text, context, mode, audience; Key processes: selecting, editing, presenting] (ACLJAC023 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • collecting and organising information to report significant events in their personal worlds, such as family celebrations, travel or personal milestones, to classmates, parents or peers, using formats such as schedules, timetables, graphs, tables or statistics
  • preparing multimodal presentations on aspects of Japanese lifestyles and cultural practices that invite comparison and contrast with their own experience, such as aspects of popular culture, for example, fashion, music or anime/manga, or ways of preparing and eating food in different regions and/or seasonal influences, for example, おこのみやき and なべ
  • preparing and presenting/publishing an article for a magazine, e-journal or website with a specified audience in mind, for example, a film review for young learners of Japanese or a digital travel guide for a proposed visit to Japan
  • creating texts to inform others about or promote events, places or experiences, such as a poster or flier for a multicultural event or a brochure about their school for a Japanese audience, for example, ミュージカルにきてください。私の学校にようこそ。

Creating

Listen to, read and view a range of imaginative texts in multimodal formats, such as anime, manga or J-pop, describe settings, identify key ideas and events, give opinions and analyse cultural content

[Key concepts: character, theme, expression; Key processes: reviewing, responding, adapting, comparing] (ACLJAC024 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • engaging with a range of contemporary Japanese texts, including songs, memes, manga, television programs, YouTube video clips or subtitled film excerpts, identifying and interpreting cultural elements such as values, for example, せんぱい and こうはい
  • comparing ideas and values represented in Japanese folk stories with similar Western folk stories/fables, for example, comparing いっすんぼうしand ‘Cinderella’
  • reviewing a video clip, anime or film excerpt popular with Japanese students of the same age, identifying aspects that they enjoyed or disliked, for example, おもしろかったです。だから、また()たいです。おもしろかったです。でも、ながかったです。
  • adapting an imaginative text such as a story or computer game, for example, by resequencing events, adding a new element or changing the location or era
  • identifying and describing characters, settings and events and identifying key ideas or themes in texts that they have particularly enjoyed, giving reasons for their choice
  • selecting favourite elements of performance texts, for example, humour in manzai skits, and comparing them with humorous texts popular among their Australian peer group
  • comparing expression and imagery typical of contemporary Japanese and Australian music, for example, by comparing video clips of popular songs or television song contests in Japan and Australia
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Create own or shared texts in different modes and formats to inform or entertain others, or express ideas, attitudes and perspectives, using imaginary characters, places and experiences

[Key concepts: fantasy, entertainment, expression; Key processes: imagining, creating, performing] (ACLJAC025 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • presenting a day in the life of an imaginary or real character from familiar anime, manga or film, incorporating elements such as humour or surprise to express different characteristics

  • using digital technologies to create a design for an Australian theme park, shopping centre or sports arena to attract young Japanese visitors to Australia

  • creating short texts such as skits, raps or haiku, and using a range of digital technologies to design, perform and/or record these to amuse, entertain and engage other learners of Japanese

  • working collaboratively to compose and perform a skit such as a manzai based on an imagined scenario that allows for experimentation with expressive language
  • creating a digital persona or avatar in a Japanese-speaking fantasy world, incorporating communicative styles and behaviours observed in Japanese texts

Translating

Translate familiar social and community texts, such as emails, chat room posts, public signs and notices, from Japanese into English and vice versa, considering the role of culture when transferring meaning from one language to another

[Key concepts: culture, translation, equivalence, meaning; Key processes: comparing, analysing, critical and cultural reading] (ACLJAC026 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating glossaries to explain concepts encountered in Japanese social texts and interactions that reflect cultural values or experiences, for example, よろしくおねがいします。いらっしゃいませ。ただいま。おかえりなさい。
  • explaining why some terms cannot be used interchangeably in Japanese as they can in English, for example, すみません/ごめんなさい。ください/おねがいします。こんにちは/もしもし。
  • examining literal translations of everyday social interactions in Japanese and identifying culturally significant concepts, for example, sayingごちそうさま。 after meals, orすみません。 in a restaurant, or terms used for apologising or excusing
  • evaluating the effectiveness of electronic translators, for example, by comparing back-translations of short texts or formulaic phrases, identifying instances of non-equivalence and noticing the potential pitfalls of literal translation
  • using print, electronic and online dictionaries effectively by taking context into account when interpreting the meaning of words or phrases, for example, ただいま、おかえり、ねます (go to bed), あし (foot/leg)
  • considering differences between Japanese and English language used to describe people, for example, ()がほそい。はながたかい 。
  • finding and using Japanese equivalents for conversation fillers such as ‘um’ and ‘yes’, for example, ええとあのうはいうん
  • translating texts such as public signs, notices or advertisements from Japanese into English and vice versa, comparing elements such as levels of politeness or degree of directness, for example, ましょう form in Japanese, ‘Keep clean (きれいにしましょう)’ translates into ‘Do not litter’ in English
Create print, digital and multimodal bilingual resources for the school and wider community, such as notices and instructions, announcements, promotional material and invitations

[Key concepts: bilingual text, representation, interpretation; Key processes: composing, selecting, translating, glossing] (ACLJAC027 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • creating an online bilingual class profile to send to a Japanese sister school or present to Japanese visitors to the school, including translations and/or explanation of key terms and expressions associated with events or school celebrations
  • providing bilingual subtitles or captions for a cartoon or comic that depicts intercultural encounters, for example, interactions between a Japanese exchange student and an Australian host family
  • creating simple bilingual texts for English and Japanese speakers, such as community information leaflets, menus, timetables or brochures, that include contextual and visual support
  • designing and maintaining a bilingual website with a Japanese sister school or another group of Japanese learners in Australia, considering the best use of each language depending on the context and nature of the information or interaction
  • creating bilingual texts for specific audiences, for example, songs or games for younger learners of Japanese, or a schedule for an event likely to interest both English and Japanese speakers, noticing how expression and representation need to be tailored to suit different audiences

Reflecting

Participate in intercultural interactions, recognising how their own cultural norms impact on language use and that intercultural communication involves shared responsibility for meaning-making

[Key concepts: frames, norms, reciprocity, reflection; Key processes: comparing, analysing] (ACLJAC028 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • recognising that social values and reactions such as respect or displeasure can be expressed differently in different cultures, for example, noting the Japanese avoidance of direct refusal or eye contact, the desire to please by answering a question even if they do not know the answer, waiting to be invited to eat or drink, and the practice of smiling for different reasons in different contexts
  • noticing cultural cues when interacting with Japanese speakers or resources that suggest differences in traditions, ideas or values, for example, ways of expressing feelings or emotions, maintaining harmony by avoiding direct replies to a question by using それは ちょっと…。、 and avoiding foregrounding the self with phrases such as (お(さき)に) どうぞ。がんばります。
  • recognising the importance of active listening skills to conversational etiquette in Japanese, such as showing interest and attentiveness by using あいづち and nodding, repeating information heard, and confirming details at the end of a conversation
  • discussing incidences in Japanese-language exchanges when miscommunication has occurred, and reflecting on why or how this happened
  • reflecting on how their own language and communication style might be perceived by Japanese speakers, considering concepts such as culture, attitudes, assumptions and values
  • discussing Japanese cultural concepts such as (おん) (owing a kindness), 義理(ぎり) (a sense of duty) and () (harmony), and considering how the expression of these concepts in Japanese language and behaviour compares with the expression of similarly significant concepts in their own language(s) and culture(s)
Reflect on own identity, including their identity as a learner and user of Japanese, through connecting observations of experience over time

[Key concepts: identity, perspective, change; Key processes: reviewing, presenting, reflecting] (ACLJAC029 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • assembling and presenting an autobiography, including references to key experiences and significant events, interests and family origins, and identifying elements that may need explaining to Japanese speakers, for example, そふは七十六さいです。1951(ねん)にイタリアからオ-ストラリアへ来ました。
  • identifying significant life events that are marked in Australia or Japan, for example, 七五三(しちごさん) birthdays, 18th/21st birthdays and 成人式(せいじんしき) or marriage, and considering how these provide insight into cultural values or traditions
  • considering the relationship between identity and language, with reference to the languages spoken by the students themselves, peers, and family or community members, including their own developing ability to communicate in Japanese
  • examining the impact of cultural stereotypes and expectations in relation to cultural identity and intercultural communication
  • considering whether their sense of identity changes when they use different languages

Systems of language

Understand the intonation and phrasing patterns of spoken Japanese; and recognise that most kanji have more than one ‘reading’ and that the pronunciation changes according to kanji compounds

[Key concepts: phonetic changes, intonation patterns, pacing; Key processes: distinguishing, vocalising] (ACLJAU030 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • understanding that some new notations have been devised over the years to account for the sounds of loan words, for example, ティ、 ヴィ、 ヴ
  • recognising and applying the basic pattern of intonation in Japanese, marked by the formation of a downturning curve
  • identifying the characteristic of rising intonation when asking questions in plain or ましょう form, for example, 行く? 行きましょうか?
  • understanding how to make appropriate pauses in a sentence, dividing the sentence into cohesive chunks to allow for the use of あいづち
  • understanding that changes occur in kanji readings, for example, (がつ)(げつ)曜日
Convey meaning by appropriately selecting and combining hiragana, katakana and kanji characters, and use understanding of kanji to predict meaning of unfamiliar words

[Key concepts: script forms and functions, meaning; Key processes: decoding, identifying, prediction] (ACLJAU031 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that kanji are used for nouns, stems of verbs and adjectives, and some adverbs, and that the addition of hiragana to the stem of verbs and adjectives is called okurigana
  • recognising that many kanji have multiple readings and that there are two types of readings, that is, on-yomi (; on ‘reading’ or ‘sound’), Chinese-style pronunciation; and kun-yomi (; kun ‘reading’ or ‘explanation’), Japanese-style pronunciation
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • developing strategies to guess the meaning of unknown words that contain familiar kanji, for example, 小学校(しょうがっこう)中学校(ちゅうがっこう)
Understand the systematic nature of Japanese language and grammatical forms, and explore how to use/combine these elements to express complex ideas

[Key concepts: syntax, verb conjugation, cohesion, classifiers; Key processes: describing, identifying, classifying, applying] (ACLJAU032 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • further developing metalanguage to describe and apply grammatical concepts and language elements, and to organise learning resources such as verb charts and lists of vocabulary and sentence structures
  • understanding and applying the rules of the plain form, and knowing that the basic form of all Japanese verbs ends in -u, -eru or -iru, as listed in dictionaries
  • understanding that verbs can be divided into three groups according to the way they are conjugated: Group 1 (five-step verbs), Group 2 (one-step verbs) and Group 3 (irregular verbs)
  • using character charts as a systematic framework that enables recognition of verb conjugation patterns, and applying the formation rules of each verb group
  • understanding and using a range of particles such as:
    • (or)
    • (purpose, indirect object, location)
    • (location of action, by means such as ペンで、 日本語で)
  • understanding and using and adjectives in the present and past tense
  • using verb stems with grammatical features such as ~たい、 ~ たくない、 ~ かった、 ~ やすい/にくいです
  • understanding and using verbforms to express a range of ideas, for example, ~ている、てもいいです、てはいけません、てはだめです
  • creating cohesion and flow by using conjunctions, for example, だから、 それで、 それに、 verbform, だから、 しかし、 それに、 けれども
  • expressing opinions, intentions and thoughts using the plain form, for example, ~つもりです、 ~とおもいます、 ~たり~たりします
  • asking and responding to questions using 何で? どうして/なぜ? どのぐらい? いくつ?
  • building vocabulary that relates to daily life and the world beyond school and home and that can be used for cross-curricular content learning
  • elaborating ideas or statements using expressions such as (こん)しゅう、 (せん)しゅう、 来年(らいねん)、 いつも、 ぜんぜん、 あまり
  • understanding Japanese counting systems using units of 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 and associated kanji, for example, (ひゃく)(せん)(まん)
  • extending the use of counter classifiers to include ~円(えん)、 ~分、 ~まい、 ~本、 ~つ、 ~日 (date)
  • expressing superlative forms using 一番(いちばん) for example, 一番好きなかもくは日本語です。
  • expressing the location of items by using prepositions such as (みぎ)(ひだり)(まえ)(うし)ろ、 (うえ)(した)、 となり、 そば 
  • understanding and using plain or polite forms as appropriate to context, for example, understanding the concept of uchi-soto ((うち)/(そと)) for making appropriate choices of register
Use a range of textual conventions in spoken, written and multimodal texts, and understand how different scripts are used to convey meaning or effects

[Key concepts: text, mode, scripts; Key processes: composing, selecting, analysing, explaining] (ACLJAU033 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • applying their understanding of the function of cohesive devices such as conjunctions to sequence and link ideas and actions, for example, verb form, だから、 しかし、 それに、 けれども
  • applying understanding of the textual features of different text types to construct simple narratives, messages, slogans or song lyrics, noticing how the choice of language and text structure works to achieve each text’s purpose
  • comparing language features of Japanese and English versions of familiar texts such as weather reports, phone conversations or text messages, for example, the use of abbreviations and emoticons, noting differences that appear to be culturally significant
  • using appropriate textual conventions to shape simple texts such as letters or menus, for example, introductions, linked paragraphs, summaries and sequencing strategies
  • analysing the function of different scripts in different types of texts, identifying examples of kanji used for nouns and verbs, katakana for borrowed words and hiragana for grammatical purposes

Language variation and change

Recognise variations in language use that reflect different social and cultural contexts, purposes and relationships

[Key concepts: register, tenor, context, culture; Key processes: analysing, exemplifying, comparing] (ACLJAU034 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • examining how language choices reflect social relations and priorities, for example, the concept of (うち)/(そと) using ご/お prefixes and plain or polite forms, and using expressions that deflect praise of self or of own family to show modesty, such as 日本語がじょうずですね。いいえ、あんまり。
  • finding examples of informal forms of language used by young Japanese speakers, such as the use of abbreviations or emoticons when texting and the use of loan words when discussing popular culture, for example, ‘J-rock’, ‘J-pop’, ‘fast food’
  • noticing differences in text structure and grammar between formal and informal Japanese language use, such as abbreviations, dropping of particles and emphatic intonation in informal communication such as face-to-face interactions, blogs, emails and other forms of correspondence, for example, あした行く?/先生、あした行きますか。、 うん、わかった。/はい、わかりました。、 それは何?/山中(やまなか)さん、それは何ですか。
  • identifying how variations in language use and communicative behaviours reflect how emotions or attitudes such as respect, gratitude or embarrassment are differently expressed across languages and cultures
  • comparing features of written and spoken Japanese that reflect different communicative purposes, such as formal grammatical structures in letters compared to conversational markers or interjections to support the flow of face-to-face conversation, for example, hesitation ええと、 えー
  • comparing verbal and non-verbal elements of communication in different languages and cultural contexts, such as ways of disagreeing or responding to thanks, or the use of gestures, facial expressions or あいづち/silence
Understand that the Japanese language has evolved and developed through different periods of influence and cultural and societal change

[Key concepts: language change, intercultural contact, popular culture; Key processes: reflecting, identifying, comparing] (ACLJAU035 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • understanding that each region of Japan has its own dialect and accents, and that Japan, like Australia, also has some indigenous languages
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
  • finding examples of ways in which social and cultural influences impact on language, for example, the abbreviation of borrowed words in Japanese, such as スマホ、 パソコン、 the combination of borrowed words + する、 オーガナイズ する、 and メル友 for e-pal
  • considering how globalisation has accelerated the introduction of English words and expressions into Japanese, and discussing possible benefits and disadvantages associated with the blending and mixing of languages
  • discussing possible reasons for changes in Japanese language use, such as exposure to other languages, changing attitudes to social practices, involvement in social media and digital communication
  • exploring the influence of Japanese popular culture in Australia and around the world, such as the influence of Japanese design and technology and the popularity of J-pop, electronic games, anime, manga and cosplay
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

Role of language and culture

Recognise and explain how the Japanese language carries embedded cultural information, such as the prioritising of collective well-being, respect and harmony

[Key concepts: language, culture, intercultural experience; Key processes: analysing, reflecting, reciprocating] (ACLJAU036 - Scootle )

  • Literacy
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability
  • Critical and Creative Thinking
  • Personal and Social Capability
  • Ethical Understanding
  • Intercultural Understanding
  • discussing ways in which learning Japanese can lead to new ways of thinking, behaving, or interpreting experience and values, for example, noticing and responding to demonstrations of politeness and respect through the softening of negative responses, such asあしたはちょっと...。
  • considering the cultural significance of language associated with interactions such as issuing, accepting or declining invitations, leave-taking at social events, offering thanks, or giving and receiving gifts, for example, どうぞ。あまり…。どうもありがとうございます。、 and reflecting on how they react and adjust to such expressions of cultural values when interacting with Japanese speakers
  • exploring familiar types of Japanese community texts such as print or online advertisements, brochures, catalogues or memes that employ different representations of culture, for example, by analysing which products use traditional icons such as samurai in their advertisements and which use more contemporary images
  • investigating language associated with events such as national holidays, for example, 正月(しょうがつ) and ゴールデンウィーク、 and identifying how it reflects associations between holidays and family values
  • understanding that language carries cultural associations, for example, the ordering of information on Japanese business cards, such as じこしょうかい (company, title, surname, given name), indicates priorities in regard to individual, collective and family relationships
  • identifying Australian ways of communicating and behaving that may appear unusual or inappropriate to Japanese speakers, for example, eating in public places, sitting on the floor or desk, speaking loudly and using direct eye contact

Years 9 and 10 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 10, students use written and spoken Japanese to interact with peers, the teacher and other Japanese speakers to exchange information and opinions about personal interests and experiences. With support they share information about broader topics of interest, such as education, travel, sport, teenage life and popular culture. When collaborating in shared tasks and activities, they use set phrases and modelled language to transact and make arrangements, for example, 来週(らいしゅう)の土曜日にサッカーをしませんか。土曜日はちょっと Students ask and respond to questions, such as どのぐらい、いくつ、 using spontaneous language. They provide explanations, opinions and reasons, for example, by using ~と思います、 ~からです. They maintain and extend interactions by requesting repetition or clarification and by using あいづち. They apply appropriate conventions of pronunciation, rhythm and phrasing in speech to allow for others’ use of あいづち. Students read and write hiragana and known kanji, read katakana, and write familiar katakana words, including elongated vowels, double consonants and contractions. They analyse and extract information from a range of spoken and written texts and multimodal sources. They understand gist and predict the meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions from context, grammatical and vocabulary knowledge. Students create and present informative and imaginative texts, taking into account audience and purpose, such as by using form (~てはいけません、~てもいいです、 ~ています), and the plain form (~たり~たりします、 ~と思います、~つもり). They extend or qualify their message by using adverbs such as とくに、 時々(ときどき) and link ideas by using conjunctions, such as それに、 だから、 けれども. Students translate and interpret texts, explaining words and expressions that are difficult to translate and those with embedded cultural meanings, such as ただいま, おかえり. They describe their reactions to intercultural experiences and reflect on how their own assumptions and identity influence and are influenced by their language use.

Students identify the functions of different scripts within texts: how hiragana is used for particles, conjunctions, and verb and adjective endings; katakana for borrowed words and some onomatopoeia; and kanji for nouns and verb and adjective stems. They apply their understanding of kanji to identify word boundaries and know its role in assisting with the identification of linguistic elements. They distinguish between おくりがな and ふりがな、 and recognise that kanji can be pronounced differently using (on) or (kun) readings. Students understand the function of verb stems, and of form and plain form verbs, and conjugate a range of verb tenses and forms. They apply their understanding of conjugation to produce negative and past adjectives. Students identify and use a range of case particles such as (or), より、 で (purpose/by) and (location). They use metalanguage to describe and compare language features and rules of sentence construction. They choose between using です/ますor plain form based on age, relationship, familiarity, context and text type, such as using plain form in a personal diary. They understand that languages change over time through contact with other languages and cultures, and identify the particular impact of technology and media on contemporary forms of communication, for example, the widespread adoption of English terms into Japanese, such as コピペ. Students explain how Japanese cultural values such as the importance of community, (うち)/(そと) respect, and consideration for others are embedded in language and behaviours such as がんばりましょう。 だいじょうぶ?。


Years 9 and 10 Work Sample Portfolios